d-day june 6 th , 1944
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DESCRIPTIOND-Day June 6 th , 1944. Stephen K. & Dan T. Ms. Pojer WXY Sophomore EHAP. Essential Question. How did the Allies use of spies and deception lead to the overall success of the D-Day invasion?. Spies. Garbo. A.K.A. Juan Pujol Garcia. Code named after the famous actress, Gretta Garbo. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
D-DayJune 6th, 1944 Stephen K. & Dan T.Ms. Pojer WXY Sophomore EHAP
Essential QuestionHow did the Allies use of spies and deception lead to the overall success of the D-Day invasion?
A.K.A. Juan Pujol GarciaCode named after the famous actress, Gretta Garbo
Background Born in Catalan, Spain in 1912.Fought under Franco for fascism in the Spanish Civil WarDeveloped hatred towards fascism. Especially towards Nazi Germany
Germanys remaining adversary Garbos wife asked British officers to employ him as a spy REJECTEDNeeds a planBackground (Cont.)
His plan1. Establish himself as a German spyOperating in Lisbon, he told Germans he was in British Fabricated reports about shipping movementsGermans buy it (100%)
(2)Return back to Britain intelligence services to offer his servicesACCEPTED!!As a British double agent Joins the MI5 (military intelligence) in 1942
Garbos RoleSent a current stream of misinformation over the radioSent reports and images of troop movement in the South-east of England, opposite Pas de CalaisMilitary infrastructure was reported to try and convince the Germans that the army was weak and the attack would be later in the year
GarboDespite defeat at Normandy, Hitler still trusted Garbo as his own spy and awarded him the German Iron Cross award
Other D-Day Spies
Roman Czerniawski (Brutus)Czerniawski began his career as a Polish airforce officerCreated an allied espionage network code named InterailleHe was sold out by a member of his group and sent on a mission to England as a German spyBecame a double agent code named Brutus under the Double Cross System
Roman Czerniawski (Brutus)Double Cross System was an anti-espionage and deception program run by the British MI5 military intelligence departmentCzerniawski was involved in that program as he was a captured Nazi spy who provided faulty information to the Nazis in order to deceive them of the true plans of the alliesThe work of double agents such as Czerniawski was vital in deceiving the Germans with regards to the inevitable European invasion
Heldge Moe & Tor Glad (Mutt and Jeff)Norwegian Members of the MI5 Double Cross SystemAfter being fetched up on a beach, they turned themselves in to the German policeFrom there they reported German Military traffic, deployments, and civilian morale.
Heldge Moe & Tor Glad (Mutt and Jeff)British Spy officers were also able to relay false information to Mutt and Jeff. They hoped that the Germans would hear this information and believe it. THEY DID!
In War time, truth is so precious that she should always be surrounded by a bodyguard of lies.
Tehran ConferenceBig Three Leaders consisting of Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill discuss the allies opening up a second frontLeaders agree to deceive the Germans about the true nature of the European invasion.
Five Fold Deception PlanAllied leaders plan a series of pseudo invasions to throw the Germans off guard.The Germans would learn of these faulty plans but lacked the military intelligence to decipher which ones were simply decoys.
Five Fold Deception PlanVENDETTA and FERDINAND= false invasions of the west Mediterranean IRONSIDE = Another false invasion that led the Germans to believe the would be attacked at the French Bay Biscay
Five Fold Deception PlanZEPPELIN = False invasion of the Balkans in Eastern EuropeThis false invasion was so deceptive that many historians believe Churchill truly wanted the Allies to invade there.FORTITUDE NORTH = Pseudo invasion of German territory via Norway
Operation Fortitude (South)Goal: Convince the Germans that an invasion would come from Pas de Calais.Pas de Calais was the logical point of attack because it is the closest area from France to England.
Operation Fortitude (South) Operation QuicksilverGoal: Convince the Germans that the allies had two army groups21st army group Montgomery (real)1st U.S. Army Group (FUSAG) Patton (FAKE)
21st Army Group
Pattons Ghost ArmyAllies needed to make Pas de Calais invasion seem imminent and realistic. Put highly respected General George Patton in charge of this completely fake army called FUSAG. Army had fake tanks and everything that would make it appear as if it was about to embark on an invasion of Hitlers Fortress Europa.
