Culture and Customs of Egypt Molefi Kete Asante

Download Culture and Customs of Egypt Molefi Kete Asante

Post on 16-Oct-2014

287 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

TRANSCRIPT

CoverCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPageiCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CultureandCustomsofEgyptEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPageiiCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.RecentTitlesinCultureandCustomsofAfricaCultureandCustomsofNigeria ToyinFalola CultureandCustomsofSomalia MohamedDiriyeAbdullahi CultureandCustomsoftheCongo TshilemalemaMukenge CultureandCustomsofGhana StevenJ.SalmandToyinFalolaEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPageiiiCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CultureandCustomsofEgyptMolefiKeteAsante CultureandCustomsofAfrica ToyinFalola,SeriesEditorGREENWOODPRESS Westport,ConnecticutLondonEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPageivCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData Asante,MolefiK.,1942 CultureandcustomsofEgypt/MolefiKeteAsante. p.cm(CultureandcustomsofAfrica,ISSN15308367) Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex. ISBN0313317402(alk.paper) 1.EgyptSociallifeandcustoms.I.Title.II.Series. DT70.A832002 962dc212002021620 BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataisavailable. Copyright2002byMolefiKeteAsante Allrightsreserved.Noportionofthisbookmaybe reproduced,byanyprocessortechnique,withoutthe expresswrittenconsentofthepublisher. LibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:2002021620 ISBN:0313317402 ISSN:15308367 Firstpublishedin2002 GreenwoodPress,88PostRoadWest,Westport,CT06881 AnimprintofGreenwoodPublishingGroup,Inc. www.greenwood.com PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica Thepaperusedinthisbookcomplieswiththe PermanentPaperStandardissuedbytheNational InformationStandardsOrganization(Z39.481984). 10987654321EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPagevCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Contents SeriesForewordbyToyinFalola Preface Chronology 1 Land,People,andHistoricalOverview 2 Government,Economy,Education,andTourism 3 ReligionandWorldview 4 ArchitectureandArt 5 SocialCustomsandLifestyles 6 TheMediaandCinema 7 Literature,thePerformingArts,andMusic Glossary Bibliography Index 157 161 165 1 39 63 77 95 117 129 vii ix xiEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPageviCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Thispageintentionallyleftblank.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPageviiCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.SeriesForewordAFRICAisavastcontinent,thesecondlargest,afterAsia.ItisfourtimesthesizeoftheUnitedStates,excludingAlaska.Itisthecradleofhumancivilization.A diversecontinent,Africahasmorethanfiftycountrieswithapopulationofover700millionpeoplewhospeakover1,000languages.Ecologicalandculturaldifferences varyfromoneregiontoanother.Asanoldcontinent,Africaisoneoftherichestincultureandcustoms,anditscontributionstoworldcivilizationareimpressiveindeed. Africansregardcultureasessentialtotheirlivesandfuturedevelopment.Cultureembodiestheirphilosophy,worldview,behaviorpatterns,arts,andinstitutions.The booksinthisseriesintendtocapturethecomprehensivenessofAfricancultureandcustoms,dwellingonsuchimportantaspectsasreligion,worldview,literature, media,art,housing,architecture,cuisine,traditionaldress,gender,marriage,family,lifestyles,socialcustoms,music,anddance. Theusesanddefinitionsofculturevary,reflectingitsprestigiousassociationwithcivilizationandsocialstatus,itsrestrictiontoattitudeandbehavior,its globalization,andthedebatessurroundingissuesoftradition,modernity,andpostmodernity.Theparticipatingauthorshavechosenacomprehensivemeaningofculture whilenotignoringthealternativeusesoftheterm. Eachvolumeintheseriesfocusesonasinglecountry,andtheformatisuniform.Thefirstchapterpresentsahistoricaloverview,inadditiontoinformationon geography,economy,andpolitics.Eachvolumethenproceedstoexaminethevariousaspectsofcultureandcustoms.TheserieshighlightsEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPageviii themechanismsforthetransmissionoftraditionandcultureacrossgenerations:thesignificanceoforality,traditions,kinshiprites,andfamilypropertydistributionthe riseofprintcultureandtheimpactofeducationalinstitutions.Theseriesalsoexplorestheintersectionsbetweenlocal,regional,national,andglobalbasesforidentity andsocialrelations.Whilethevolumesareorganizednationally,theypayattentiontoethnicityandlanguagegroupsandthelinksbetweenAfricaandthewiderworld. Thebooksintheseriescapturetheelementsofcontinuityandchangeincultureandcustoms.Customisnotrepresentedasstaticorasamuseumartifact,butasa dynamicphenomenon.Furthermore,theauthorsrecognizethecurrentchallengestotraditionalwisdom,whichincludegenderrelationsthenegotiationoflocalidentities inrelationtothestatethesignificanceofstrugglesforpoweratnationalandlocallevelsandtheirimpactonculturaltraditionsandcommunitybasedformsofauthority andthetensionsbetweenagrarianandindustrial/manufacturing/oilbasedeconomicmodesofproduction. Africaisacontinentofgreatchanges,instigatedmainlybyAfricansbutalsothroughinfluencesfromothercontinents.Theriseofyouthculture,thepenetrationofthe globalmedia,andthechallengestogenerationalstabilityaresomeofthecomponentsofmodernchangesexploredintheseries.Thewaysinwhichtraditional(non Westernandnonimitative)Africanculturalformscontinuetosurviveandthrive,thatis,howtheyhavetakenadvantageofthemarketsystemtoenhancetheirinfluence andreproductionalsoreceiveattention. Throughthebooksinthisseries,readerscanseetheirownculturesinadifferentperspective,understandthehabitsofAfricans,andeducatethemselvesaboutthe customsandculturesofothercountriesandpeople.Thehopeisthatthereaderswillcometorespecttheculturesofothersandseethemnotasinferiororsuperiorto theirs,butmerelyasdifferent.AfricahasalwaysbeenimportanttoEuropeandtheUnitedStates,essentiallyasasourceoflabor,rawmaterials,andmarkets.Blacks areinEuropeandtheAmericasaspartoftheAfricandiaspora,amigrationthattookplaceprimarilyduetotheslavetrade.RecentAfricanmigrantsincreasinglyswell theirnumberandvisibility.Itisimportanttounderstandthehistoryofthediasporaandthenewermigrants,aswellastherootsofthecultureandcustomsoftheplaces fromwheretheycome.Itisequallyimportanttounderstandothersinordertobeabletointeractsuccessfullyinaworldthatkeepsshrinking.Theaccessiblenatureof thebooksinthisserieswillcontributetothisunderstandingandenhancethequalityofhumaninteractioninanewmillennium. ToyinFalola FrancesHigginbothomNalleCentennialProfessorofHistory TheUniversityofTexasatAustinCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPageixCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.PrefaceEGYPTisunequaledforitslonghistory,monuments,andantiquities.Itswondershaveattractedvisitorsformanycenturiesanditsirresistiblesourcesofwisdomand knowledgehaveinspiredhundredsofthousandsofancientandcontemporarystudents.WhenHerodotus,theGreekhistorian,wrotein450B.C.abouttheincredible sightsandrevelationsofthelandthatwasancientevenwhenhesawit,histreatisebecamefamousasoneofthefirsthistoriesintheworld. TowriteabookonmodernEgyptmeansthatoneisalwayswritingwiththethoughtofancientEgyptinthebackgroundsovastisthetapestryofitsrichhistorythat almosteveryinstanceofthepresenthistoryisaffectedbythepreviousexperiencesontheland.YetmodernEgyptisnotthesameasancientEgypt.Muchliketheface ofmodernAmerica,Egypthaschangedinthecompositionofitspeople,thereligionofitspeople,andmanyoftheculturalartifactsoftheland.However,underneath thefacadeofchangesthatonecanobserveareattitudesandbehaviorsthatharkbacktothedaysofthepharaohs. MyobjectiveinthisbookistoprovidethereaderwithanaccessibleportraitofthecontemporarynationofEgypt.Itshistorythroughtheageshasbeenwrittenand rewrittenbymanycommentators,scholars,andstudents.ThelandtheArabsgavethenameMisrwascalledbytheGreeksEgyptthatis,Aguptosbutwas referredtobytheancientAfricansasKemet,theBlackCountry.TheyreferredtoitasthegiftoftheNileandastheTwoLands:UpperEgyptandLowerEgypt. SometimestheycalleditTaMerimeaningthebelovedland.TodaythecountryisthemostpopulousEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPagex nationintheArabculturalspherealthoughitislocatedontheAfricancontinent.ItisthesecondmostpopulousnationofAfrica,afterNigeria.Asanationatthe crossroads,Egyptisacosmopolitansocietywithmanyculturalcurrentsinitsmodernsocialandpoliticalstructure.Whilethisistrue,Arabiccultureisthedominant presenceinthemodernera.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPagexiCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Chronology639641 C.E. 658750 750868 868905 905935 935969 ArabarmiesarrivedinEgyptfromArabiaandSyriaattherequestofEgyptianswhosoughttheirsupportinoustingtheRomans.GeneralElAssforces helpedtothrowofftheRomansbutquicklyconsolidatedhisholdonthecountry. UmmayadPeriodwhentherulingIslamicclasswasauthorizedfromDamascus,Syria. AbbasidPeriodwhentherulingIslamicclasswasdirectedfromBaghdad.TheAbbasidsclaimeddescentfromAbbas,theuncleoftheProphetMuhammad. TulunidPeriodproducedtwomajorfigures,AhmadTulunandKhumarayhAhmad,whoseauthoritystretchedfromCairotoCilicia. Abbasids,SecondPeriod,thereassertionoftheBaghdadruleandtheexpansionofIslam. IkshidscametopowerandcontrolledbothEgyptandSyria.9691171 FatimidleaderstracedtheirancestrytoFatimah,thedaughteroftheProphetMuhammad,andembracedtheShiadoctrine. 11711250 AyyubidPeriod,whichwasdominatedbySalahadDinwhoreignedfortwentyfouryears.HespenteightyearsofEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPagexiiCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.hisreigninCairoduringwhichtimeheestablishedschools,builthospitals,andimprovedtheinfrastructureofthecity.HeintroducedslaveryofEuropeansinto EgyptbybringingMamluk(owned)CircassiansandTurksfromtheBlackSearegion. BahriMamluksweregreatpatronsofarchitectureandwereresponsibleforbuildinghugefortressesandmosques. CircassianMamlukscameintopowerin1382andimmediatelytriedtoconsolidatetheirpoweroverthecountry.TheCircassiansleviedheavytaxesonthe populationtofinancewarsagainsttheMongolsinSyria. OttomanTurksestablishedtheircontroloverthecountryandsentPashawatfromIstanbultoruleoverEgypt. TheFrenchExpeditionenteredthecountryunderNapoleonBonapartetointroduceFrenchrule.DominicVivantDenondirectedtherecordingofEgyptian antiquitiesandmonumentsresultingintheencyclopedicDescriptionofEgypt. OttomanRulerestoredwiththeaidandinfluenceofGreatBritain. MuhammadAliPasha,theAlbanianconqueror,rulesEgyptwithanironfistandcreatesnewinstitutions. AbbasI,thegrandsonofMuhammadAli,becameking.Hisleadershipwasinconsistent.Heclosedschools,stoppedbuildingroadsandrailways,andstoppedthe movestowardindustrialdevelopmentbegununderMuhammadAli. SaidPashasucceedstothethroneandreversedmanyofhisfatherspoliciesandsetabouttodeveloptheinfrastructuremuchlikehisgreatgrandfatherhad done.HeinitiatedthebuildingoftheSuezCanal. IsmailPashawasproclaimedOttomanviceroyonthedeathofhisuncle.Hewasconsideredaprogressiveleader,andcompletedthebuildingoftheSuezCanal in1869.TheruleofKhediveIsmailwasprogressive.Hecontinuedtobuildthecivilinfrastructureandtheindustrialfactories. TewfikPasha,IsmailPashasson,waspressuredtohandoverfinancialmanagementofthenationtoGreatBritain.1250 1382 1382 1517 1517 1798 1798 1801 1801 1805 1805 1848 1848 1854 1854 1863 1863 1879 1879 1892EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPagexiiiCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Inresponse,thenationalistsforcedhimtoappointtheirleaderAhmedOrabiasMinisterofWar.TheEnglishreactiontothismoveonthepartofthe nationalistswasswift,brutal,anddecisive.TheydefeatedOrabisarmyatTelElKabirandshelledbothAlexandriaandIsmailiyya.18921952 BritishOccupationandpuppetrulers.AllleadersofthenationafterTewfikwereunderthecontroloftheBritishgovernmentuntilthe1952revolution. 18921914 AbbasHilmiPasha(AbbasII)wasapuppetoftheBritishgovernmentwhotriedtoleadanindependentpath.HewasthesonofTewfikbutquicklysoughtto makeEgyptindependentofEuropeaninfluence.HewasdethronedbytheBritishin1914. 19141917 HusseinKamelwasmadekingwithBritishsupport.ThiswasadifficultperiodforEgyptbecauseoftheunrestamongthepopulationowingtothe overlordshipoftheBritish.Kamelwasunabletocontrolthepeople. 19171936 FouadIwasmadekingwiththeblessingsoftheBritish.Soonafter,apowerstrugglebrokeoutbetweenthekingandthepeople.TheWafdPartysucceeded inamassingalargefollowingamongtheordinaryEgyptians. 19361952 FaroukI,thesonofFouadI,ascendedthethrone.Hewasgreetedwithenthusiasmbecausethepeoplewereimpressedthathewasthefirstruler,andthe onlydescendantoftheAlbaniandynastyofMuhammadAliPasha,tospeakfluentArabic. 19521970 GamalAbdelNasserbecomesthefirstArabtoruleEgyptsincetheconquestofthecountry.KnownastheFatheroftheNation,heisresponsiblefor buildingtheAswanHighDam. 19701981 AnwarSadatsucceededNasserandmovedEgyptintoapeaceagreementwithIsrael.Consideredoneofthegreatstatespersonsoftheera,Sadatsoughtto breakoutoftheoldpatternofhatredbetweenArabsandJews. 1981 Present HosniMuhammadMubarak,asPresidentofEgypt,hasruledthecountrylongerthananycontemporaryleader.Hehasbroughtrelativestabilityand prosperitytothecountryaswellasexpandededucationalopportunities.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPagexivCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EgyptOverviewMapEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage1Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.1 Land,People,andHistoricalOverviewEGYPToccupies1,001,450squaremilesinthenortheastquadrantoftheAfricancontinent.ItisaboutthreetimesthesizeofthestateofNewMexicointheUnited States.EgyptisthesecondmostpopulousnationinAfrica,afterNigeria.Itisacountrydefinedbyalong,powerfulriverthestoriedNileflowingsouthtonorth. ThereareancientrivertownsliningitsbanksaswellasneweronesbuiltsincetheharnessingoftheriverbytheAswanHighDam. Withnearly1,865milesofcoastlinealongtheMediterraneanandRedseas,Egyptplaysavitalroleininternationaltradefortheregion.Furthermore,ithasalong landborderthatadjoinsfourcountries:791mileswithSudantothesouth,715mileswithLibyatothewest,and165mileswithIsraelandthePalestinianAuthoritys GazaStriptotheeast. Egyptisacountryofextremelyfertilesoil.Manyvarietiesoffruitsandvegetablesgrowintherichalluvialsoil,alegacyofthemillenniaofinundationsthathavemade thecountryonevastgardenalongtheNile.Ofcourse,thevastmajorityofthelandareaisinthedesert.Thus,Egyptcouldbedefinedasadesertpenetratedbyariver. ThehistoryofEgyptisascomplexasitisintriguingthemodernhistoryisalmostasrivetingastheancienthistory.Egyptsmodernhistoryisalongnarrativeof political,social,andculturalexperiencesinanarrowvalleyinthemiddleofadesert.Thepeoplewhohaveconqueredeveryinchoffertilesoilalongthebanksofthe Nileandmadehistoryinasuccessionofpoliticalrealitiesaretobecreditedwithbringingadeeplyancientsocietyintothemodernera.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage2Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Sailboat(felucca)ontheNileTHELANDEgyptisessentiallytwolands,astheancientnameTawyemphasizes.1Ontheonehanditisahot,drydesert,andontheotherhand,averdant,fertile,greenstripof landthatisborderedbytheDamiettaRiverontheeastside,theRosettaRiveronthewestsidemakingthedelta,andcarryingthemightyriverNiletothe MediterraneanSea.Thus,onemightsaythattheterrainofEgyptisavastdesertplateaubisectedbytheNileValley.TotheeastoftheNileisthemountainousEastern (Arabian)Desert,tothewestistheWestern(Libyan)Desert,whichisflatterandwhoseQattaraDepressionisconsideredtheboundaryofthegreatSaharaDesert.To thenortheast,EgypthastheSinaiPeninsulawheretheterrainissplitbetweenflatsanddeserttothenorthandhighmountainstothesouth.ThehighestpointinEgypt, GebelKatrina(Mt.Katherine)at8,654high,islocatedinthisregion.Likeothernations,Egypthasestablishedmaritimelegalboundaries:24nauticalmilesofa contiguouszone,anexclusiveeconomiczoneof200nauticalmiles,andaterritorialseaclaimof12nauticalmiles.Egyptalsohasacontinentalshelfclaimof656feetin depthorthedepthofexploitation.