culture mra

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  • 1. Culture Mr. A South High Room 252

2. Definition of Culture

  • Culture is the total way of life shared by members of a community.It includes not only language, values, and symbolic meanings but also technology and material objects.

3. 2 Categories of Culture

  • Nonmaterial culture;
  • language, values, rules, knowledge, and shared meanings
  • Material culture;
  • physical objects that a society produces-tools, streets, sculptures, and toys, etc

4. Common Assumptions

  • Culture isproblem solving
  • Culture isrelative
  • Culture is asocial product

5. Culture isproblem solving

  • People everywhere face common issues;
  • -food
  • -shelter
  • -security
  • -raise children to replace them and their way of life

6. Culture isrelative

  • methodological relativism : cultural practices can only be understood relative to the culture in which they exist (e.g., is Yanomam endocannibalism nutritional or religious?).
  • ethical relativism : there is no basis to judge whether a particular cultural practice is good or bad. That is, all cultures and cultural values are equally valid, of equal worth, and equal dignity - we should have tolerance and respect for any cultural practice. This is a non-scientific proposition because it cannot be evaluated scientifically.

7. Culture isrelative

  • Ethnocentrism

8. Culture is asocial product

  • People learn culture, and, as they use it they modify it and change it.
  • Culture depends or relies on language.
  • Culture is cumulative

9. Carriers of Culture

  • Language
  • Values
  • Norms

10. Language

  • Communicating with symbols.
  • Language as embodiment of culture
  • Language as symbol
  • Language as framework

11. Values

  • Shared ideas about desirable goals

12. Norms

  • Shared rules of conduct
  • Folkways
  • Mores
  • Laws

13. Social Control

  • Sanctions

14.

  • Sanctions

15. Cultural Diversity

  • Subculture
  • Counterculture

16. Subculture 17. Counterculture 18. Assimilation or Multiculturism 19. Deafness as Subculture 20. Sources of Cultural Diversity and Change

  • Environment
  • Isolation
  • Cultural Diffusion
  • Technology
  • Mass Media

21. Environment 22. Isolation 23. Cultural Diffusion 24. Technology 25. Mass Media