FUSAGInflatable tankDummy landing craftGerman aerial view
Further DeceptionCaptured German General Hans Kramer was to be repatriated in an exchange. While going through England, he saw the 21st army group that was the real company to embark on the invasion. Allies mislead him on his location so that he thought he was seeing them in Kent where the Germans thought the forces were located.
D-Day Leaders (ALLIES)Gen. Omar Bradley USLt. Miles Dempsey Br.Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower USGen. George S. Patton USMarshall Montgomery Br. General Spaatz US
D-Day LeadersGeneral Omar BradleyCommander of the imperative 1st Army.Commanded three corps directed at Utah and Omaha beach.Men under his command grew to 900,000 (largest ever under one commander). Became the first chairman of NATO.
D-Day LeadersLT. Miles DempseyCommander of the 2nd British Army (British, Canadian, and Polish forces).Landed successfully at Gold, Juno, and Sword beaches. Captured the French city of Caen after success at Normandy.
D-Day Leaders General Carl SpaatzCommander of the US Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSTAF).Worked with British air commander, Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory. Together they strategically bombed German oil rigs and army bases near the English Chanel to help with the overall success of Operation Overlord.
D-Day Leaders General Dwight D. EisenhowerMade Supreme Allied Commander early 1944. In complete control of the planning and execution of the Allied invasion at Normandy. A month after Normandy, oversaw the successful invasion of Southern France.
D-Day Leaders General Dwight D. EisenhowerThe success of the invasion was far from a certainty in Eisenhower's mind. In advance, he wrote a short speech for the potentially catastrophic failure.
D-Day Leaders General Dwight D. EisenhowerOur landings have failed and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based on the best information available. The troops, the air and the navy did all that bravery could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt it is mine alone.
"to preserve our civilization and to set free a suffering humanity." - Franklin D. RooseveltThe whole of the South Coast of England is a bastion of defense against the invasion of Hitler; you've got to turn it into the springboard for our attack." - Winston ChurchillI have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty, and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full victory. - General Dwight D. Eisenhower
D-Day Leaders Field Marshall RommelCommander of the 7th German Army.Told Hitler about the severity of the invasion but was rejected. Planned with other officers to possibly overthrow Hitler in hopes of negotiating with the Allies. Rommel accused of assassination attempt on HitlerSuicide!
Germans Anticipated attack in 1944
D-Day June 6, 1944The invasion would begin on the beaches of Normandy, France.The largest amphibious force in the history of warfare.Considered by some to be the greatest military achievement of the 20th century.
Preparation9 battleships23 Cruisers104 destroyers71 U-boats150,000 troops set to cross the English Channel in the invasion of Hitlers fortress of Europe
Real D-Day Planning Map
General Overview of Invasion
German Defense System
Invasion at Utah Beach
Deception Works AgainGerman counter-attack to initial invasion were delayed because of internal arguments among the German high-command.
Fortitude South had been so successful in deceiving the Germans that they were convinced the main invasion of France was still to come from the Pas-De-Calais.
I remember seeing all the dead bodies littering the beach. Some were killed on the first landing. They were fodder for the Germans gun. Others were washed in by the tide where their boats had been caught.- Sr. Bernard Morgan
Welcome to Hell
Fatalities 4,500 Allied and American troops dead
National D-day Memorial Foundation
D-Day: Turning the Tide of WarInvasion of Normandy was the decisive Allied victory that turned the tide of World War 2.Success of the invasion was necessary for the Allies to launch an attack to liberate France.Allies moved permanently to the offensive as the armies marched through Europe to liberate the other conquered nations.
Hitlers Fortess Europa June 1944
VE Day: May 8th 1945
What if the Invasion of Normandy had failed?Had the invasion failed, the repercussion would have been both shocking and devastating:The war in Europe would have lasted at least a year longer than it did.The longer the war lasted, the more Jews that would have been executed, probably wiping out the last of them.
What if the Invasion of Normandy had failed?The atomic bomb, created in the summer of 1945, would have been used on Germany first instead of Japan.A destroyed Germany w