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage3Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.HilltopvillageoverlookingtheNileHeightofMajorMountainsKatrina AbuRemail OmShoumer Moussa AbualHassan AlSebaie 8,654ft 8,607ft 8,482ft 7,492ft 5,110ft 4,866ftTheclimateinEgyptisuniformlyhot.Thesummersaredryandhotandthewintersaremoderateandcanbehotinthesouth.Actually,manyEgyptiansliketogoto Aswanduringthewinterbecauseoftheheat.Thevastdesertplateau,interruptedbytheNileRiver,isusuallythoughtofastwodeserts:theEasternDesertandthe WesternDesert,whichisactuallyapartoftheSaharaDesert. Thecountryisamiracleoflanduse.Only3percentofthelandisarableandtherearenoforestsorwoodlandsnorsignificantmeadowsandpastures.Perhaps2 percentofthelandisusedforpermanentcropsandyetthecountryhasbeenabletosupportitselfwithfoodcrops.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage4Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.OasisNaturalresourcesaremainlyironore,phosphates,manganese,limestone,gypsum,talc,asbestos,lead,zinc,naturalgas,andpetroleum.Oneofthehotspotsofthe internationalpoliticalsceneistheboundarydisputebetweenEgyptandSudan.TheadministrativeborderwithSudandoesnotcoincidewiththeinternationalboundary creatinganareacalledtheHalaibTriangle,nearly7,946squaremilesofbarrenlandthatsomeexpertsclaimmaycontainminerals.2 AmongtheissuesthathavebeendiscussedbythehighgovernmentofficialsofEgyptaretheenvironmentalcrisesthatarerapidlydevelopingthroughoutthecountry. Forexample,thereissomeconcernthatoilpollutionisthreateningthecoralreefs,marinehabitats,andtouristbeaches.Buttherearealsoproblemswithrapid urbanization,particularlyaroundCairo,wherescarceagriculturallandsarebeinglosttoapartmentcomplexes.Furthermore,thereisthemajorissueoftheincreasing levelsofsaltinthesoilfounddownstreamfromtheAswanHighDam.Thisistheresultofthedam(khazaan)preventingthenaturalflowoftopsoilfromtheUpperNile region,somethingthathadhappenedformillionsofyearspriortotheconstructionofthedam.Withanincreasingpopulationandanintensiveuseofthearableland, thereissomefearthatwaterpollutionfromagriculturalpesticidescouldbecomeaprobleminthefuture.PollutantssuchasrawsewageandindustrialeffluentsEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage5 couldeventuallyspoiltheonlyfreshwaterresourceofthecountry:theNile.AllalongtheNile,thelargeindustrialcentersareusingtheriverfordrinkingwater,sewage, andagriculture.WiththepossibilitythatEthiopiaandSudan,asnowplanned,willcreatenewdamsontheNileclosertotheheadwaters,theEgyptianportionofthe Nilewillbeevenmorethreatenedbypollution. Inadditiontothesemanmadehazards,therearesomenaturalhazardssuchasperiodicdroughts,flashfloodscausedbyinfrequentrains,landslides,volcanicactivity, andthehot,fierce,drywindstormcalledkhamsinthatoccursinthespring.Therearealsosandstorms(disturbancesthatcauseblindingsandtoswirlsothatonecannot seemorethantenfeetahead),andduststormsthatresultinfinesandordustenteringeverycreviceofhomesandbusinesses.Butthekhamsinisahotanddrywind thatcanburntheskinitislikeopeningthedoorofanovenandfeelingtheheatagainstonesskin.Duringtheperiodofthehotanddrywindspeopletrytoremainin theirhomesasmuchaspossible.Thosehomesthatarebuiltofmudandadobetendtohavecoolerinteriorsthanthosemadeofsyntheticmaterials. EgyptcontrolstheSinaiPeninsula,theonlylandbridgebetweenAfricaandAsia.ItalsooperatestheSuezCanal,theshortestlinkbetweentheMediterraneanSea portsandtheIndianOceanportsinAfricaandAsia.ThegeopoliticalpositionofEgyptisimportantasanationthatdealswiththeissuesofsouthwestAsiaaswellas withNorthAfrica.Furthermore,sinceEgyptisthelargestandmostimportantcountryintheArabworld,itisthecenterofArabicculture.Someofthemajor institutionsoftheArabicworldarelocatedinCairoandotherEgyptiancities. EgyptisalsoamajorplayerinthepoliticsoftheAfricancontinentbecauseofitsintegralrelationshipwiththegeographicandpoliticalissuesofthecontinentand becauseofitslonginvolvementintheaffairsofthecontinent.FromtheearlydaysofthepoliticalandculturalrelationshipbetweenGamalAbdelNasserofEgypt, KwameNkrumahofGhana,andHaileSelassieofEthiopia,EgypthasalwaysplayedanimportantroleintheOrganizationofAfricanUnity.Thereare,however,some EgyptianswhowouldliketoconsiderEgyptapartoftheMiddleEastinsteadofapartofAfrica.Theyareusuallyinfluencedbytheculturalrelationshipsbetweenthe ArabpeopleoftheregionandplacelittlevalueinthegeographicallocationofEgyptoritshistoricalrelationshiptootherAfricancultureslongbeforethedominationof Arabicculture.ItislikeMexicosayingthatithasacloserrelationshipwithSpainthanitdoesitsNorthAmericanneighbors,suchastheUnitedStatesandCanada, becauseofculturalties.Thus,EgyptcansometimesappeartohaveasplitpersonalitybetweenitsAfricanhistoryandlocationanditsArabcultureandreligion.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage6Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.ManholdingancientAnkhsymbolTHEPEOPLEThepopulationofEgyptisestimatedtobe90millionby2005.In1960,itwas28million.Thegrowthratehasbeenincreasingeachyearcurrently,thereare29births forevery1,000people.Atbirth,thereisanaveragelifeexpectancyof61years:femaleshavealifeexpectancyof63years,andmaleshavealifeexpectancyof59 years.Itisestimatedthatthetotalfertilityrateofwomenis3.67children.However,thebirthrateisexpectedtofall.Thecountrysplannersareseekingabirthrateof 1.6percentby2015.Atthepresenttimeabout36percentofthepopulationisbelowtheageoffourteen.Around97percentoftheEgyptianpeopleliveintheNile ValleyandDelta.PeoplearemovingtotheurbancentersofCairoandAlexandria,aswellasothers,atanincreasingratebecauseanestimated47percentofEgypts economicandsocialestablishmentsareintheCairoandAlexandriapoliticalregions,whichhost23percentofthelaborforce.Asof2001,44percentofthe populationlivedinurbanareas. TheEgyptianpopulationiscomprisedofpeoplewhoseancestryreachesbacktotheancientEgyptians,Arabs,Turks,Bedouins,Berbers,Nubians,Armenians, Albanians,Italians,French,andGreeks.AllofthesepeoplehavehadanimpactonthemakingofmodernEgypt.ThereligionofthepeopleismainlySunniMuslim.(A SunniMuslimisonewhobelievesincustomaryEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage7 succession.)Literacyisabout48percentforEgyptiansovertheageof15.Maleliteracyisabouttwicethatoffemales. Thelaborforceiscomprisedofnearly20millionpeople,with36percentofthemworkinginthegovernmentandpublicsectorincludingthearmedforces,34 percentinagriculture,andabout20percentinserviceandmanufacturingenterprises.SincetherearenearlythreemillionEgyptiansworkingintheGulfArabStatesand SaudiArabia,thereisashortageofskilledlaborforthedevelopingindustriesofthecountry.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheEgyptianNationalityToday,tosaythatoneisanEgyptianmeanssomethingtotallydifferentthanitdidinancienttimes.DuringthereignofRamsesII,itmeantthatapersonhadacertain phenotypeandperhapsgenotype.ItcouldfurtherbedeterminedthatifthepersonwereanEgyptian,thenheorshespoketheEgyptianlanguage,whichwascalledthe DivineSpeech.AllancientEgyptiansbelievedinacosmology,asetofvalues,andaclusterofideasthatmadethemEgyptianratherthanEthiopianorGreek.Thiswas themodeloftheEgyptianknownthroughouthistory. However,themoderntermEgyptiandoesnotrefertoaparticulargenotype,phenotype,orlanguageratheritisanationalitycomprisedofmanydifferentpeople whoparticipateinonegeneralArabizedculture.ThisistrueevenifamoderndayEgyptianisactuallyadescendantofAlexandrineGreeksorAswanNubians.In reality,tobeEgyptianislikebeingAmericanitisanideanotnecessarilytiedtoanyparticularphenotypeorgenotypebut,rather,toonescitizenship.Tosomedegree, EgyptiansofArabdescent,thatis,withoriginsinArabia,havetakenthetermEgyptiantorefertothemratherthantotheoriginalEgyptianstock,whichisprimarily nowcapturedintheNubianandCopticgroups. GivenallthecomplexityofbeingEgyptian,onemightthinkthatthereisnocommongroundtothenationality.Thiswouldbeamistake.Egyptians,ofallshadesand descents,areratherproudtobecalledEgyptian.Overthecenturiesthepeoplehavebeenmolded,especiallyduringthemodernera,bytheIslamicreligionintoone commonpeople.WhileitisstilltruethatonecanfindnumerousheritagesamongthediversepopulationsofEgyptians,itisafactthattheArabcultureasdefinedbythe religionofIslamisthedominantdefinerofmanners,protocol,etiquette,attitudes,andbehaviors.Thus,themoderncultureofEgyptispredominantlyinfluencedby Islam,butthereisevidenceoftherichtraditionsoftheNubian,Greek,Turk,andAlbanianpeopleaswell.Addtothismixturethepoliticalandculturalstrandsofthe British,Mamluk(EgyptianmilitaryclassthatoccupiedtheSultanateEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage8 from1250to1517),andFrenchrulersovertheyears,andthecomplexityofEgyptsmodernnationalcompositionisevengreater.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheNubianHeritageNubiansareanancientpeople,perhapstheoldestpeopleoftheNileValleyinEgypttoretainadefinitesenseoftheirownculture.Unlikethepeoplewhoreferto themselvesasEgyptians,theNubianshavesoughttoremainasunmixedaspossibletotheextentthattheyspeaktheirownlanguagesandhaveoftenrefusedtohave themwrittendown. ThelegacyoftheNubiansisextensive.Infact,theNubiansaremodernEgyptsmostauthenticremindersoftheancientEgyptianwaysofagriculture,including planting,harvesting,andfoodpreparation.Inaddition,theNubianshavemaintainedtheclosestaffiliationwiththeancientEgyptianwayofhouseconstruction.When oneseestheNubianhousesofmodernEgypt,oneislookingbackintotimeatthewaytheearlyEgyptiansconstructedtheirhomesoutofthemudandstrawtheyfound alongthebanksoftheNile.IthasbeennotedthatthemodernNubianshadnocontractors,engineers,orarchitectstohelpthem.Iftheymanaged,itwasmainly becausetheyhadretainedatechniqueforroofinginmudbrick,usingvaultsanddomes,whichhadbeenpasseddowntothemfromtheirforefathers,theAncient Egyptians(HassanFathy,ElHakimin1999,p.4).OfcoursetheNubiansmaynothavehadtrainedengineersorcontractorsbuttheyhadtheknowledgeoftheir ancientpast. ModernEgyptianslooktotheNubiansforinspirationandspirituality.TheyfrequentlyspeakoftheNubiansinthesamewaytheancientGreeksspokeofthem,as thestraightestofmen.TheybelievethattheNubiansrepresenttheoldesttraditionsoftheNileValleyasdemonstratedintheirrituals,theirarchitecture,andtheir homes.TherearethreemaingroupsofNubiansinEgypt:theKanuz,Mahas,andMatoki.3EventodaytheNubiansofElephantineIslandintheNileRivernearAswan telloftheirmemoriesoftheancientdays.AdayinthelifeoftheNubianonElephantinebeginsbeforethesunrises.Theearlymorningprayersareamustforthedevout MuslimNubians.MostNubiansnowconsiderthemselvesIslamic,althoughthereareafewwhoholdtotheChristianbeliefsthatexistedpriortotheMuslims conquest.Stillothersrefertothemselvesastraditionalists,believingintheancientgodsofNubia. WiththeconstructionoftheAswanHighDambeguninJune1964andcompletedin1968andtheimminentfloodingoftheNubianhomeland,thelastofthe NubianpeoplewereforcedtoleavetheareathatextendedsouthalongthebanksoftheNilefromAswaninthenorthtotheSudaneseEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage9 bordernearly290milessouth.Itisestimatedthat150,000NubianswererelocatednorthofAswanbetweenthecitiesofEsnaandKomOmbo.Acrosstheborderin Sudan,NubianswererelocatedtothebanksoftheAtbaraRiver,morethan600milesfromwheretheylived. ThecreationoftheAswanHighDamchangedtheentiregeographyoftheNubianhomeland.Arableland,longcultivatedfordatepalmsusedforexport,wasnow beneaththehugeLakeNasserwithasurfaceareaof2,317squaremiles.NubianshavebeenaffectedbyeveryoneofthedamsbuiltalongtheNile.Between1899and 1902,theBritishbuiltadamafewmilesupstreamfromAswan.Ataheightof100feet,thisdamcreatedalakethatfloodedtheNileValleyfor140milesandraised thewaterlevelofwhathadbeentheriverfrom285feetto348feet,permanentlywipingouttheareaoftheNubianKanuzpeople.Ofcourse,thischangeinthe geographyhadenormouseffectsontheNubianpeople.Theyhadtomovetoareasnorthorsouthoftheirancienthomeland.Thegovernmentofthedayhadlittle sympathyforthem.Infact,theBritishbuiltthedam,andthegovernment,largelyundertheinfluenceoftheBritish,agreedafterproteststoassistandcompensatethe Nubiansfortheirlands. Therewerethreeproposals.ThefirstwastoallotgovernmentlandnorthofAswan.ThedislocatedNubianswouldhavetopurchasethisland.Second,the governmentwouldsurveyandappraiselandsthatcouldbereclaimedfromthedesertfortheNubians.Thepeoplecouldreceivethisdrainedandirrigatedlandforlittle ornothing.Third,theNubianscouldreceiveacashindemnitytoavalueofnomorethan50percentoftheoriginalvalueofthelandsflooded.Someofthepeoplewho losttheirhomesandfertilelandstotheearlydamanditsenhancementinthe1930sdidnotreceivetheircompensationuntil1964,thirtyoneyearsaftertheclaimhad beenmadeandmanyyearsaftersomeoftheolderfamilymembershaddied(ElHakim1993,9). Duringthe1960sthegovernmentprovidedpumpsandirrigationassistancefortheNubians,whohadlargelylosttheiragriculturallivelihoodbecauseoftheflooding oftheirdatepalmgroves.Thepeoplehadbeenimpoverishedbythefirstdamandwerefurtherimpoverishedwhentheablebodiedyoungmenlefttheruralareasfor AswaninsearchofworkaftertheAswanHighDamwasbuilt.Althoughthepeoplewererelocated,manyofthemendecidedtoleavetheirwivesathomeinthe resettlementcampsinordertomakemoneyworkinginthecities. TheNubianshavebeencharacterizedasarefinedanddignifiedpeople,thepossessorsofanancientculturewithsocialtraditions,customsandlanguagesdistinct fromtherestofEgypt(ElHakim1993,10).TheyhavedistinctcustomsandtraditionsbecausetheyarenotArabs.TheirhistoryinCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage10 EgyptpredatesthatofthelargelyArabpopulationofpresentdayEgyptandgoesbacktothedaysofpharaonicEgypt.InonesensethebuildingoftheAswanHigh DamendedthenarrativelifeoftheNubianpeople.Theyhadbeendislocated,relocated,andtheirhistorydisruptedandinterruptedbyanumberofEgyptian governments. Today,theconditionoftheNubianswholivenorthofAswanisimprovingeconomicallyastheyenterthetouristindustryinnumerouscapacities.Theyarestarsailors andhavenearlymonopolizedthemotorizedboatandsailboat(feluccas)businessontheNileRiveratAswan.Somevillagesaremoreprosperousthanothersowingto theirproximitytothelargenumbersoftouristswhovisitthecountryeachyear.Othersareekingoutalivingraisingtomatoes,corn,millet,andclaybeans.Onegetsthe impressionthatNubiawillliveon,buttherichheritageofthecultureintemples,tombs,andtheoldvillagesareforeverburiedbeneathoneofthelargestmanmadelakes intheworld.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheGreekPresenceWhenAlexandertheMacedonian(theGreat)conqueredEgyptin332B.C.E.,helefthisgeneralPtolemyinchargeofthenewlywonterritory.Subsequentgenerations ofPtolemysdescendantswentalongwaytowardmakingtheareaaroundAlexandriaGreekincharacter.Alexandriahadbeenfoundedonthesiteoftheancienttown ofRakoda,sometimeswrittenRhacotis,andincreasinglytookonaGreekcharacter.AtonetimeAlexandria,althoughinAfrica,wascalledthegreatestoftheGreek cities.IthadbeenmadethatwaybythegatheringofmenandwomenfromtheGreekworldtostudyandengageincommerce.Aportcity,Alexandriabecametheears andeyesoftheGreekstotheworkandactivitiesoftheAfricans,butitwasalsothecitythroughwhichmanyideasfromtheAfricaninteriorreachedthewiderworldof EuropeandAsia. TherelationshipbetweenancientEgyptandancientGreeceisveryclose.Egypt,ofcourse,wasoldbeforetherewasaGreece.However,soonafterHomerwrote theIliad,historyrecordsthatmanyGreeks,includingthefirstGreekphilosophersThales,Isocrates,andPythagorasstudiedinEgypt.Nevertheless,theGreeks weredestinedtoconquerEgyptand,intheirconquest,tomakeAlexandriaafamousMediterraneancity. OneencountersthepresenceofGreeceinmodernEgyptinthecityofAlexandriaaswellasintheartisticandculturallifeofthecountry.FromtheCoptic languageancientEgyptianwrittenwithGreekcharacterstomanyinfluencesondrama,painting,andmusic,Greecefindsitswayintothemodernconsciousnessof Egypt.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage11GENERALHISTORYCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.NonationhasaslongacontinuoushistoryasEgypt.AwritercouldveryeasilystartadiscussionofitshistoryfromtheunitingoftheTwoLandsbyKingMenes around3100B.C.E.andendin2500B.C.E.atthebuildingofthegreatpyramidsandyouwouldhavecoveredmoretimethanithasbeenfromColumbusfirstvoyage totheNewWorldtothepresenttime.TheobjectiveofthisworkisthecultureandcustomsofmodernEgypt.ButwhatisthemeaningofmodernEgyptgivenitslong history? SomewritershavedeclaredthatthemostsignificantdateinEgyptianhistorysincethefallofthepharaohsis641C.E.ThiswasthedatewhentheArabs consolidatedtheirconquestofthecountry.AfterthedeathoftheProphetMuhammad,thefollowersofIslamleftArabiaandwentintomanyneighboringcountrieswith thewordsoftheprophet.TheywereabletoconquerEgyptwithlittleopposition,graftingontothefundamentalAfricanidentityofEgyptanArabcharacterandthe Arabiclanguage.EgyptwastobebroughtintotheIslamicsphereoftheworld. PriortothecomingoftheArabs,thenativeinhabitantsofthecountryhadbeenAfricans,mainlyofBedouinandNubianstock,andGreekChristianCopts,using theirownlanguageasalegacyoftheancientEgyptianlanguage.TheGreekshadsettledinEgyptinnumbersaftertheMacedonianconquestin332B.C.E.Theyhad initiallyadoptedtheEgyptianreligionbutbecametheleadersofthenewChristianideologywhenitfirstappearedinAlexandria.TheGreekslaterresistedIslamasa faithandArabicasaculture.However,itwouldnotbelongbeforethecountrywouldbecompletelydominatedbytheArabicculturebroughttothelandfromArabia byGeneralElAsandthosewhofollowedhim. ThereareseveralsignificantperiodsinmodernEgyptianhistory.OurdiscussionofEgyptiancultureandcustomsmustbeginwiththeFatimidPeriodin969C.E. AftertheFatimidPeriod,thereareseveralproperdivisionsofthehistoryofthecountryinthemodernage.Eachonewillbediscussedasacontributiontothepresent dayEgypt.ItistheIslamicculturethathasmademodernEgyptianhistory,andonecannotunderstandthecountrywithoutaproperappreciationoftheemergenceof thatcultureinthelivesofthepeople(seealsoChapter3,ReligionandWorldview).TheBirthofMuhammad Inabouttheyear570C.E.,achildwhowouldbenamedMuhammadwasborntoafamilybelongingtoaclanofQuraysh,therulinggroupofMecca,acityinthe HijazregionofnorthwesternArabia.MuhammadwouldbetheEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage12 founderofIslam,andhisfollowerswouldhaveagreatinfluenceonEgypt.MeccawastheoriginalsiteofanancientshrinecalledtheKabbah.Becauseofthemany merchantsfromEthiopia,Kemet,Greece,andByzantine,ithadbecomeoneoftheprincipalcitiesofsouthwestAsia. Muhammadsfather,AbdelAllahibnAbdelalMuttalib,diedbeforethechildwasborn.Hismother,Aminah,diedwhenhewassixyearsold.Theorphanedchild wasconsignedtothecareofhisgrandfatherwhoheadedtheHashimclan.Soonafterthedeathofhisgrandfather,MuhammadwassenttohisUncleAbuTalib,who senthim,aswascustomary,tolivewithaBedouinfamilyfortwoyears.ThiscustomwasfollowedbythenoblefamiliesofMecca,Medina,Tayif,andothertownsof theHijazsothattheyoungboycouldundergohardshipsandlearnsuffering.HemasteredthelanguageoftheArabs,whoconsideredtheirlanguagetheirproudest contribution.HesharedandenduredthelessonsoftheenvironmentwiththeArabswholivedintentsinthedeserts.Hesoonappreciatedthequalityoftheirlives. Whenhewasinhistwenties,MuhammadenteredtheserviceofawidownamedKhadijahasamerchant,activelytradingwithcaravans.Soonhemarriedherand theyhadtwosons,bothofwhomdied.Theythenhadfourdaughters. DuringthisperiodMuhammadtraveledwidely.Bythetimehewasinhisfortieshehaddecidedtomeditateandreflectonthewaysofmen.Hewouldgotoacave onMountHira,outsideofMecca,tomeditate.OnedayashesatinthecaveheheardavoicethattoldhimthevoicebelongedtothearchangelGabrielandaskedhim torecitethefollowingwords:InthenameofthyLordwhocreatedmanfromaclotofblood.ThreetimesMuhammadsaidno,andeachtimehesaidnothevoice wouldrepeattheinstructions.Finally,herecitedthewordsthatbecamethefirstfiveversesoftheninetysixthchapter,orsura,oftheQuran(thesacredtextof Islam)proclaimingthatGodisthecreatorandsourceofhumansandallknowledge. TheseexperiencestaughtMuhammadthathehadtopreach.HestartedwithhisfamilyandthenproclaimedthewordstothemerchantsoftheQurayshclan.Some acceptedhiswordsandfollowedhimothersrejectedhiswordsandopposedhismessage.Theoppositionservedtomakehimsharpenhisarguments,andhebecame agreatdebateragainstpaganism.ThebeliefoftheunityofGodwassupremeinhisteaching.BecausetheQuranrejectedpolytheismandemphasizedmoral obligations,itrepresentedaseriouschallengetothepeopleofMecca. AfterMuhammadhadpreachedforabouttenyears,theoppositionwasreadytodobodilyharmtohimandhisfollowers.Hesentsomeofhisfollowerstothe countryofEthiopiawheretheywerereceivedandprotectedbytheChristiankingofthatland.SoontheenemiesofMuhammadcameCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage13 afterhim.WhilehesentsomeofhisfollowersaheadtoMedina,hestayedbackuntiltheplottokillhimandhisclosestfriend,AbuBakr,becamequiteclear.Hethen lefthiscousin,Ali,inhisbedandjourneyedwithAbuBakrtowardMedinatocatchupwiththeotheremigrants.Theystoppedinacave.Aspiderspunitswebacross theentrytothecave,andwhenthepursuerssawthatthewebwasunbroken,theyceasedsearchingforMuhammadandAbuBakr.TheythensetoutforMedinaand werewelcomedbyathrongoffollowers.ThisperiodwascalledtheHegira,orFlighttoMedina.Itisthisdateinthefallof622C.E.thatisusuallygivenasthedate forthebeginningofIslam.TheHegirawasnotaflightbutacarefullyplannedmigrationthatmarksthebeginningofIslamandadecisivebreakwiththepast.Thosewho madethetripfromMeccatoMedinawerecalledtheMuhajirun(theemigrants),whilethosewhohelpedinMedinawerecalledtheAnsar(helpers).Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheFatimidPeriod,9691171ThenameFatimidisderivedfromthefactthattheleadersofthisperiodtracetheiroriginstoFatimahazZahra,thedaughteroftheProphetMuhammad,andher husband,AliibnAbuTalib.TheFatimidDynastyembracedtheShia(PartisansofAli)doctrinesthatrejectedthefirstthreecaliphs(asuccessorofMuhammad)of IslamAbuBakr,Omar,andUthmanbelievingthattheyhadusurpedthelegitimatesuccessionfromAli. Initially,theShiawereloyalMuslimswhojustquestionedthefactthatAlihadbeenbypassedforleadership.However,whenAliandhissonsHassanand Husseinwereassassinated,thedivisionhardenedandtheShiaDynastyseparateditselffromtheSunnicaliphateandestablishedtheirowncaliphate.Theconquestof Egyptin969C.E.gavetheShiaanimportantcenterforextendingtheirdominationovertherestofnorthernAfrica.Theyofferedthepossibilityofamahdi(an infallibleruler).ThemahdiwasnottobeareturnofAli,butonewhowouldbringtoIslamarestorationofhopeandoptimismattheendofthetenthcentury.Visions ofthemahdiandexpressionsofhiscomingtotheworldweresimilartotheChristianideaofthereturnofJesusChrist.Therewasananticipationthatanewbeginning wouldarrivewhentheinfalliblerulerappearedtothefaithful. TheShiitesestablishedtheirpoliticalseatinthenewimperialcapitalalQahira(Cairo)whichmeanstheTriumphant.Theybuiltlavishpalacesandbeautifultemples insidethewallsofthecity.Inaddition,theyestablishedtheAlAzharMosqueanditsuniversitythatistheoldestexistinginstitutionofhigherlearning.SotheFatimids mustbeconsideredtheartisticandintellectualinnovatorsintheemergentEgyptofmoderntimes. HowtheFatimids,descendantsofAliandFatimah(thereforeFatimid),EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage14 couldcreateadynastyaftertheincrediblehistoryofintrigueanddissimulationthathadalreadyoccurredintheIslamicworldisitselfastoryworthyofretellingbecause itisattheheartofwhatmakesEgyptsoappealingtoday.Theycameatatimeinthehistoryofthecountrywhenthepeopleawaitedleadershipthatwouldbringstability andprogress,twoelementsessentialformodernity. Obaidallah,amanofPersianextraction,andostensiblythegreatgrandsonofIsmailPasha,himselfadescendantofAliandFatimah,isthekeypersonalityintherise ofShia,butheisnotthemanresponsiblefortheadvancementofShiafaith.ThiscreditgoestoanotherPersiannamedalShia(theShiiteMuslimbelievesinAlis successiontoMuhammed)forhisenthusiasmandfaithinthecause.Hewasoneofthegreatestpropagandistsofalltimes.AlShialivedduringthetimewhenthere werenonewspapers,notelevision,andnoInternet,buttherewastheannualhajj(pilgrimage)toMecca.Hundredsofthousandsofpilgrimscamefromalloverthe worldtoMeccaeveryyearastheirsacredhajj.WhereelsecouldonefindsomanypeopledevotedtothecauseofIslam?Whereelsecouldonefindpeoplewho wouldknowthestoryofthedaughteroftheprophet,Fatimahandherhusband,Ali? AlShiafoundthepilgrimswhohadsufferedgreatlytomakethecostlyjourneytoMeccareadytohearthewordsthathespoke.Hewasquitesuccessfulwithsome groupsofBerbersfromAlgeriawhoinvitedhimtoreturnwiththemtoAlgeriatoteachtheQuran.Whentheyreachedtheirruggedmountainregiontheyelectedhim leaderofthegroup.AlShiawasthespiritualleaderaswellasthemilitaryandpoliticalheadofavigorousbandofBerbers.Oncehehadestablishedhispresence stronglyinAlgeria,hesentforObaidallah.ReachingTripoli,ObaidallahwascapturedandimprisonedbytheorthodoxdynastyrulingTunisia.Butthreeyearslaterhe wasrescuedbythemilitarycunningofalShia.OnAugust26,909,alShiapresentedObaidallahtoavastcrowdofwarriorsastheanticipatedmahdi.Thepricehe wastopayforintroducinghisfriendastheinfalliblerulerwashisowndeathtwoyearslater.AlShiacouldnotremainthemajorandpreeminentteacherofIslam amongtheBerbersifObaidallahwasindeedthemahdi.SoonafiercerivalrybeganbetweenthetwoPersians,whichresultedinObaidallahemergingasthemost authoritativevoiceofIslam.Hethensetaboutriddinghimselfofrivals,andalShiawaskilled. AnewcitywaslaidoutonapromontoryofeasternTunisiaandnamedMahdia.SomescholarsbelievethatitwastobethemodelforthenewcapitalofEgyptonce theShiitescapturedthecountry.TalkoftheconquestofEgyptwasintense.Preparationsforthetakingofthecountrywentonformonths.ItisbelievedthataJewish converttoIslam,YakubibnKillis,hadalottodowiththeconquestofEgypt.HewasabletogiveprecisefactsabouttheCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage15 conditionsinsideEgypttotheleadersinTunisia.AlthoughtheFatimidshadattackedEgyptonseveraloccasionsandin914theirfleethadcapturedAlexandria,they werenotyetreadytotaketheentirecountry.IbnKillistoldtheleadersinTunisiathatmanypeopleinsideEgyptwerelookingforadescendantofAlitobring deliverancetothem.BythistimeIslamhadrootsinEgyptthatwentbacktotheseventhcenturyC.E.ManyfollowersofthereligionhadcometobelievethatFatimah andAbuwerethetruecarriersoftheProphetMuhammadslegacy,andthereforetheybelievedintheShiitedoctrine.Whatwasneededwasamahdi,andthe Fatimidswouldgivethemwhattheyasked. AlMoizz,theFatimidleader,putanarmyof100,000menatthedisposalofaconvertedGreeknamedGohar.LeavingTunisiainFebruary969,helandedin Alexandriaandoccupiedthecity.ByJuly,GoharsFatimidarmyhadreachedGiza.Theywereaidedbythefactthataplaguehaddevastatedmuchofthearmyof Egypt,whohadlostnearlyhalfamillionpeople.Whenthebattlestarted,thecityofCairothrewitselfonthemercyofthemilitaryleader.Hegavethecitycomplete amnestyandforbadehissoldierstoloot.SoonheinvitedalMoizztoenterhisnewcity.WhenhecametoCairo,alMuizzpreachedasermonattheAlAzhar Mosqueasanindicationofhisnewpositionasspiritualleader.Hesupervisedconstruction,paidhissoldierswell,andcreatedashipbuildingindustry.AlMoizz changedthenameofalMansuriyatoalQahiraorCairo.ItisfromthistimeandbecauseofthisfactthatweareabletosaythatmodernEgyptbeginsin969withthe Fatimids. ThefactthatthepeopledidnothavetopaytaxestoIraqbuttotheirowncaliphsmadealotofsensetotheEgyptians.Theirmoneyremainedinthecountry.When alMoizzdiedafterabouttwoyears,hissonalAzizcametopower.AlAzizruledfrom975to990.Withallthattheyweredoing,theFatimidswerenotableto convincethecountrytobecomeShia.TheoldMuslimskepttotheSunnitraditionbelievinginthelineageofAbuBakr,theProphetsuncle.Butthelongtermeffectof theinabilityoftheFatimidstoconvertthecountrytoShiameantthatEgyptwasestrangedfromtheeasternpartoftheIslamicworldwheremostpeoplefoundthe caliphateofBaghdadthelegitimateauthorityoftheMuslimpeople.YetinfifteenyearstheFatimidshadmadeCairothemostimportantcityintheIslamicworld indeed,inthetenthcenturythismeantthemostimportantcityintheworld. Furthermore,thenationofEgyptprosperedundertheleadershipoftheFatimids.TheopeningofthecountrytotheWestcreatedopportunitiesthathadnotexisted beforeforcommercialandculturalinteraction.ThiswasnotthefirsttimethatEuropeansandMuslimshadmet,butitwasprobablythefirsttimethattheyhadmetwith arespectforeachother.However,thefactthattheFatimidscouldnottrusttheirfellowMuslimsmeantthattheyturnedCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage16 moretowardJews,Copts,Greeks,andArmeniansforserviceintheiradministration.Theywere,likesomanyrulersofEgyptbeforeandafter,aninsurgentgroupwho broughtforeignerswhohadnoorganicrelationshipwiththepeopleintothebodypoliticofthecountry.Thus,theyoftenkepttheirowncounsel,defyingtherigid prohibitionsofotherMuslims,enjoyingfeastingandwinedrinkingofferedbytheChristianmonks.Theyruledthecountryfromadistance,remainingbehindtheirwalls untiltheruleofCaliphalHakim,thedemented. AlAzizssonbyaGreekconcubine,thesisterofthetwoGreekOrthodoxbishops,wasbornalHakimonAugust14,985.AlAzizdiedwhentheyoungboywas eleven.Givenatutor,Burjuwan,aSlav,theyoungalHakimwassoongiventheeloquentname,alHakimbiAmrihAllah(hewhorulesatthecommandofGod). WithalHakimskingship,theFatimidssoondeclined.Hebeganhisrulebybuildingalovelymosqueandoccasionallyleavingthepalacetominglewiththepeople. Soon,however,hebecameatyrant,rulingwithsomethingofaninsanecaprice.Hekilledthosewhomhedislikedandmadedecreesthatindicatedhisdementedstate. BythetimehewasfifteenhehadmurderedBurjuwan.Hemadeitacrimepunishablebydeathforanyonetoworkduringtheday.Hisnocturnalinterestswere reflectedintheestablishmentofacouncilforthenight.However,hesoontiredofthecouncilandmadehiscontroloverthecityandthestatetheonlydictatethat mattered.Hisentouragedreadedhisvoice,hispresence,andhisactions.InadditiontomurderingBurjuwan,hekilledseveralministersofstate.Believingthatwomen shouldstayindoorstwentyfourhoursadayandthinkingthatwithoutshoestheywouldnotbeabletowalkonthemanurestrewnstreetsofCairo,alHakimprohibited themanufactureofwomenshoes.Inaddition,hebannedtheconsumptionofmolokhiya(aspinachlikevegetable),whichwasastapleoftheEgyptiandiet. AlHakimisoneofthemostcomplexpersonalitiesinmodernEgyptianhistory.HepersecutedalltypesofpeopleandhumiliatedArabmerchantsinthemarketsbut lefthismostviciousattacksfortheChristiancommunity,eventhoughhismotheranduncleswereChristians.Infact,Coptswereplacedundermanyindignities,such ashavingtowearaheavycrossiftheywenttoapublicbath.In1010,aspartofhismaniaagainstChristians,hefirsthadthechurchoftheHolySepulcherinJerusalem destroyedandthengavethecustodyoftheHolyPlacestotheGreekChurchofhismotherinsteadoftheLatinorRomanChurchofwesternEurope(Stewart1996, 68).Actually,inaremotewaythisactionwasapretextfortheFirstCrusadelaterinthecentury.ChristiansintheWestwouldgiveuptheirearthlypossessionstojoin longandarduousadventurestotheEasttorescuetheholyplacesfromtheEasternChurchortheMuslims. WhilealHakimsruledidnotbringaboutanywholesaleconversiontoCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage17 Shia,hedidcreate,intheintersticesbetweeninsanityandprudence,anatmosphereforintellectualdiscussionwithintheregime.TheHouseofSciencethathe establishedforlearnedmentodiscussallmannerofsubjectsbecameoneofthefreestplacesofknowledgeintheworldatthetime.Hislibrary,anintellectualarsenal, wasthegreatestcollectionofmanuscriptsinArabicatthetimeandanobservatory,meticulouslybuiltwithequipmentdesignedforscientificresearch,wasthe precursortomoremoderntechnologiesinobservatories.Thus,thisstrange,brutal,andmadruler,whoseShiitetheoriesdidnotflyinEgypt,broughttheintellectual discussionstoanewlevel. TwoPersiansHamzahandalDurzimigratedtoCairobecauseoftheintellectualdebatesaboutthereligionandbeganpreachingthedivinityofalHakim.When agroupoftheirfollowersenteredamosqueanddemandedthattheorthodoxMuslimjudgereadatextthatbeganwiththeBismillahInthenameofalHakimbillah, themerciful,thecompassionateinsteadofthenormalInthenameofAllah,themerciful,thecompassionatethefaithfulcouldnottakeitanylonger.Theytook stonesandkilledthethreeShiitesonthespot.AlHakim,inamurderousrage,sentNubian,Turkish,andBerbertroopsintothecitytodestroytheshopsofArab merchantswhomheaccusedofpromotingthedisrespectforhisrule. AlHakimsreignendedmysteriously.HerodehisfavoritemulenamedtheMoonupintotheMokattamhillsoneeveningandvanished.Themulewasfoundbut alHakimwasneverfound.ManypeoplebelievedthathehadbeenmurderedbybanditsfromtheCityoftheDead,thelargecemeteryoutsidethepalacewalls. In1047,whenthePersianscholarNasirKhosramvisitedCairo,thecaliphinpowerwasalMostansir,thegrandsonofalHakim.HismotherwasablackEgyptian, andalthoughhisfatherwasofPersianGreekancestry,alMostansirwasapartisantotheEgyptiansocialandpoliticalorder.AccordingtoNasir,alMostansirs governmentwouldbeplaguedbydisturbancesbetweentheAfricanbornblackandEuropeanbornwhiteguardsinthepalace.AlMostansirspreferencefortheblack guardscreatedanunstablesituationinhiscourt,whichdidnotabateforseveralyears.YetalMostansirpresidedoverthegreatestperiodinFatimidhistoryinEgypt. Themarketswerefullofvegetablesandthestreetswerebustlingwithactivity.Indeed,theaccountofNasirbringsalivethecityandstateduringtheeleventhcentury. Heclaimsthatshopkeepersdidnothavetolocktheirshopsandnoonewoulddaretosteal.AlMostansirhadanimpressivearmy,comprisedoftroopsfromNubia, Ethiopia,Turkey,Persia,Arabia,andtheSlavlands.FatimidEgyptatthistimewasthemostexcellentsymbolofIslam.SoonafteralMostansir,theFatimidrulewould seeasteepdecline. Evenso,theFatimidscontinuedtoruleEgyptfor150yearsuntiltheCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage18 SeljukSultanNureddinsentanexpeditiontooverthrowtheFatimids.HisnephewSalahadDinalAyyubicapturedAlexandriaandsetthestagefortheAyyubid Dynasty.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheAyyubidRule,11711250SalahadDinalAyyubi(Saladin)becametheEgyptianleaderafterthedeathofthelastFatimidcaliphin1171.WhentheCrusadersenteredtheAfricancontinentand laidwastetopartsofCairo,SaladinbuiltfortificationsanderectedtheCitadel.HewasabletodefeattheChristianarmiesandtheirNubianallies.Hisreignis rememberedasoneofthemostimportantinthehistoryofEgyptbecauseofhishumilityandcourage,aswellashismilitaryandadministrativediscipline. Saladinreignedfortwentyfouryears.HespenteightyearsofhisreigninCairoduringwhichtimeheestablishedschools,builthospitals,andimprovedthe infrastructureofthecity.HeintroducedslaveryofEuropeansintoEgyptbybringingMamluk(owned)CircassiansandTurksfromtheBlackSearegion.Underhisrule theMamlukswereallowedtoownland,raisefamilies,andrisetoprominencewithinthesociety. In1193,Saladindiedandwassucceededbyhisbrother,alAdil,afteralongsuccessiondispute.WhenalAdildiedinSyriain1218,hewassucceededbyhisson andSaladinsnephew,alKamil,whofoughtbacktheFifthCrusade.HissuccessorwasSultanAyyubwhobroughtinmoreMamluksandmarriedaslavegirlnamed ShagaratadDurr.WhenAyyubdied,hiswifebecamethefirstwomantoruleEgyptsinceCleopatra.WhenShagaratsnewhusband,Aybak,decidedtotakea secondwife,shehadhimkilled.Soonthereaftershewasassassinated,andtheMamlukmilitarycommanderalMalikBaybarsassumedcontroloverEgyptandushered intheruleoftheMamluks.TheMamlukPeriod,12501517AlMalikBaybarsI,aMamlukfromtheBlackSearegion,tookoverpowerinEgyptinthemidstofturmoil.However,hewasnotabletoestablishcomplete dominanceoverthecountrybecauseofthedissension.IntheaftermathofthemurderofShagaratadDurr,theheirsofBaybarswerekilledbyQalawun,another Mamlukmilitaryleader,whoconsolidatedhisruleonEgypt(seethenextsection). QalawunbecameagreatpatronofarchitectureandbuiltmanymosquesandotherbuildingsinCairo.Heestablishedpoliticalanddiplomaticrelationswithmany otherAfricannationsaswellaswithEuropeanandAsianEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage19 countries.QalawunwassucceededbyhissonMuhammadanNasir,whoruledfornearlyfiftyyears(12941340).AnNasircontinuedhisfathersinterestinbuilding fortressesandmosques. UnderMuhammadanNasirtheMamlukarmiesdefeatedtheMongolsinSyria.ThedescendantsofanNasirwereneitherasastutenorascourageousashewas, andtheTurkishMamlukdynastygraduallylostpower.ItwassucceededbytheCircassianMamlukundertheleadershipofSultanBarquq.TheBurgiMamluk,asthey werecalledafterthegarrisonsetbeneaththeCitadelinCairo,campaignedagainsttheMongolstodrivethemoutofallMuslimlands. TheMamlukPeriodwasnottobewithoutitschallengesathome.Heavytaxationtopayformilitarycampaignscreatedunrestamongthepopulationanddebilitated theeconomy.TheplaguesweptthroughthecountryduringthereignofBarquqsson,Faraj.Thiswasadifficultperiodforthenation.NeverthelesstheMamluks attemptedtocontinuethecampaignsagainstMongolinterventioninSyria.SultanBarsbeybroughtaboutarevivalinEgyptsfortunes.Hesawthepotentialthreatfrom theOttomanTurksandestablishedgoodrelationswiththem. ThefortysixthMamluksultanwasQunsahalGhuriwhosawseveraldisasters.ThefirstwasthecollapseoftheeconomythathappenedbecausetheEuropeans startedroundingtheCapeofGoodHoperatherthanseeingCairoasthemajortradingcityintheAfricanandAsianworlds.SultanQunsahalGhuriwasfatally woundedinbattlewiththeOttomanTurksin1516.AyearlatertheOttomansdefeatedtheMamluksandpreparedthewayfortheirruleofEgypt.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheOttomanRule,15171798TheOttomanRuleofEgyptwasindirect.TheycontrolledthecountryfromIstanbulandsentPashawat,trainedinIstanbul,toruleEgypt.Sincethecountryhadalarge numberofpeopleofTurkishheritage,includingtheremnantsoftheSeljukTurks,andanoverwhelminglyIslamicculture,itwaseasytogovern.Thousandsofslaves werebroughtintothecountryfromtheCaucasusasmercenarieswhoservedtheOttomangovernorsandmilitaryleaders.TheseCaucasusmercenarieswereusedto keepthemassesofEgyptiansundercontrol.Itwasaneffectivewayofmanagingthepopulationbutaveryineffectivesystemforcolonialadministration.Althoughthe OttomanTurkswerebrilliantmilitarystrategists,theyprovedtobepoorcolonialadministrators.ByleavingthedailyoperationstoPashawatandhisminionsmanyof whomhadlittleunderstandingoftheEgyptianpeopletheOttomansencouragedrebellion,unrest,anddisrespectfortheOttomanEmpire.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage20 Therewasneglectoftheinfrastructureandlittleattentiontothesocialneedsofthemasses.Ultimately,thedeteriorationinthesocialandpoliticalsituationpavedthe wayfortheFrenchinvasionof1798.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheEuropeanConquest,17981801BystrikingbeforetheBritish(theirrivals),theFrenchcouldestablishtheirtraderoutestoIndiathroughEgyptthus,NapoleonBonapartesarmycrushedtheMamluk armiesoftheOttomansatImbabuin1798.HisintentionwastocolonizeEgyptandcreateaFrenchspeakingsocietyinthecountry.Followingthepatternofother nationalandimperialpowers,theaimofNapoleonsarmywastostakeoutaclaimforFranceintheancientland.HeimmediatelyestablishedaFrenchadministration, takingoverfromtheOttomans,andimplementedmanypublicworkstowintheallegianceoftheEgyptianpeople,afewofwhombelievedthattheFrenchhadliberated themfromtheineptruleoftheOttomans.ThefactthatFrancetookadirecthandinrunningthecountrycleaningthestreets,creatingjobs,clearingblockedirrigation canals,andbuildingbridgesmadetheFrenchpopularamongsomecircles.NapoleonshowedrespectforIslamandtheQuranbutstillmostEgyptianswere suspicious.MuchliketheancientpilgrimageofAlexandertotheSiwaOasistoseektheoracleofAmenRa,NapoleongaveverbalservicetothegloriesofIslam hopingtowinthesupportofthepeople.However,hisvisionarydreamsweregrandiose.Hestated,Isawmyselffoundingareligion,marchingintoAsia,ridingan elephant,aturbanonmyheadandinmyhandthenewQuranthatIwouldhavecomposedtosuitmyneeds(Stewart1996,156). TheFrencheffortsatbringingtheiradministrationtothecountryweredoomedfromtheoutset.Thereweremanyobstacles,includingthethreatandactualityof internationalhostilitiesovertheinvasion.TheBritishRoyalNavy,underRearAdmiralHoratioNelson,destroyedtheFrenchfleetmooredatAbuQirBayin Alexandria,withinamonthafterithaddocked.Furthermore,thesultanoftheOttomanEmpire,fromhispalaceinIstanbul,threatenedtoengagetheFrenchinwar. UnderpressurefromhometoexplaintheFrenchinvasionandthepoliticaldangerstotheGrandArmy,NapoleonsecretlyreturnedtoFrance,leavinghisarmiesin Africa.Soonthereafter,Napoleonscommander,GeneralJeanBaptisteKleber,wasassassinatedbyaSyrian,SulimanalHalabi,whoimplicatedthreereligious leaders.Allfourwereexecutedthethreesheikhswerebeheaded,andalHalabiwasimpaled,afterhavinghisrightarmburnedoffwithhottar. GeneralJacquesFrancoisdeMenou,whoconvertedtoIslam,tookovertheleadershipoftheFrenchforcesanddeclaredthatEgyptwasnowaFrenchEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage21 protectorate.TheFrenchworkedfeverishlytocreateaclassofEgyptianswhowouldbeanelite,Westerntrainedindigenousgroup.Napoleonhadbeenastudentof ComtedeVolney,whoin1791wroteafamousbooktranslatedasRuins,oraSurveyoftheRevolutionofEmpireaboutthehistoryandpeopleofEgypt. Volneywrote:HowareweastonishedwhenwereflectthattotheraceofNegroes,atpresentourslaves,andtheobjectsofourextremecontempt,weoweour arts,sciences,andeventheveryuseofspeech,andwhenwerecollectthat,inthemidstofthosenationswhocallthemselvesthefriendsoflibertyandhumanity,the mostbarbarousofslaveriesisjustified(citedinCheikhAntaDiop1991,66).StewartcorrectlyassessedNapoleonsattitudewhenhewrote:Asadiscipleof Volney,Napoleonbelievedthatthenativebornmenofreligion,theulama,couldprovideabasisforsocialrevitalization(1996,160).Thiswasdonetominimizethe controloftheMamluks,awhiteEuropeanpeoplefromtheCaucasusandGeorgia,usedasmercenariesbytheOttomanTurks. ThediaryoftheAfricanwriterofSomaliorigin,AbdulRahmanalJabarti,agraduateofAlAzharUniversity,isthemosttellingportraitoftheinvasionandconquest ofCairobytheFrench.AlJabarticlaimsthattheEnglishhadwarnedthepeopleofAlexandriathattheFrenchwerebringingalargefleettoinvade,buttheEgyptians didnotbelievetheEnglishandtoldthemtoleavetheirshores(Stewart1996,156).TheEnglishleftandtendayslaterNapoleonsarmywasasthickaslocustsinthe city(ibid.).TheFrenchsoontookoverAlexandria,hoistedtheirflag,andmadeeveryonewearthetricolorsofred,blue,andwhiteasanindicationoftheFrench conquest.TheywouldsoonmoveontoCairo.AlJabarti,whowasinCairoduringtheentireepisode,describedtheshockwavethatranthroughoutthecitywhenit wasdiscoveredthattheFrenchhaddefeatedtheMamluksandBedouinsinAlexandriaandwasnowmovingtowardCairo.TheleadingemirsIbrahimBeyand MuradBeyreportedthisnewstoIstanbulinanefforttohavetheOttomans,therealrulersofEgypt,getinvolvedinthedefenseofthecountry.WhileMuradBey wastryingtoassemblealargearmytoholdbacktheFrench,aclandestinepamphletappearedinCairo,allegedlydistributedbyCopticChristians.Thepamphletbegan withtheBismillah: InthenameofGod,theMerciful,theCompassionate!OnbehalfoftheFrenchnation,foundedonlibertyandequality,Bonaparte,thegreatgeneral andcommanderinchiefoftheFrencharmy,proclaimstotheentirepopulationofEgyptthatforfartoolongtheemirswhorulethecountryhave insultedtheFrenchnationandoutrageditsmerchants.Thehouroftheirchastisementhasstruck.Forlongcenturiesthisriffraffofslavespurchasedin theCaucasusorGeorgiahavetyrCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage22 annizedthemostbeautifulcountryintheworld.ButGod,MasteroftheUniverseandtheAllPowerful,hasdecreedthattheirreignshouldcease. PeopleofEgypt!YouhavebeentoldthatIhavecomeheretodestroyyourreligion.Itisalie.Dontbelieveit.SaytosuchliarsthatIamonlycome amongyoutoseizeyourrightsfromthehandsoftyrantsandrestorethemtoyouandthat,morethandotheMamluks,IadoreGodandrespecthis ProphetandtheQuran. OncetheFrenchhadroutedtheMamluksatImbaba,theymovedintothecityandtookoverthepalaceofMuhammadBeyalAlfi.Thepalacehadbeenbuilttheyear beforeatgreatexpense,butNapoleonwastednotimeinmovingintoit.Allseemedtogowell,theFrenchwereincharge,theycleanedthestreets,openedthecafes, builtirrigationcanals,andspentmoneyinthebazaar.However,theexpeditionaryforcewaitingintheshipsoffthecoastofEgyptwasasittingduck,cutofffromits supplysourcesanditshomebase.ItwouldnotbelongbeforetheFrenchwouldfindthissituationdangerousbecausetheBritishgovernmentwaslookingtomakea playonEgyptintheeyesoftheBritish,thefactthatFrancehadwontheracetoAlexandriadidnotmeanthatitwouldholdtheprizeforlong. OncetheBritishheardthenewsthattheFrenchhadoccupiedCairo,theymovedtoannihilatetheFrenchfleetintheMediterranean.RearAdmiralNelson,with technologicallysuperiorshipsandamuchbettertrainedgroupofsailors,begantheassaultontheFrenchvesselsontheeveningofAugust1,1798,andbynoonthe nextday,theBritishhaddemolishedtheFrenchnavyatAlexandria.TheBritishthenmovedintoAlexandriaandalongsidetheOttomans,whohaddeclaredwaron Napoleon,recapturedthecitiesofDamiettaandCairo.TheFrenchwereforcedtosurrenderwithouteverhavingcontrolledtheentirecountry. TheramificationsoftheFrenchinvasionweremanyforEgypt.ButtheprincipalissuewasthedeclineoftheIslamicworld.ThefactthattheOttomanEmpire,an Islamicone,couldnotpreventtheChristiannationsfromconqueringanationundertheinfluenceofIslamwasastunningdiscoveryfortheIslamicworld.Inmanyways theFrencharmyinvasionanditsinitialsuccessovertheMamlukforcesshatteredtheIslamicworldsconfidenceinitsabilitytofightofftheChristiannations.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheDynastyofMuhammadAliPasha,18011892TheEgyptiansocietyunderwentanenormousupheavalbecauseoftheFrenchinvasionanditssubsequentdefeatbytheBritish.ManypoliticalEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage23 strugglesensuedandintheinternalbattlesanAlbanianlieutenantintheOttomanarmy,MuhammadAli,becametheleaderofthemostpowerfulfaction.Hesucceeded indrivingtheBritishoutofEgyptandhewassoonelevatedtothepositionofKhedive(orViceroy)ofEgypt.Ofcourse,theBritishwouldreturnnearlyonehundred yearslater.Inthemeantime,MuhammadAlirealizedthathehadaproblemwiththelargenumbersofarmedMamluksinthecountry.AlthoughtheywereCircassianor Turk,andhe,Albanian,AlibelievedthattheEgyptianscouldnotbefreeunlesstheybrokethebackoftheMamlukmercenaries. Inaspectacularmanner,KhediveAliendedthepowerandinfluenceoftheMamluks.Inthesixthyearofhisrule,heinvited470ofthetopMamluksoldierstoa banquetattheCitadel.Whiletheywereenjoyingthemselves,hehadthemallkilled.ThemassacreoftheMamlukofficersendedtheirthreatandconsolidatedthe powerofthekhedive.OnceagaintheEgyptiansocietywasrockedbyamajoreventthatbroughtabouttransformationsofpowerandprestige.MuhammadAli,the Albanian,hadbecomethenewkeyfigureinthehistoryofEgypt.AllthewhiletheEgyptianpeoplewereservingasabackdroptothedramaticpoliticalstageoccupied bytheTurks,Circassians,andAlbanians. FromthedecisivemassacreoftheMamlukstotheendofhisrule(1848),MuhammadAliwasconsideredtheabsoluterulerofEgypt.Nominallyhewasunderthe authorityoftheOttomans,butIstanbulhadalmostnoeffectiverightsinEgyptduringthereignofMuhammadAli.HewasdedicatedtothemodernizationofEgyptand wentaboutbuildingroads,factories,canals,railways,andpublicbuildings.UsinghisinternationalexpertiseandthecontactsthathadbeenmadewithEuropeans,Ali broughtinEuropeanarchitectsandtechnicianstoassistintheconstructionofthecountry.HisaimwastomakeEgyptaregionalpower. OnceAlihadgottenthenationinvolvedinreinventingitself,hemovedtomakehisarmiespowerful.Eventually,Syria,Sudan,Greece,andtheArabianPeninsulafell underhiscontroluntil1839.WhilehepaidlipservicetotheOttomancaliphinIstanbul,heessentiallycontrolledalargepartoftheOttomanEmpirehimself.TheBritish, actingintheroleofinternationalpolice,triedtopreventAlifromextendinghispowertootherareasoftheregion.Britainactuallyforcedhimtorelinquishsomeofhis powertotheOttomansultan. WhenMuhammadAlidiedin1848,hisgrandson,Abbas,succeededhim.AbbasIsrulewasinconsistent.HeopenedEgypttofreetrade,liftingtariffsandmakingit possibleforEuropeannationstoentertheEgyptianmarket.However,heclosedschools,stoppedbuildingroadsandrailways,andCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage24 stoppedthemovestowardindustrialdevelopment.WhereasMuhammadAlihadsetinmotiontheprocessofselfsufficiency,AbbasIeffectivelycalledahalttothat movement. ThesuccessorofAbbasIwashissonSaidPasha.Fortunately,SaidPashareversedmanyofhisfatherspoliciesandsetabouttodeveloptheinfrastructuremuch likehisgreatgrandfatherhaddone.HeinitiatedthebuildingoftheSuezCanal,whichwascompletedin1869byhissuccessor,andnephew,KhediveIsmail.Therule ofKhediveIsmailwasprogressive.Hecontinuedtobuildthecivilinfrastructureandtheindustrialfactories.Infact,heintroducedthetelegraphandpostalsystems, constructedmorecanalsandbridges,andoversawtheexpansionofthecottonindustrywhichhadbeeninitiatedunderMuhammadAliwhichflourishedasaresult oftheAmericanCivilWar,whichpreventedsoutherncottonproductionfromreachingtheworldmarket.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheBritishOccupation,18921947IsmailsexpansioncausedEgypttobeinheavyinternationaldebt.ThisweakenedthenationandleftitopenformoreBritishintervention.Aneconomiccrisiscaused thekhedivetoabdicatein1879andtheBritishwaitedinthewings.Itwouldnotbelongbeforetheirtimewouldcometorunthecountry.Butinthemeantime,Ismails son,TewfikPasha,wouldrunthecountryasatransitionfigure. TewfikPashawantedtoreformthecountryseconomy,andsoongaveoverthefinancialmanagementofthenationtoBritain.Nationalists,disappointedthatTewfik wouldhandoverthecontrolofthenationsfinancestoaChristiannation,forcedhimtoappointtheirleaderAhmedOrabiasMinisterofWar.TheEuropeanreaction tothismoveonthepartofthenationalistswasswift,brutal,anddecisive.TheydefeatedOrabisarmyatTelElKabirandshelledbothAlexandriaandIsmailia.Tewfik wassubsequentlynothingmorethanaBritishpuppet.OrabiwasexiledandMustafaKamilbecametheleaderofthenationalistmovement. TheBritishwastednotimeinturningEgyptintoabonafidecolony.EgyptwasmadedependentonBritishimportedgoods,andEgyptiancottonwasexportedtothe industrializedEuropeannationsasrawmaterial.Egyptianpeoplewereonceagainmadethevictimsofanoutsidepeople. WhenWorldWarIbrokeout,EgyptwasmadeformallyapartoftheBritishEmpire.TheOttomansultandeclaredhissupportfortheGermangovernment,andthis effectivelyendedanylegalauthoritythattheOttomanshadoverEgypt.ItwasnowaBritishsubjectbecauseEnglandwasatwarwithGermanyanditsallies.During WorldI,FouadI,thesixthsonofEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage25 KhediveIsmail,wasmadeKhediveofEgypt.HisauthoritywasconstantlychallengedbyEgyptiannationalistswhousedthepopularresentmentofforeigndomination astheirmainissue. WhenSaadZaghlulbecametheleaderofthenationalistmovementin1918,hepresentedtheBritishwithademandforcompleteautonomyforEgypt.Itwas rejectedoutofhand.Zaghlulwasarrested,tried,anddeportedtoMalta.ThisledtoscoresofantiBritishriots.TheBritishwereforcedtobackdownonZaghluls persecution.By1922theBritishwerewillingtoendtheprotectorateandrecognizeEgyptsindependence,however,theyinsistedonmaintainingcontroloveressential governmentinstitutionsandtheSuezCanal.ThisallowedtheBritishtoeffectivelycontroltheactivitiesoftheEgyptianpeople.Sinceeconomiccontrolwasinthehands oftheBritish,allpoliticaldecisionshadtobesubmittedtotheBritishforapproval.Infact,FouadIwasmadeKingofEgyptinMarch1922withthepermissionofthe British.Butthiswastoproveadifficultandtroublesomedecision.TheBritishwereactiveintryingtoenlistintellectualstosupportthedecisionandsomeofthemdid. Othersinitiallyagreedtothechoiceandthendecidedtochartindependentpathways.SuchmayhavebeenthecaseofAhmadAmin. Aminwasbornin1886anddiedin1954.AsoneoftheleadingpoliticalthinkersduringEgyptsquestforapopulargovernment,AhmadAminsintellectualideas hadagreatinfluenceonthenatureofEgyptianparliamentarydemocracy.AstudentofEgyptsstruggleforpoliticalfreedomisforced,inmanyways,todealwiththe writingsofAhmadAminwhosecareermaybesaidtoembodyallofthecontradictionsofEgyptiansociety. Aminsliberalcredentialsandbeliefsindemocracywerewellknownduringhislife,yetheoftendoubtedthatthemassesofpeopleinEgyptcouldbelefttotheir ownjudgmentaboutpoliticalmatters.Hisconceptofpoliticalgovernancewasintenselymoralisticanddirected.Aminbothinfluencedandwasinfluencedbyhistimes. HewasthesonofawellrespectedsheikhofthealAzharcommunity,andhisearlychildhoodeducationwasquitetraditionalandreligious.Butduringhisearly manhoodhebegantosympathizewiththeviewsofmanyWesternintellectualsandsoontransferredhisallegiancefromthetraditionalvaluesofEgypttothoseofthe westernizingsegmentofsociety. WhenAhmadAminwenttostudyandthentoteachattheschoolforsharia(Muslimlaw)judges,hetriedtointroducetothefutureleadersideasoftheWestern thinkersalongwiththoseoftraditionalIslamicthinkers.TheethicalandsocialthoughtofmodernEuropewasakeyfactorinhisdevelopment,andhekeptclosecontact withfellowteacherswhohadstudiedinEnglandorFrance.AminwouldnotvisitEuropeuntilhewaswellpastfortyCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage26 yearsofage.By1926hehadmadehistransitiontotheWesternizingcadreofintellectualsinCairo.LargelyatthesuggestionoftheimmenselyinfluentialTahaHussein, heacceptedateachingjobattheUniversityofCairothat,atthetime,wascalledtheEgyptianUniversity.HetaughtArabicandIslamicliteraturethereuntilheretiredin 1946. AminbecameoneofthemostactiveEgyptianintellectuals,asortofoldmanofletters,untilhisdeathin1954.Fromthetimeofhisretirementin1946untilhisdeath, hewasactivelyinvolvedinwritingandeditingforthemagazinesandjournalsthatwerehavinganimpactonEgyptianlife.Hewastheelderstatesmanofintellectuals, havingwrittenaninfluentialandpopularhistoryofthefirstfourcenturiesofIslamicculture.Healsoengagedinsubmittingshortessaysandarticlestothepopular periodicalssuchasalHilalandtheliterarymagazinealRisala. OnecangathersomethingofAminsthoughtbyexamininghisopinionsonvarioustopics.OneofthemosttellingliberalpositionsinthewritingsofAminishisbelief intherightofunpopularopinionstobepresented.Butheisalsoastudentofparliamentarystyledemocracyandbelievesthattheinstitutionsofsuchademocracymust bepreserved.WhenTahaHusseinwasdismissedfromtheuniversityin1931,AhmadAminsupportedhiminthewritingofabookonpreIslamicpoetry.Tremendous conservativepressurewasbroughttobearontheuniversitytoreplaceHusseinfornotbowingtothedictatesofthegovernmentleaders.Alreadybytheearly1930s Aminhadfoundhiswaytotheliberalsideoftheissues.Hedidnotwanttoseepoliticsmeddlinginliterature.HewasfearfulthatshouldEgyptgiveupitsmonarchyit wouldhaveagovernmentthatwasrepublicinnameonlyandbasedinrealityintyrannyandsuppressionoffreedomofspeech. Althoughrecognizingallofthecomponentsofliberaldemocracyandgivinglipservicetothem,Aminscontradictionseemedtobeinthefactthathecouldhardly envisionaworldinwhichthemajorityofthepeoplewouldbegivencompletereignoverthegovernment.Inthatsense,hewantedtosupportthemonarchybutnota monarchybeholdentoanoutsidepower.Politicalleadership,accordingtoAmin,mustknowthecorrectgoalsandleadthepeopletowardthosegoals.Butneither Aminnoranyothernationalistleader,Westernorientedorotherwise,couldpreventBritainfrommakingitstragicandhistoricdecisiontobackFouadI. Apowerstruggleensuedbetweenthepeople,theking,andtheBritishintheyearsthatfollowedthecoronationofFouadI.TheWafdPartyhadthesupportofthe populationandtooktheleadershipincampaigningformorerightsandfreedoms.HavingcampaignedamongthepoormassesofCairoandotherregionsofthecountry, theWafdPartyfoundedbySaadZaghlulCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage27 andledbytheautocraticMustafaanNahhasPashahadsucceededinamassingalargefollowingamongtheordinaryEgyptians. WhenFaroukI,thesonofFouadI,ascendedthethrone,hewasgreetedwithsomeenthusiasmbecausethepeoplewereimpressedthathewasthefirstruler,and theonlydescendantoftheAlbaniandynastyofMuhammadAliPashatospeakfluentArabic.PriortoKingFaroukI,theotherleadershadusedTurkishasthecourt language.Inaddition,thepopulationbelievedthatFaroukI,hadnationalistsympathiesandwantedtoshowtheirsupportforakingwhobelievedintherightsofthe people.Hecouldnot,however,defytheBritish.Hisweaknesswassoonevident,andtheyoungkingsignedanagreementwiththeBritish,calledtheAngloEgyptian Treaty(1936),whichostensiblyendedtheBritishoccupationbutgavethemtherighttoremainintheSuezCanal. AttheoutbreakofWorldWarII,theWafdPartysupportedtheAllieswiththeunderstandingthatwhenthewarwasover,Egyptwouldgainfullindependence. However,hatredoftheBritishinspiredmembersoftheclandestinealIkhwanalMuslimin(MuslimBrotherhood)tothrowtheirsupporttotheGermans.Therefore, Egyptwasthrustintotheforefrontofthewar,becomingamajorstrategicbaseofoperationsduringWorldWarII.CairoandAlexandriawereoverrunwithsoldiers, politicalexiles,spies,anddiplomats.ThedecisivebattleatElAlamein(November1942)inthedesertoutsideofAlexandriadefinedtheNorthAfricanCampaign. GeneralBernardMontgomerysEighthArmydrovebackGeneralFieldMarshalErwinRommelsAfrikaKorpsandtheAlliesclaimedallofNorthAfricaastheprize. ThedefeatofGermanyinNorthAfricawastobethebeginningoftheendfortheMuhammadAlidynastysupportedbytheBritishgovernment.KingFaroukI,a descendantoftheAlbanianAli,wasconsideredpopular,butinherentinhisrulewerethefesteringproblemsofrunningamonarchyoutoftouchwiththerealissuesof thepeople.FaroukIwasknowntobeuneducated,butwithaquickcharmandaneasymanner,buthewouldnotbethepersontoleadEgypttoindependence. Indeed,hehadaweaknessforsurroundinghimselfwithcorrectadvisersandthosewhoflatteredhim,eveninhisignorance.Bythelate1940s,therewererumorsof scandalsinhisprivatelife.Britainsoughttousehim,butinitssupportofhimitwasalsotrapped.Thus,therewasacorruptmonarchyandacorruptoccupation.Both thekingandtheoccupiershadtoleaveinorderforfreedomtocometoEgypt. Atthistime,politicaldiscontentwassurfacinginEgypt.Itwouldsoonboiloverandleavethecountrywithoutakingoranoccupier,but,instead,withanewleader. TheplayersweretheWafdPartyandtheMuslimBrothCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage28 erhood,whichwasfoundedbyHasanalBanna,abrilliantorganizerandpreacher.Hecreatednationalconsciousnessbysettingupcells,battalions,youthgroups,and asecretapparatus.AlBannadeclaredtothealIkhwan,Youarenotabenevolentsociety,norapoliticalparty,noralocalorganizationhavinglimitedpurposes. Rather,youareanewsoulintheheartofthenationtogiveitlifebymeansoftheQuran(Hopwood1982,21). Islamwasthetotalityofeverything.Therewouldbenosociety,nopolitics,noinstitutionswithoutit.ThealIkhwanallowednosuchdistinctions.Tofurthertheir aims,thebrotherhoodusedinfiltration,propaganda,organization,andintimidation.Theyrationalizedtheinherentthreatsintheirmilitancybytheconceptofjihad (struggleagainstthosewhodidnotbelieveinIslam).TheydidnotshirkfromdeathormartyrdomiftheyfeltthatitwasforthecauseofIslam.Bythetimetheyreached theirpeakintheearly1950s,theyhadmorethantwothousandbranchesandhalfamillionmembers. AlongsidethealIkhwanwasanactivistgroupcalledtheMisralFatah(YoungEgypt),aconservative,rightwingorganizationthatwasfoundedbyAhmadHusain in1933andbecameapoliticalpartyin1938.TheorganizationcreatedaparamilitaryorganizationcalledtheGreenShirtsthathadasitspurposethepurgingofthe societyofCommunists,Europeaninfluences,andforeignprivileges.Inregardtoitsbattleagainsttheforeigninfluencesinthesociety,theMisralFatahwassimilarto thealIkhwan.TheybothwereardentlyagainsttheBritishoccupationandheldabeliefintheroleofEgyptastheleaderoftheIslamicworld. StudentsinthesocietywereoftendividedbetweentheWafdandthealIkhwan,withtheCommunistsjoiningtheWafdandtheMisralFatahjoiningthealIkhwan. Eachorganizationsoughttoenliststudentsintheirdrivetocreatearevolutionaryspirit.Thereislittlewonderwhy,between1945and1952,theEgyptiansocietywas onthevergeofexplosion.Thecountrylivedinterror.Speechwasrestrictedandthepresswasprohibitedfromprintingcertainstories.Inadditiontoallofthepolitical troubles,aterriblecholeraepidemicstruckthenationduringthetimethatitwasdiscoveringinternationalisolation.Theinternalpressuresofpoliticalagitation,student unrest,socialdisturbances,terrorism,andthreatswouldeventuallyleadtoanewsociety.ButitwouldcomeaboutnotsomuchbecauseofthealIkhwan,Misral Fatah,ortheirallies,butbecauseofaselect,secretivegroupofarmyofficerscallingthemselvesFreeOfficersCommittee. TheWafdPartycalledfortheimmediateindependenceofEgyptwiththeAlliesvictoryinthewar.ThepartyalsocalledforBritishtroopstoevacuateEgyptiansoil. TheBritishdidnotrespondtothisdemandwithanyspeed,andthus,EgyptianresentmentexplodedintoantiBritishriotsandstrikes.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage29 TheMuslimBrotherhoodinstigatedproteststhatmadetheBritishgovernancequitedifficultbecausealBannahadbuiltthebrotherhoodintoamightyforceduringthe waryears. TheMuslimBrotherhoodhadtakenapoliticalstandonthewarthatsaiditwasnotaboutMuslimsorEgyptbutaboutEuropeansandtheirattempttodivideupthe world.ThebrotherhooddidnotopenlyopposeEgyptiansupportfortheAlliesduringthewarbutactivelyagitatedagainsttheBritishafterthewar.Pressurefromthe WafdPartyandtheMuslimBrotherhoodfinallyforcedtheBritishoutofAlexandriaandtheCanalZonein1947. Israelwasestablishedin1948,andtheArabnationsinvadedthesameyeartoprotecttheArabpeopleofPalestineandtodefeatthenewlycreatedgovernmentof theJewishstate.ButthesmallerstateofIsraeldefeatedtheArabforcesandcreatedaseriouspoliticalsituationinEgypt.Agroupofyoungandidealisticleadersofthe armypreparedtotakethereinsofgovernmentandassertEgyptiandignity. Parliamentaryelectionswereheldin1952,andtheWafdPartywonthemajorityoftheseats.MustafaanNahhasPashawasmadeprimeminister.Oneofthefirst thingshedidwastorepealthe1936AngloEgyptianTreaty,whichgaveBritaintherighttoremainattheSuez.KingFaroukIdismissedtheprimeminister,andthe countryeruptedinrebellionsthathadtobeputdownbyforce.ItwasthiseventthatledtheFreeOfficersCommitteetostageacoupdetat.Theyseizedcontrolofthe governmentandforcedKingFaroukItoabdicate.GeneralNaguib,astheseniorofficer,becameprimeministerandcommanderofthearmedforces. However,therealpowerwastheninemanRevolutionaryCommandCouncil(RCC)undertheleadershipofColonelGamalAbdelNasser.TheRCCruled decisively.InmanyrespectsithadhundredsofyearsofbuiltupresentmentonitssideasitclearedthewayforanewregimeinEgypt.Itabolishedthemonarchyand allpoliticalparties,includingtheWafdParty.AyearlatertheRCCdeclaredtheEgyptianArabRepublic. AstheRCCbecameincreasinglymoreradical,itoffendedtheolderNaguibwhotriedtoplacesomecontrolsovertheyoungerofficers.Therewasasensethat NaguibretainedtoomuchoftheoldtraditionstobeusefulinadvancingtherightsofEgyptians.Therewasdissatisfactionwithhim,andthebickeringintheranksofthe juniorofficers,thosewhohadriskedeverythingtobringaboutchange,wouldleadtodistrustofNaguib.SoonNaguibwasplacedunderhousearrestandremoved frompowerin1954.Nasserwasmadeactingheadofstate,andin1956officiallyassumedthepresidencyoftherepublic.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage30TheEraofGamalAbdelNasser,19521970Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.GamalAbdelNasserwasadynamicleaderwholeftanindeliblemarkontheEgyptianandArabpeoples.HetransformedthewaytheEgyptiannationvieweditselfand attemptedtomoldthenationasbothanAfricannationandanArabnation.HejoinedtheOrganizationofAfricanUnityandhelpedtofoundtheOrganizationofArab Unity.BothorganizationsonegeographicandtheotherculturalweretoplayaroleintheemergingEgyptianethos. Nasserwasacharismaticpatriot,butultimatelyduringhisleadership,heimposedasocialiststyledictatorshiponthecountryinanattempttostifleunrestand protest.Inevitably,oppositionleaderswerejailed,persecuted,tortured,orexecuted.Nassersoughttomakehisgovernanceeasierbygettingridofallopposing parties.ThenowpowerfulMuslimBrotherhoodwasoutlawedanditsmembersimprisonedalthoughithadbeenoneofthemostimportantsupportersofthe1952 revolution.JournalistswhodisagreedwithNasserspolicieswereimprisoned.TheWafdParty,whichhadbeenabolished,triedtoreinventitself,andwasimmediately outlawed.Allthetimethiswashappening,NasserachievedunprecedentedpopularityintheArabworld. Therewereseveralconcretereasonsforhispopularity.HewasthefirstopenlyArableader,inhundredsofyearsinEgypt.Thecountryhadseenaprocessionof nonAfricanandnonArableaders,andtheriseofNasser,asanArabnationalistcommittedtoupliftingtheruralpoor,reverberatedthroughouttheland.Hesoughtto improvethelotofthemassesofpeasantswhofarmedthebanksoftheNileRiver.HecalledforpanArabunityinanefforttobringcoordinatedresponsestoregional crises.HisdriveforapanArabismincludedrecognizingthevariouscolorsofArabpeoples.Thus,manyblacksparticipatedinNassersrevolutionasArabs. Furthermore,hedramaticallynationalizedtheSuezCanalandstoodagainstBritishinvasionofEgyptianterritory.HisoutspokencriticismofIsraelbroughtaboutthe wrathoftheWesternworld,butEgyptthenfoundassistancefromtheSovietUnion.Buthispopularitywasmatchedontheothersidebyintensedislikebyhisenemies. Theysawhimasonewhowoulddisturbthevestedinterestsofhundredsofyearsofpower,andthus,hehadstrongopposition.Therewasbothferventadulationand intensehostilitytowardNasser. However,hesawhimselfasaunifieragainstWesternimperialism,andwhenhewasproclaimedprimeministerofthenewrepublicin1954,heconsolidatedhis policiesagainstforeignintervention.OneofhisfirstactswastheremovalofBritishtroopsfromtheSuezCanalzone.HesubsequentlydeportedthousandsofEgypts foreignresidentsandconfiscatedtheirpropertystatingthatithadbeengainedonthebacksoftheEgyptianpeople.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage31 WhatNasserexplainedtothepeoplewasthatinordertobuildademocratic,socialistandcooperativesocietyitwasnecessarytoremovethosewhowereseenas takingwealthwithoutgivingbacktothesociety.Thus,heinstitutedlandreformsandredistributionandexpandededucation.By1956hehadbecomepresidentof Egypt. NasserestablishedanalliancewithSyriaasadisplayofpanArabism.ThisattempttoformaunitedcountryofEgyptandSyriawasdoomedfromthebeginning becausethetwocountrieshadtwodifferenthistoriesanddifferentcustoms.Inaddition,itturnedoutthatNasserwasmoreofanEgyptiannationalistthanapan Arabist. Movingtoenhancehisinternationalcredentials,NasserhelpedformtheNonalignedMovement.AlongsideIndiasJawaharlalNehru,GhanasKwameNkrumah, YugoslaviasJosipBrozTito,andIndonesiasSukarno,NasserwasamajorinfluenceinchartingthecoursebetweentheWestandtheEast.Hebecameapower brokerinthedevelopingworld.ButhisinternationalismhelpedtocreateanimageofEgyptasanationonthemove.WhentheUnitedStatesandtheWesternnations refusedtogranthimfundstobuildtheAswanHighDam,NasserturnedtotheSovietUnion.ThedamwasamajorsuccessintransformingEgyptsagricultural developmentbypreventingtheannualfloodingthatwashedawaymillionsofacresoffarms.Italsoaddedabout15percentmorearablelandtothenation. TheSixDayWarin1967shatteredNasserspanArabdream.DefeatbyIsraelmeantthattheArabnationshadsufferedahumiliation,andNasser,asthemost outspokenArableader,hadlosthispoliticaledge.Hisrhetoricwaslikehotair.ThedefeatoftheEgyptianarmyandthelossoftheSinaiweregreatblowstothe prestigeofthecountry. Nasserofferedtoresign,butthepeople,outofrespectforhim,stagedmassivedemonstrationstoencouragehimtoremaininoffice.Hedidstayinofficeandruled untilhediedofaheartattackonSeptember1,1970.Asaleader,hehadbuiltapersonalmachine,apoliticalculturededicatedtohisvision,anddependentonhis leadership.Thispersonalizedleadershipstylemeantthatallpoliciesstemmedfromthepresidency.HewasmotivatedbyadeeploveforEgyptandarealconcernfor thewelfareofthepeople.ItislikelythathisregimewasabletosustainitselfthroughmanycrisesbecauseofthestrongbeliefthepeoplehadinNasser.Afterservingfor nearlyeighteenyearsasthecentralfigureintherevolution,Nassersdeathleftamajorgapinthepoliticallifeofthenation.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheRuleofAnwarSadat,19701981AnwarSadatwasoneoftheoriginalmembersoftheFreeOfficersCommitteewholedtherevolutionin1952.HeservedasaratherundistinguishedEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage32 vicepresidenttoGamalAbdelNasser.However,whenheassumedthepresidency,heimmediatelybegantodismantlemanyoftheharshpoliciesofhispredecessor. Infact,heexpelledtheSoviettechniciansthathadbeenbroughtintothecountrybyNasserwhentheAswanHighDamwasbeingbuilt.LikeNassersexpulsionof foreignresidents,SadatsexpulsionofSovietcitizensinJuly1972wasalsopopularwiththemasses,butitcreatedinternationalturmoilinthecontextoftheColdWar betweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion. UnderSadatsleadershipthereweremanydomesticandforeignpolicychanges.Hesoughttokeepliberalizationoftheinternalsocietyasaprioritybyincreasing education,speakingoutforwomensrights,andcurtailingthesecretpolice.Hedemandedthattheconfiscationofprivatepropertybestoppedandgavemorefreedom tothepress. Sadatprovedtobeanableleader.PerhapstheactionthatmadehimaherototheEgyptianpeoplewasthesurpriseattackontheIsraeliforcesintheSinaionthe JewishholidayofYomKippurduringtheMuslimholymonthofRamadanonOctober6,1973.ThisgaveSadatcredibilityandheearnedtherespectofhis countrymen.TheOctoberWardestroyedtheideaofIsraeliinvincibilitythathadgrownfromtheSixDayWar.Intheend,thewarwasfoughttoastalemate,butSadat stillemergedahero. MovesweremadetoliberalizethegovernmentandtheEgyptiansystem.Manypoliticalprisonersweregivenamnesty,thepresswasallowedtopublishwithmore freedom,andpoliticalpartieswereallowed.AnotheractionthatinstilledasenseofprideintheEgyptianpeoplewasthatSadatwasadevoutIslamist.Hereversedthe secularismthatwasimposedasasocialistsolutionandalignedhimselfwiththetraditionallyreligiousmiddleclasses.EstablishingapolicyhecalledInfitah(Open Door),Sadatencouragedforeigninvestmentsandthedevelopmentoftheprivatesector.Araboilmoneybegantoflowintothecountryandforeignaidincreasedas thenationsawanoutbreakofdemocracy. Sadatbecameanincreasinglyskillfulpoliticianandinternationalpersonality.Hewasknownfordramaticactions.WhentheInternationalMonetaryFund(IMF)put pressureonthecountrytostopgrantingfoodsubsidiesbecausetheyweredrainingthecountrysfinancialreserves,Sadatrespondedbystoppingthesubsidiesinone dayratherthaninagradualmanner.Foodpricesdoubledinoneday,whichledtomassiveriots,calledfoodriots,andforcedtheUnitedStatestoincreaseforeign aidaswellasforcedtheIMFtobackdownfromitscallfortheendtosubsidies.Thedebtofthecountrywasrescheduled,andSadatimmediatelyreinstalledthe subsidies. ThemostdramaticmovemadebySadatoccurredonNovember19,1977,Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage33 whenhesuddenlytraveledtoJerusalemwithoverturesofpeacebetweenEgyptandIsrael.ThiswasconsideredabrilliantdiplomaticstrokeanditplacedSadatand EgyptintheinternationalspotlightandputpressureonIsrael.HisdaringmadehimahighlyrespectedleaderintheWestaswellastheArabchampionofdiplomacy. HegavetheEgyptiansanimageofcourageandvalortotheEuropeanandAmericanpeoples. OneofthehighpointsinmodernEgyptiandiplomacyoccurredwhenSadattooktheinitiativetogotoIsraelandmeetwiththeleadersofthatcountry.Ithasbeen recordedinvarioushistorybooksthatthebolddiplomaticactionbySadatwasoneofthemajorpoliticalmovesinhistory.AtatimewhennooneexpectedanyArab dominatednationtoofferahandtoIsraelfornegotiation,Sadatstruckamagnanimouschordintheheartsoftheworldspeoplesbydemonstratinghiswillingnessto trust. ThemeetingwithPrimeMinisterMenachemBeginandtheIsraeliKnessetwashistoricformanyreasons,buttheoverridingissuewasSadatsabilitytobelievethat theIsraeliswereinterestedinmakingpeace,notwar.Hehadshownhimselfawarrior,andnowhewasshowinghimselfapeacemaker.However,therewastroubleon thehomefront.SomeArabsbelievedthathehadbetrayedtheirtraditionalhostilitytowardIsraelandtheWestandhadreducedEgypttoapuppetoftheWest.Sadat didnotlikethesereferencesnordidhereallydeservethemsincehisonlycrimewastryingtobringpeacetotheregion.Nevertheless,thosewhohadwelcomedhis initiativesatfirstnowfeltthathehadsoldouttotheWest.Economicliberalizationmeantthattherichgotricherandthepoorgotpoorerbecausethosewhohad internationalcontactscoulddobusinesswherethosewhodidnothavesuchcontactswerelefttotheirowndevices.TheArabLeaguemoveditsofficefromCairoto TunisasaprotestagainstSadatsroleintheCampDavidAccords.EgypthadbecomethefirstArabnationtorecognizeIsrael,andforthisactionSadatand MenachemBeginreceivedtheNobelPeacePrize.ButtheactionisolatedSadatfrommanyotherArableaders. ThegroupsthatSadathaddefendedandsupportedbyunbanningthem,suchastheMuslimBrotherhoodandtheWafdParty,begantocriticizehim.Somecalled himasellouttoZionistinterests.Otherscalledforhisassassination.TheWesternmediaalsocriticizedhimbecausehetriedtorepresstheEgyptianswhowerenow callingforhisassassination.Intheend,Sadatwasleftwithfewmajorsupportersintheregion.InOctober1981whilewatchingamilitaryparade,hewasshotand killed.ThenationmournedbuttherewasnoneofthepassionateoutpouringforhimastherehadbeenatthedeathofNasser.YethistoryhasbeenquitekindtoAnwar Sadat,castinghimintheroleofthewiseelderbrotherwhounderstoodinherentlywhatwasneededtomovetheimpasseinthenegotiationswithCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage34 Israelandactedtocapturethemomentinadecisivefashion,carvingoutforhimselfauniquepersona.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheTimeofHosniMuhammadMubarak,1981PresentHosniMuhammadMubarakservedasvicepresidentunderAnwarSadatfrom1974untilhisownascendancytothepresidencyonOctober13,1981.Hehasserved asheadofstatelongerthaneitherNasserorSadat.Mubarakwasbornin1928toanuppermiddleclassfamilyandhasamilitaryeducation.InEgypt,heattendedthe NationalMilitaryAcademyandtheAirForceAcademy,andintheSovietUnion,hestudiedattheFrunzeGeneralStaffAcademy. DuringthetimeofNasserandSadat,hewasaratherlowkeymilitarypersonality.HejoinedtheEgyptianAirForcein1950anditwasnineteenyearslaterthathe waselevatedtotherankofAirForceChiefofStaff.Heservedinthatcapacityuntil1972whenhewasmadeCommanderinChief.Inadditiontothatposthewasthe DeputyMinisterofWarandoneofSadatsclosestmilitaryadvisers.HewasmuchlikeSadat,amanofordinaryambitionandpersonality,withoutcharismaticoratory ordramaticflair,beforebecomingpresident.However,sinceascendingtothepresidency,MubarakhascontinuedthemorepopularpoliciesofSadat.Hehas consciouslypaidmoreattentiontothedailyadministrationofthecountryandhadshownlittleinclinationforthrustinghimselfintotheforefrontofArabpoliticsuntilthe 1990s.HehasbeenconcernedwiththetechnologicalandindustrialdevelopmentofEgyptmorethanwithestablishingastronginternationalpresence.Aspresidentof Egypt,MubarakisacceptedbysomeArabsasthenaturalleaderoftheArabworldbecauseheistheleaderofthelargestandmostimportantstateintheArabworld. ItshouldbepointedoutthatHosniMubaraktookoverEgyptinanorderlysuccessionwhenSadatwasassassinated.Hewaslaterapprovedoverwhelminglyina referendum.GivenhisattempttofollowsomeofthemoreliberalpoliciesofSadat,Mubarakhastriedtosuppressthefundamentalismthatfrequentlythreatensthe economyandthestabilityoftheEgyptiansociety.Hisprogramhasbeenoneofeconomicreforms,theincreaseofpoliticalfreedom,theexpansionoftherightsof women,theacceptanceoftheMuslimBrotherhoodintotheparliament,andmorefreedomforthepress.Internationally,Mubarakhastriedtobeneutralbetweenthe greatpowersandhassoughttoimproverelationshipsbetweenArabnations.Hewasreelectedin1987with97percentofthevotesinanelectionwithnoopposing candidates. MubarakhasachievedhisstaturebyresumingdiplomaticrelationshipswithArabnationsthathadbrokenoffrelationswhenSadatrecognizedIsrael,EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage35 showingopennesstowardthePalestinians,andsupportingjournalisticopinionsandfreedoms.Atthebeginningofthe1990s,Egyptwasagainplayingamajorrolein regionalpolitics.UnderMubarak,in1990,EgyptsupportedKuwaitandSaudiArabiaagainstIraqintheGulfWar.Later,Egyptsent38,500troopstojoinwiththe UnitedStatesandaninternationalforcetodefeatthearmiesofIraqandforcethemtoleaveKuwait. DespitethekeeninsightsanddeftpoliticalmovesofMubarak,thecountryhasmanyproblemsowingtoitslongandcomplexpoliticalhistoryandexplosive populationgrowth.EgyptisoneofthefastestgrowingcountriesinAfrica,andthesocialserviceshavenotbeenabletokeepupwiththeincreaseinpopulation.Cairo alonehas20millionpeople.Itisoneofthefivelargestcitiesintheworldintermsofpopulation. Tourismhasbecomeoneofthebiggestforeignexchangeearnersforthecountry,butIslamicfundamentalistshavefrequentlydisruptedthetouristtradewithviolent actions.Mubarakhasinsistedthatthenationneedstheforeigncurrencythatcomesfromthetourists.Hehasenhancedthesecuritymeasuresaroundthemajortourist attractionstokeepthetouristssafe.TerrorismagainstforeignersismeantasaprotestagainstMubarakandisawaytodamagethegovernment.In1994,the governmentwasabletobreakthebackoftheterroristgroup,calledAlSaeed,inUpperEgypt,andtherewasarevivalofSaudiandGulfStatetourism.Nevertheless, theMubarakgovernmenthashadtobevigilanttomaintaindomesticpeace.Manyprogramstoincreasethelivingstandardsofthepeasantshavebeenintroduced. PresidentHosniMubarakwasreelectedin1993forathirdtermandthenonSeptember26,1999,hewasreelectedforanunprecedentedfourthsixyear presidentialterm.Hewonnearly94percentofthevotesinapopularreferendum.Assumingtheroleofaseniorstatesman,hewasactivelyinvolvedinthenegotiations betweenIsraelandthePalestinians,servingasaconfidant,prodder,andmediator.ThispositionplacedEgyptsquarelyonthestageofthelargestpoliticaldramaofthe NorthAfricaSouthwestAsia(NASA)regionoftheworld.MubarakhasbeeneagertopositionEgypttobecomeamajorplayerinthepoliticalevolutionofthe region.Infact,EgyptsoutlooktotherestofAfricahasbeenoneofrivalryinthenorthwithLibya,acountrythathasclearlyfocusedontherestofthecontinentof Africaasitsnaturaleconomicandpoliticalpartner.EgyptisamemberoftheCOMESA(CommonMarketforEasternandSouthernAfrica)andhasworkedtobring aboutfreetradeinAfrica.Inthepast,EgypthasbeentightlytiedtothedestinyofSudaninfact,manyEgyptiansseeSudanasanorganicpartofitsownNileValley. ThetwocountriesEgyptandSudanhavebeenunitedinthepastasonecountry,andunderMubarak,Egypttakesaninterestinthepoliticaldevelopmentsofthe country.TheroleofEgyptintheArabworldhasbeenCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage36 importantsincethedaysoftheMuslimArabconquestunderGeneralElAsin639C.E.Withitsfocusonsolidifyingitsculturalandpoliticalleadershipinnortheast AfricaandtheArabworld,Egyptremainsthedominantplayerintheregion(EmergingEgypt2001,12). OneofthecomplaintsoftenheardbythosewhodonotliketheslowpaceofdemocracyinEgyptisthatMubarakistoocautious.Infact,HalaMostaphawas quotedassaying,Heisobsessedwithstability(TimeEurope,November27,2000,Vol.156,no.22).ThetruthofthematteristhatMubarakrecognizesthe dangerstohiseconomyandsocietyshouldthemilitantIslamistswanttocreatehavoc.Heissurethatthemassesofthepeoplewillsuffertherefore,hekeepsasteady handontheEgyptianshipofstate.Infact,theSeptember11,2001,terroristattacksonthePentagonandtheWorldTradeCenterintheUnitedStatessentshock wavesthroughtheEgyptianeconomy.Inmanyways,becauseEgyptisthelargesteconomyinnorthernAfricaandsouthwestAsiainadditiontobeingthemost importantMuslimcountryinthatpartoftheworld,itisalsoverysusceptibletohostilitiesinvolvingtheWest.WhenitwasdiscoveredthattheEgyptianJihadmightbe connectedtotheAlQaedaorganization,manyAmericanandEuropeantouristscancelledtheirvisitstoEgypt,causingbusinessearningstoplummet,withtheripple effectbeingfeltinsubsidiaryindustries.Thus,theaimofMubarakhasbeentobringhiscountryintoamoredemocraticerainwhichthepresenceofdifferentreligions wouldnotnecessarilycreatehostility.TheemergenceofMubarakssonGamalasaleaderoftheNationalDemocraticParty(NDP)willbringsomenewlifeintothe politicalpartyandpositionthepartyforfutureelections.Gamal,whoisthirtynine,mightevenbeapotentialsuccessortohisfather. Therearemanyissues,however,thatmustbeconfrontedbeforeEgyptistrulystabilized.Yetthestabilitythatexistsatthepresenttimeisthebestthathasexisted sincetherevolutionof1952.ThecountryunderMubarakisatpeacewithallofitsneighborsandhasbecomeoneoftheanchorsinthepoliticalandeconomic communityoftheregion.BecauseofthestrengthofMubarakspolicies,hisrelationshipwiththeSaudis,hisabilitytohandletheUnitedStates,andhisdeftnessin dealingwiththePalestinianquestion,Egypthastherespectofitsneighborsandhasbecometheleadingactorintheregionaldrama. ThetworemainingissuesthatmustbedealtwitharethePalestiniansandthefundamentalists.Oneisaninternationalpoliticalissueandtheotherisadomesticissue. ThegovernmentofMubarakhastriedtodefendArabrightswhilebeingamoderatorintheregion.Diplomatically,Egyptdefineditsrolein2000asthenursemaidof thepeaceprocessbetweentheArabsandIsraelis.PresidentMubarakhasbackedPalestinianAuthorityPresidentYasserCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage37 Arafatpubliclyandthetwoconsultprivately.Inthisway,ArafathasreceivedmoralandeconomicsupportfromEgypt.MubarakhasencouragedArafattostandfirm onhisprinciplesofhumanrightsandjustice,yetheencourageshimtomakeconcessionswhennecessarytomaketheIsraelisfeelsafe.ThePalestinianproblemis MubaraksgreatestchallengeanditbecameincreasinglydifficultaftertheSeptember11,2001,terroristbombings. LeadingotherArabheadsofstateasthevoiceofmoderation,PresidentMubarakhascreatedaroleforhiscountryintheIsraeliPalestinianconflict.Hismediation wascreditedwithrestartingnegotiationsafterthesuspensionoftalksduetotheintifada,aperiodofPalestinianuprisingin19961999.Thediplomaticprestigeof EgypthasgrownunderMubaraktothepointwhereheislistenedtoandconsultedbyallofthemajorWesterngovernmentsbeforetheyactintheregion.TheEgyptian governmentgetsmorethan$2billioninaidannuallyfromtheUnitedStates.ItisoftensaidthatthemoneyisinexchangeforEgyptbeingthefirststateintheregionto makepeacewithIsrael.NooneintheWesternworldwantsEgyptseconomytocollapsebecauseofthedangerthiswouldbringtotheregion. PresidentMubarakhasvisitedWashingtononceayearforthepastfiveyears.HeisseekingtoreadyhiscountryforthetimewhentheoverallAmericanaidwillbe cutto$400million.AnumberofissueshaveemergedoverthelastfewyearsbetweentheUnitedStatesandEgypt,butnonehavederailedtherelationshipbetweenthe twonations.OneissuethatthreatenedtocreateproblemsfortherelationshipwasthecrashofEgyptAirsFlight990fromNewYorktoCairoinOctober1999. Americaninvestigatorsconcludedthatthecopilot,GamilalBatouty,mayhavedeliberatelycrashedtheplane.AfloodofprotestfromtheEgyptiangovernmentcaused thisissuetobeminimizedintheAmericanpress.MubarakiscreditedwithconvincingtheAmericanstodownplaythepossibilityofasuicideonthepartofalBatouty. Onthedomesticfront,PresidentMubarakhasbeenabletosubduethealIkhwanalMusliminandothergroupswithstrongpolicepressuretoensureastable society.Politically,hehasbeenabletoconvertmanyoppositionleaderstohisformofgovernmentor,atleast,alignthemwithhispolicies.Onlytheradical fundamentalistsremainoutsideofthePaxMubarak.WhenonethinksofthefactthatPresidentMubarakachievedlimitedagriculturalreformandprivatizationwithout anexplosionofunrestamongthepeasantsitisalmostmiraculous.Hislowkeyapproachtothepoliticalprocessnottoomuchrhetoricandflamboyancehasplayed exceptionallywellinmoderatingtheinfluencesinEgyptthatcouldhavecausedtrouble. TheWorldTradeCenterandPentagonattacksinNewYorkandWashingtonmadeanEgyptian,AymanalJawahiri(anassociateofOsamabinCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage38 Laden),oftheIslamicJihadahouseholdname.ItisbelievedthatalJawahirisorganizationwascloselyrelatedtotheAlQaedaorganizationofOsamabinLaden.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.NOTES1.ForalongtimeitwasassumedthatthetermTawyreferredtotheconceptsofredandblacklandhoweverrecentscholarshiphastakenthistermtomean desertandfertile.ThisseemsmorelikelysincetheearthinEgyptisoftenredorbrown,butthevegetationalongtheriverbanksisgreenandverdant.Atone time,perhaps,itmayhavebeeneasytoarguetheblacksoilthesis,butthereisnoreasontodosonow. 2.EgyptassertsrightstotheHalaibTriangle,abarrenareaof7,946squaremilesunderpartialSudaneseadministrationthatisdefinedbyaboundarythatsupersedes thetreatyboundaryof1899. 3.AllthreeoftheNubiangroupsKanuz,Mahas,andMatokiareusuallyreferredtobythegeneralnameNubialthoughtheyhavedistinctlanguages.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage39Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.2 Government,Economy,Education,andTourismTHECIVILGOVERNMENTTHEEGYPTIONNATIONisdividedintothreebranches:theexecutive,thelegislative,andthejudiciary.Egyptisademocraticcountry.Ofthemorethan4,000 candidatesrunningforelectionduring1999inEgypt,444weremembersoftherulingNationalDemocraticParty(NDP),428werefromtheopposition,andthe remainderwereindependents.Thereissomebeliefthatshouldtheoppositionincreaseitsproportionofrepresentationintheparliamentthroughpersuasionorthe fractureoftheNDP,thecountrycouldbearepublicanversionofMoroccoorJordan,whereanonpartisanheadofstatepresidesoverapluralistic parliament(EmergingEgypt2001,17). Thepresidentofthenationistheheadofstateandtheleaderoftheexecutivebranch.Normally,thenominationofthepresidentismadebytheNationalAssembly andthecandidatewhoreceivestwothirdsofthevotesofthemembersisreferredtothenationforaplebiscite.HosniMubarakhasbeenoverwhelminglyelectedtothe presidencyinthelasttwoelections.However,theoppositionpartieshavemadeinroadsatalllevelsofthegovernment. Thegovernmentisthesupremeexecutiveandadministrativeinstrumentofthestate.Itismadeupoftheprimeministerandtheassemblymembers,someofwhom maybemembersofthelegislature.Thepresidentappointsandremovesgovernors. Judicialsupervisionofthe2000electioninEgyptwassupposedtoassurethenationofafairprocess.However,thepollwasmarredbysomeincidencesEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage40 ofviolence.Armedgroupspreventedsomevotersfromenjoyingtheprivilegeofvotinginsomesectionsofthecountry.Battleswithsomesecurityforcesoccurredin theworkingclassneighborhoodofShubraelKheima.Theelectionresultedinmoreoppositionpartymembersbeingelected,particularlytheIslamists.Theireighteen seatswerewonwhentheMuslimBrotherhoodplacedintensepressureonsomevoters.Ontheleft,theTagammuParty,theDemocraticNasseristParty,and independentNasserists,wonthirteenseats. Thejudiciaryisindependentasarethejudges,andinthematteroftheirdeliberations,opinions,andexperience,theyaresubjecttonootherauthorityexceptthelaw. TheultimatelawinEgyptisIslamiclaw.Ineveryrespect,Egyptisanationoflawandcivicresponsibility. ThenationalanthemofEgyptMyHomelandavoidsanystatementofreligioninstead,itconcentratesondutytohomelandandmentionstheNileanditsgiftsto humanityinagrandgestureofnationalnobility: Myhomeland,myhomeland,myhallowedland, Onlytoyou,ismydueheartyloveatcommand, Myhomeland,myhomeland,myhallowedland, Onlytoyouismydueheartyloveatcommand, Motherofthegreatancientland, Mysacredwishandholydemand, Allshouldlove,aweandcherishthee, GraciousisthyNiletohumanity, Noevilhandcanharmordoyouwrong, Solongasyourfreesonsarestrong, Myhomeland,myhomeland,myhallowedland, Onlytoyou,ismydueheartyloveatcommand. Thefirstnationalflagwasestablishedbyaroyaldecreein1923whenEgyptgainedconditionalindependencefromGreatBritainin1922.In1958,apresidential decreeestablishedanewflagfortheUnitedArabRepublic,whichcomprisedamergerofSyriaandEgypt.In1972,anewlawchangedthestyleoftheflagandadded agoldenhawktoreplacethestarsandfinallyin1984,thecurrentflagwascreatedreplacingthehawkwithagoldeneaglerepresentingtheeagleofSaladinofthe Crusades. ModernEgyptisdividedintofourteenregions.Eachregionhasagovernor.ThemajorregionshaveascapitalstheprincipalcitiesofEgypt.AncientEgypthad fortytwonomesorprovinces,however,sincethetimesofthepharaohs,Egypthasundergonemanyadministrativechangesreflectingthewishesofthegoverning authorities.Thepresentfourteenregionsappeartobeeasilygovernedunderthecurrentpoliticalclimate.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage41Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.FertilelandsirrigatedfromtheNileRiverECONOMYLikeothermoderneconomies,Egyptisnotwithoutitsproblemsandissues.Indiscussingthemoderndevelopmentsinthesociety,itisusefultorememberthatwater, urbanization,relocationofminoritypopulations,theAswanHighDam,tourism,andpoliticscontinuetodefinethequalityofEgyptianlife.Tounderstandhowthese issueshaveplayedoutandareplayingoutinthecontemporarysociety,itisnecessarytopresentsomegeneraldetails.TheNileRiverTheNileRiverhasbeenoneofthetwoimportantfactorsinEgyptianhistoryfromtimeimmemorial,butduringthepastfortyyears,humanattemptstocontroltheriver haveproducednumerousadvantagesanddisadvantagesthatwillhavetobeconfrontedinfutureyears.Becauseofthecatastrophicfloodsthatdrownedtheland annuallyforthousandsofyears,theEgyptianshavealwayswantedawaytocontrolthewaterduringtheinundation.Severalsmalldamshadbeenbuiltalongtheriverin historictimes,butitwastheconstructionoftheAswanHighDam,oneofthemostdifficultandmassivepublicworksinhistory,thatwouldchangethewayEgyptlived itslifealongtheriver.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage42 AgricultureisamajorsectoroftheEgyptianeconomy.Irrigationisthelifebloodofagriculture.However,itwouldtakethecontroloftheNiletobringthemost advantageoussituationtothefarmers.TherehadbeennumerousattemptstousetheriverswatereffectivelyandefficientlypriortotheconstructionoftheAswanHigh Dam.ActuallyNilecontrolworkshadstartedin1843withthebuildingofElKanaterelKhairiyaBarrageattheapexoftheDeltawiththeideathatthewaterlevel wouldberaisedupstreamandthusenablethewatertoentertheDeltacanalsatthelowperiod.ThefirstAswandamwasbuiltin1902.Thatiswhythelastdamis calledtheAswanHighDam.Egypthasmorethan24,860milesofcanalsandwaterworks.Sincewaterisdistributedtothevariouscanalsaccordingtoarotation system,therearewateringandclosingdaysdependingontheseasonandzone.TwosystemsofdrainageoccurinEgypt:thefirstisbyfreeflowofgravitychannels drainingtowardtheseaorlakes,andthesecondisbyliftingthewater.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheAswanHighDamEgyptseemstodemandthemonumental.TheconstructionoftheAswanHighDamwasonemoreexampleoftheEgyptiansuperlative.Buildingthedamtookan enormousamountofresources.ThedamwasbuiltjustnorthoftheSudanesebordernearthefamouscityofAswan,fromwhichthedamtakesitsname. ItisalargerockfilleddamthatreceivestheworldslongestriverandcreatesthethirdlargestfreshwaterreservoirintheworldLakeNassernamedforthefirst presidentofthecountry.ThenameofthedaminArabicisSaddelAali.Itwasstartedin1952andittookeighteenyearstocomplete. AlwaysdependentontheNileforitslivelihood,EgyptwasalsoavictimoftheNilesannualinundationbeforethebuildingoftheAswanHighDam.Theannual floodsdepositedamilliontonsofnutrientrichsedimentthathelpedinagriculturalproduction.Thisprocessstartedmillionsofyearsago,predatingthefabledperiodof thepharaohs.By1889,thefirstAswandamwasbuilttokeepbackthefloods,butitprovedinsufficientbecausethewatersoftheNile,comingdownfromEthiopia andUganda,wouldalwaysoverpowertheshortdam.Itwasraisedin1912andthenagainin1933topreventthewaterfromfloodinghomesandfarmsintherich valley.However,by1946thedangertoEgyptwasrevealedwhenthewaterspeakedatthetopofthedam,eveninitsextension,andtheentirecountrywasfearful. OneofthefirstmajoractsoftheinterimRevolutionaryCommandCouncil(RCC)governmentwastomakeadecisiontobuildtheAswanHighDamaboutfour milesupstreamfromtheolddam.In1954,thegovernmentofEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage43 EgyptrequestedloansfromtheWorldBanktopayforthecostofthedam,whicheventuallyapproachedUS$1billion.TheU.S.governmentwasoneofthefirstto agreetoloanEgyptmoneyfortheprojectbutwithdrewfromtheprojectforpoliticalreasonssoonafterannouncingthatitwouldsupportit.Thepoliticalreasonsgiven havetodowiththeEgyptianIsraeliconflict.However,Egyptwasnotdeterred.TwoyearslaterthegovernmentofPresidentGamalAbdelNassernationalizedthe SuezCanaltohelppayfortheconstructionofthedam.Israel,England,andFranceinvadedEgyptalmostimmediatelyandthissetupthestageforanEastWest conflictoverthedamproject. TheSovietUnionagreedtohelpEgyptbuildthedam,andtheofferwasaccepted.TheSovietUnionsentmoney,technicians,andmilitaryadviserstoenhancethe rapportbetweenthetwocountries.Theprojectwasanawesomeanddauntingone.Toconstructthedam,morethan100,000peoplewholivedaboveandbelowthe damhadtoberelocated.TheseweremainlyNubianswhohadlivedintheareasincetimeimmemorialandhadbuilttheirtemples,erectedtheirtombs,andprayedto theirancestorsinthequietofthedeserteveningsforthousandsofyears.Theywouldbeuprootedandmovedtomanyvillages.TheNubianEgyptianswouldbemoved aboutthirtymilestotheKomOmboarea.However,theNubianslivinginSudanwouldhavetobemovednearlyfourhundredmilesawayfromtheirnativelands. Inadditiontomovingpeople,thegovernmenthadtodecidewhattodoaboutmarveloustreasuresofart.Doyoufloodthemostsacredtemplesoftheancient world?WhatdoyoudowiththeTempleofAbuSimbelwhereRamsesIIhadbuilthisowntombandoneforhisfavoritewife,Nefertari?Theywerealsomoved. Thedamwasoneofthemostmassiveprojectseverundertakenbyhumans.Thematerialusedinthedamwouldequalaboutseventeenofthegreatpyramidsat Giza.GamalAbdelNasserdiedin1970knowingthathehadleftEgyptagreatgiftforitsfuture.ThebenefitstoEgyptaresignificant.Thedamcontrolstheannual floodsandpreventstheuntolddamagethatwouldoccuralongthefloodplain.Thereareseveralotherbenefitsforexamplethedamkeepsthewaterflowconsistent andtherebyimprovesthesailingandnavigation. Thedamwasconstructedtosolveoneproblembutintheprocessitcreatedanother.Seepageandevaporationaccountsforabout14percentlossoftheannual inputintothereservoir.ThesecondproblemisthatthesedimentsoftheNilehavebeenfillingthedam,thereforereducingitsreservoirandstoragecapacity.Farmers arenowrequiredtousefertilizertogetthesameyieldasbeforewhentheriverleftnutrientrichsediment.Accordingtosomereports,theshrimpcatchinthe MediterraneanSeahasbecomesmallerdueCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage44 tothewaterflowchange.ErosionisoccurringaroundtheDeltaregionbecausethereisnoadditionalagglomerationofsedimenttokeeperosionatbay.Poordrainage ofthenewlyirrigatedlandsthathaveappearedalongtheriverhasaddedtotheincreasedsalinityofthewater.OveronehalfofEgyptsfarmlandsarenowratedas havingmediumtopoorsoilwhenoncethesoilwasconsideredoneoftherichestintheworld. Allisnotbad,however,sincethelakecreatedbythedamLakeNasserhasactuallycreatedmorelandforpeopletofarmonthaneverbefore.Thisisbecause ofthewaterstoredinthelake,whichisusedtoirrigatethelandaroundit.LakeNasserhascreatedahugefishingindustry,producingnearly100,000tonsoffishper year.Thus,theNileRiverandtheAswanHighDamarehandmaidensofthecontinuingdevelopmentofmodernEgypt.OnecouldnotimaginemodernEgyptwithout theAswanHighDamorsomethingequivalenttoit.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.MAJORCITIESOFEGYPT:URBANIZATIONANDTHECONTEMPORARYSOCIETYCairo:TheMotheroftheWorldCairoisoneoftheworldsmostexcitingcities.Itislarge,boisterous,andbusy,butthereareneighborhoodsthatarequietandbeautiful.ThecityofCairowasfounded onAugust5,969C.E.IthasbecomethelargestAfricanandArabcityintheworld.OutsideofitsboundariesarethegreatGizapyramids,ruinsoftheancientcityof Memphis(calledtheMiddleoftheUniverse),andtheholycityofOn(calledHeliopolisbytheGreeks).IthasbeenwrittenthatMemphisandHeliopolishadbeen flourishingathousandyearswhenAlexandervisitedthemtheirawewassopotentthattheconquerorpreferredtobuildhisEgyptiancapitalnotwherethepharaohs hadreignedbutonanislandjoinedtoGreecebytheseaandseparatedfromEgyptbyalake(Stewart1996,1).ButCairohasnotbeenawedbytheillustrioushistory thatsurroundsitbecausethecityitselfhasbeentheseatofsomeofthemosteventfulhappeningsonthecontinentofAfrica.Furthermore,duringtheMiddleAgesit wasthelargestcityinAfrica,andlargerthananycityinEuropeorAsia.Greatpublicbuildingswereerectedbymendedicatedtotradingbetweenthreecontinents: Africa,Europe,andAsia.Anyonelookingtoengageincommercewhetheritwasgold,incense,oroilshadtocomethroughthemerchantsofCairo,thatis,until VascodaGama,thePortuguesesailor,madeitaroundthecapeofAfricain1498.EuropehaddiscoveredthatonecouldreachtheEastanditsrichsourcesofspice withouthavingtopayCairoitscustomarytariffs.Evenso,CairowouldEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage45Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CairocongestioncontinuetoexerciseitsinfluenceinnortheastAfricaandsouthwestAsia.ThiswasunderscoredbythebuildingoftheSuezCanalin1869.Alongwiththecultivationof cotton,theopeningoftheSuezmadeEgyptimportantandCairo,asEgyptscapital,becameastrategiccityinglobalcommerce. Cairohasplayedtheroleofumaldunya(MotheroftheWorld)inmanyscenariosinmoderntimes.FromitspositionasthepulsepointoftheNile,locatedatthe southernapexoftheDeltaandthenorthernpointofthevalley,Cairodominatesthecommerceandwealthofabroadregion.ItistheguardianoftheEgyptian breadbasket,butitisalsothegreatestinlandportontheNile.Actually,itiswellknownthattheNileisaneasierrivertonavigatethanthefamedEuphrates.Cairo,near thesiteofthefarmoreancientcityofMemphisthatwaslocatedonthewestbankoftheriver,wasthegatewaytotheseaalbahrastheArabscametocallit. TheNileflowsthroughtheheartofCairo.Inmanyrespects,itisauniqueriver.Oneofthemostinterestingfactsabouttheriveristhatitsdominantwindsarefrom thenorthtothesouth,althoughthemostconstanttidesarefromthesouthtothenorth.MostmajorriversflowsouthwardbuttheNileflowsnorthward.Thus,ifa personwantedtotravelnorthward,heorsheonlyhadtolaunchavesselandbetakenbythetidesallthewaytotheMediterranean.Ontheotherhand,ifaperson wantedtotraveltothesouth,heorshecouldsimplyputupsailsandbedrivenallthewaytothesixthEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 9:40 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage46Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Sailboat(felucca)pilotntheNilecataract(mistakenlyreferredtoasthefirst).OfcourseonlysincethetwentiethcenturyhastheNilebeencontrolledbydamsinUpperEgypt.Thedamsalloweda regulatedflowofthewaters.Ifithadnotbeenforthedamstheagelongdestructionofthehousesandfarmsalongtheriversbankswouldhavecontinued.Asitis,the peopleofEgyptknewthattheirlivelihooddependedonthegoodgracesofEthiopiaandtheCongoarea.AllEgyptiansbelievedthatthewatersoftheNilecamefrom springsintheMountainsoftheMoon(Stewart1996,9).AlthoughtheNilewasthemajoravenueforthemovementofgoods,itwasnottheonlyavenue.Infact, caravansacrosstheEasternDesertandcanalsovertotheRedSeawereoftenusedtotransportcommerce.TheyoftenbeganandendedinCairo.AstheMotherof theWorldinthemindsofitsinhabitants,thecitywasseenasthesourceofallthingsgoodinEgypt.Cairowastheendofthepastandthebeginningofthefutureinthe mindsofthosewhocreateditastheculturalcenterofEgypt. CairowasabeaconoflightshiningfromthejunctionofthenarrowNileValleywiththebroadflowingdeltaregion.SituatedatthecriticalpointalongtheNileRiver, Cairobecame,soonafteritsfounding,themostrecognizedcityinallofEgypt,althoughitwasnottheoldest. OneofthegreatmuseumsintheworldisintheheartofCairo.TheEgyptianMuseumwasfoundedin1858bytheFrenchmanAugusteEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage47Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EntrancetoEgyptianMuseumofAntiquitiesFerdinandFrancoisMarietteatBulaq.Thepresentbuildingwaserectedin1902.Mariettediedin1881,andhissarcophaguswasplacedonthewestsideofthe museumsgardenin1904.EgyptologyinthenineteenthcenturyacceleratedtheneedforamuseumtoconservethefindingscomingoutofEgypt.Althoughthecountry losthundredsofthousandsofpiecesofancientworkstomuseumsaroundtheworld,theEgyptianMuseumstillretainsmorethan120,000pieces,makingitthe repositoryofthelargestcollectionofancientEgyptianworksintheworld(seealsoChapter4,ArchitectureandArt).Alexandria:TheCityontheSeaAlexandriahascapturedtheimaginationsofmanygenerations.FromthesleepyvillageofRakoda(asitwascalledwhenAlexandertheMacedonian[theGreat] foundedit)toitsglorydaysastheleadingcityoftheworldduringtheGreekoccupationofEgypt,AlexandriahasremainedEgyptsmostoutwardlylookingcity.The GreekarchitectDinocratesdesignedandbuiltthecity(332331B.C.E.)toimmortalizeAlexandersname.Thecityintrigueditsearliestvisitors,bothinvitingthemand shuttingthemoutatthesametime.ItwasthesiteoftheancientLighthouse,oneoftheSevenWondersoftheAncientWorld,aswellastheGreatLibrary.Itsreligious historywasancientanditsrecentpastcolorfulwhentheGreekscametorule.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage48 AlexandrialiesnorthwestoftheNileDeltaandstretchesalonganarrowlandstripbetweentheMediterraneanSeaandLakeMariout.ItislinkedtoCairobytwo majorhighwaysandarailroadline.ThecityisborderedontheeastbyAbuQirandonthewestbyElAlameinandSidiAbdulRahman. OnJuly1,1798,whenNapoleonBonaparteandtheFrencharmyenteredAlexandria,ithadapopulationoflessthan10,000.Ithadoncebeenthesecondlargest cityintheworldbuthadshrunkinimportanceandpopulationbythetimetheFrenchinvaded.Alexandriaspopulationwasperhapscenteredaroundanareacalled Mansheya,aTurkishenclaveestablishedwhentheOttomanTurksinvadedEgypt.ThefivethousandFrenchsoldiersenteredthecitywithoutoppositionin1798. AlexandriawasatthecenterofthecontinuingstruggleforexternaldominanceofEgypt.MuhammadAli,theAlbanianappointedasrulerofEgyptbytheOttoman Turks,turnedthecountryintohisownprivateprovince.Infact,hegaveCleopatrasNeedlestotheUnitedStatesandBritain.However,duringthisperiod,theBritish intervenedofteninEgyptianaffairs.UnderthesuccessorsofAli,AlexandriacontinuedtogrowasacityandbythetimeoftheSuezCanalthecityhad94percentof thecountrysexports. In1882,AhmedOrabi,anEgyptiannationalist,ledarevoltagainsttheAlbanianTurkishdynasty.TheBritishintervenedbybombardingAlexandriafortwodays. TheBritishthenoccupiedthecityandsetthestageforaseventyyearoccupationofthecountry. Inthetwentiethcentury,thecitybecameEgyptssummercapital,andAlMontazahPalacewasdesignatedasthekingssummerresidence.Itwasalsothecity wheretheArabLeaguewasbornin1944.By1952,itwasthecitythatsawtheabdicationanddepartureofKingFaroukIforexileinItaly. ContemporaryAlexandriaisalargecitythatstretchesforfortyfivemilesalongtheMediterraneancoast.ItisEgyptsmostethnicallydiversecitywithold populationsofGreeks,Armenians,Syrians,Jews,Turks,Italians,Maltese,andLebanese.Thecityhasethnicneighborhoodswithnamesreflectingthevarious communities:theGreeknamesofBacos(Bacchus)andQuartierGrec(GreekQuarter)ArabnamessuchasShathy,SidiBishr,SidiGaherJewishnamessuchas Smousha,MenashaandmodernEuropeannamessuchasFlemingSchutz,Stanley,andLambruco.ThereisaprojectunderwaytorevivetheoldAlexandrialibrary.It willbecalledBibliothecaAlexandrinaandwillbebuiltonthesiteoftheoldCaesariumandPtolemaicPalace. ThecityisthehomeofAlexandriaUniversity,theArabInstituteofScienceandTechnology,UniversiteSenghor,andtheEasternMediterraneanOfficeofthe WorldHealthOrganization.ThishasmadeitacosmopolitancenterfortheeasternMediterraneanarea.Today,AlexandriastandsasoneCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage49Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.LuxorboysofthemostvisuallyattractivecitiesontheMediterraneanand,withitsrichhistoricalbackground,hasbecomeoneofthekeydestinationsforMediterraneantravelers.LuxorMorehumanmonumentsarefoundinandoutsideofLuxorthananycityintheworld.Itisacitybuiltontourism,asmoreandmoretouristscompetetoseethe constructionsandcreationsoftheancients.Butitisacityofaverymodernpresence.Servedbyamajorairportandmorethanfivehundredriverboats,Luxoriseasily reachedandremainsoneoftheprincipaltouristdestinationsintheworld. BuiltontheancientsiteoftheNewKingdomcapitalWaset,modernLuxoristhegatewaytothememorabletemplesandtombsoftheValleyoftheKingsandthe ValleyoftheQueens. ModernLuxorremainsacityofgiftshops,hotels,andrestaurants,allconnectedtothehistoricalrolethecityhasplayedinworldhistory.Itisabustlingcitywith cars,buses,buggies,andtaxisracingtotaketouriststothevarioussites.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage50Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TourboatdockedatAswanAswanAswanisthegardencityofEgypt.ItislocatedatthehistoricalborderwithancientNubia.DuringthePharaonicPeriod,whenoneleftAswangoingsouthonewasin thecountryofthepeopleofTaSeti(LandoftheBow).Thus,AswanhasaspecialplaceinthehistoryofEgypt.ItwasthesourceoftheNileinthemindsofmany Egyptiansbecauseofthecataractsintheriver,butitwasalsothoughttobethehomeofthegods.Weknow,ofcourse,thatitwasthequarryforthestonesthatwere usedtobuildmanyofthemonumentsinlowerKemet.TheobeliskserectedatKarnakTempleoriginatedinthequarriesofAswan.Itwasquitecommonintheancient periodforhugestonestobefloateddowntheriverduringtheinundation.Therefore,Aswan(orSyene,asitwascalledthen)becamethecenterofthestonecarversof ancientEgypt. ModernAswanisabustlingcitywithalivelyanddynamicopenmarket,oneofthebestinAfrica.Inaddition,thereareoutstandingpublicbuildings,manyhotels, andpleasantneighborhoods.TheNubianMuseum(openedin1997)holdsoneofthelargestcollectionsofNubianartintheworld.Infact,itisunrivaledinEgyptin termsofitspresentationofartandculture.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage51THESUEZCANALCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Sinceitscreation,theSuezCanalhasalwaysbeenatthecenterofcommerceandpoliticsinEgypt.Ithasbeenwrittenthat[i]tgavetheBritishtheexcuseforstaying onuntil1955andforattemptingtoreturnin1956.ItwasthebarriertheIsraelisreachedin1956and1967andthewaterwayacrosswhichthewarofattritionwas foughtin1969(Hopwood1982,133).TheSuezisoneofthekeycanalsintheworld,andthousandsofshipspassthroughiteachyear. ItwouldtaketheFreeOfficersCommitteerevolutiontochangethestatusoftheSuezCanal.In1952,aboardofthirtytwodirectorscontrolledthecanal.However, onlyfiveofthosedirectorswereEgyptians.ThiswasoneofthecomplaintsoftheEgyptianpeople.Theresource,whileimpactingontheEgyptianpeople,wasinthe handsofforeigners.TheycouldnotfeelasenseofnationalpridesincethecanalwaseffectivelyinthehandsofnonEgyptians.Thecanalwasathorninthesideof nationalconsciousness.ManypeopledidnotwanttoseeEgypthumiliatedbyallowingallthedecisionsatthecanaltobemadebynonEgyptians.In1956,President NassernationalizedthecanalafterfindingoutthatEgyptwasonlyreceiving7percentofthegrossfromtransitdues.NassersannouncementthatEgyptwouldreceive 100percentofthetransitduesandusethemoneytobuildtheAswanHighDamstunnedthosewhobelievedthatEgyptwouldnotbeabletorunitsownaffairs.Egypt wasdispensingwithallaspectsofitscolonialpast,anditdidnotneedtoberemindedofitbythecanal. Thecanalhasbeenrunquiteefficiently.However,itwasclosedin1956becauseofthewarandagainin1967duetoawar.Egyptianstookoverthefacilitiesand increasedthenumbersoftransits,improvedtheoperations,andwhentheIsraelisreachedtheEastBankinJune1967,thecanalwasblocked.Itremainedclosedto shippingwhenNasserdied,anditwouldtakePresidentSadatsresolvetogetitreopened.Egyptcouldnotaffordtolosethe100millionpoundsperyear. ThehistoryoftheSuezCanalislong.TherehadbeennumerousattemptstojointheMediterraneanandRedseassince1887B.C.E.whenSenursertIIIofthe TwelfthDynastyattemptedtodigacanaltomakeanavigablewaterwaybetweenthetwoseas.PsammetichusII,in609B.C.E.triedtorejointhetwowaterways withoutsuccess.ThePersiansalsotrieditandthenundertheGreekking,PtolemyII,itwasreopenedandthensuccessivelyreopenedbyTrajanandGeneralElAs. ThedreamofconnectingthetwowaterwayswithoutadetourthroughtheNile,ashadbeendonebefore,interestedalotofengineers.Butthestumblingblock seemedtobetheidea,fromsomewhere,thattheMediterEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage52 raneanwas29.5feetbelowtheleveloftheRedSea.Thiswasdisproved,andin1854aconcessionwasgivenbySaidPashatoFerdinanddeLesseps.Acompany wasformed,andonApril22,1859,workwasbegunontheSuezCanal.Itwouldtaketenyears,untilNovember1869,beforeitwouldbefinished.Whenitwas finallycompleted,thecanalwas107.5mileslong,656feetwideatwaterlevel,anditsmaximumdraftforshipswouldbe37feet.Thespeedlimitforshipsis12.5miles perhour.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EDUCATIONIntheWesternsense,moderneducationinEgyptprobablydatesbacktotheFrenchinvasionof17981799.NapoleonsarmynotonlydiscoveredtheRosettaStone thatwaslaterusedtobreakthecodeoftheancienthieroglyphics,buttheGrandArmyprovidedtheEgyptianleaderswiththeopportunitytocomparetheireducation withthatoftheoutsideworld.Asonehistoriannoted,Theoldculturewassubjectedtoaseveretestandinresponse,Egyptundertookaseriesofchangestomodify itstraditionalculture(Faksh1980,42).InmanywaystheNapoleonicchargeintothecountrywasaquickwakeupcall.ThefactofthematteristhatEgyptianshad beenruledbynonEgyptiansforhundredsofyearsandtheywereawareofsomeattitudesoftheoutsideworld.Whattheywerenotawareofmayhavebeenthe variouswaysinwhichtheoutsideworldorganizedculturalandeducationalinstitutions,butthiswouldchange. DuringtheruleofMuhammadAli(18051848),Egyptadoptedaneweducationalsystem,nottosupplantthereligioussystem,buttocomplementit.Thisnew systemwassecular,anditrivaledthereligiousonebutdidnotovertakeit.AliwantedEgypttopartakeofthefruitsoftheinternationalcommunitywithoutlosingitsown soulbytakingtherootsoftheWesternculture. Theoldreligioussystemhadservedthesocietywellattherudimentarylevelofprovidingwriting,reading,andarithmetictoabroadsectionofboysandmen. However,theaspiringeliteandtherulingpoliticianswantedmorefortheirchildren.Theysoughttointroduceasecularsystemthatwouldallowtheirchildrento competeontheinternationalstage.Inscienceandtechnologyandbusinessandart,theneweducationalelitesawalargeopeningforseculareducation. Themodernsystemhascoexistedwiththeoldreligioussystemtotheextentthatthesocietybearsthemarksofthedivision.Therearesomewhobelievethatthetwo systemshavepreventednationalintegrationandunification.Butthedualstructureofeducationhasallowedaculturalelitetoarisethathasaninterestincommerceand politics.TheyrepresenttheecoEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage53Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Childrensingingatschoolnomicenginethatmobilizesthesociety.However,thereligioussystemremainsattachedtothesacredinstitutions,andthemassesofpeopleacquiretheirknowledge fromthereligiousschools.ThereligiousschoolsarereferredtoastheAzharSystem.TheAzhargraduateshaveadifferentoutlookthansecularsystemgraduates. Manytimestheydonotagreeontheobjectivesofeducation.ItisclaimedthatsomeofthosewhoaretrainedintheAzharareusuallywellversedintheQuranbutare isolatedfromtheissuesofcontemporarysociety.OntheotherhandthesecularlyeducatedoftendonothaveArabicfluencyandcannottransmittheirlearning(Faksh 1980,43). Thesecularschoolsaredependentonaneducatedelite.Studentsareinstructedinphysics,law,science,andastronomy.Theydonothavetopayfees.In1944,fees wereabolishedinprimaryschools,andin1951theywerediscontinuedatthehighschoollevel.However,theexpansionofeducationhasbeensteadyduringthepast thirtyyears.Thishasbroughtmorepeopleintothesecularsystem.Atonetimemostofthestudentswhotookadvantageofthesecularsystemwereminorities,suchas Copts,Greeks,Jews,Italians,Syrians,andLebanese. Egyptiansocietyencourageseducation.AbouthalfofallEgyptiansareliterate:63.6percentofthemenand38.8percentofthewomen.In2001,primaryschool enrollmentapproached100percent,althoughonly7.3percentofthepopulationemergesfromtheeducationalsystemwithacollegeEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage54 degree(EmergingEgypt2001,11).Thereisabeliefthateducationisanintegralpartofthenationallife.Nonationcanactuallyadvanceifitdoesnothavealiterate public.Toappreciateliteratureyouhavetobeabletoreadhowever,onecanappreciatemusicandartwithoutliteracy.Yetliteracyisthekeytounderstandingwhat themajorthinkersofasocietyaresaying.Therefore,thegovernmenthasencouragededucationithasmadeaspecialefforttobringthejoysofliteracytotherural population.ThisdesireforaliteratepopulacehastakenanincreasinglylargerproportionoftheEgyptianbudget,butthegovernmenthasmaintaineditsforwardlooking positionthateducationwouldbringthepeoplegreaterbenefitsandmoredemocracy. UndertheMubarakregime,thegovernmenthascontinuedtoputemphasisoneducatingtheruralfolk.Schoolshavebeenbuiltinmostoftheruralvillagesandallof thesmalltownsinUpperEgypt.Theaimofthegovernmentsprojectineducationistocreateasaferandmoresecureenvironmentforpoliticalstabilityandeconomic prosperity.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TOURISMVacationSitesEgypthasalwaysbeenadestinationforworldtravelers.TheancientGreekhistorianHerodotus,oneofthefirsttravelerstovisitEgyptandtowriteabouthistravels, cametotheNileValleyduringthefifthcenturyB.C.E.OtherpeoplefromoutsideofAfricafollowedhim,butitwouldbethemoderntravelerwhowoulddiscoverthe greatdiversityofEgyptsmoderncontributions.ItwasthebuildingoftheSuezCanalthatmadeEgyptadestinationforthoseinterestedinmoderntechnology.During the1960s,theAswanHighDamwouldonceagainthrustEgyptintotheforefrontasamoderndestinationoftechnologicalprowess.Butitsrecordofancient monumentsisimpressive,maybethemostimpressiveofanycountryintheworld. Tocatertothelargenumbersofvisitors,theEgyptiangovernmenthasencouragedthedevelopmentoftouristservices,includingmorethanfivethousandguides, hundredsoftourcompanies,andscoresofhotels.OnecandiscoveralmostanytypeofluxuryinEgyptfromfivestarhotelstoresortandclubhotelsonthebeaches. Scubadivinginsomeareashasbecomealargerevenueearnerfortheeconomy.ButEgyptremains,becauseofitsancientmonumentality,acountrysoughtoutby touristsinterestedinknowingwhatitwasliketoliveintheworldofthepharaohs.OfallthenationsintheworldEgyptdoesnotdisappointitsvisitorswithitsrichand variedhistoryofhumanactivity.BecausecontemporaryEgyptisamodernsocietyEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage55Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.PopularhotelonElephantineIslandBeautifulgroundsoftheMenaHouseHotelEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage56Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.ModernclubandrestaurantonthebankoftheNilewithanancientpast,thenumeroussitesfortourists,bothdomesticandinternational,beckontouristsofalleconomicandsocialbackgrounds.NightlifeandEntertainmentThemajorcitiesofCairoandAlexandriaareamongthemostopencitiesintheworldintermsofnightclubs.Onecanusuallyfindseveralclubsthatremainopenfor mostofthenight.Typically,Egyptianswhoventureoutatnightforentertainmentdosoatlatehours,aroundtenoclockintheeveningorlater.Theclubs,therefore, mightstayopenuntilfiveorsixinthemorning.InAlexandria,themainclubsaretheCrazyHorse,theCrevette,theRoknElFerdous,theSheraton,the Dolphin,Discotheque,andtheAlexandria,amongothers. Cairo,ofcourse,hasfarmoreclubsthanAlexandriabecauseitis,indeed,theMotheroftheWorldandpeoplecomefromallovertheArabandAfricanworldto Cairobecauseofitsexcitement.Onecaneasilyfindclubs,restaurants,orcafeterias.ThereisnoreasonfortheEgyptiantoeverfeelthatheorshedoesnothave anywheretogooranyplacetovisit.Thecountryevenhasanumberofcasinos.ButitistheancientmonumentsandhistoricalsitesthatgiveevencontemporaryEgypt itsspecialplaceinthepopularimagination(seealsoChapter5,SocialCustomsandLifestyles).EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage57Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.KioskofPhilaeTempleAncientMonumentsTheancientmonumentsofEgyptconstituteaboutonethirdofsuchmonumentsintheworld(seealsoChapter4,ArchitectureandArt).VariousmovementsinEgypt havefoundtheancientmonumentsdifficulttoacceptsincetheyexistedpriortothedevelopmentofIslam.Duringthe1980s,manymonumentswereattackedasbeing pagan,heathen,andnonIslamic.ReligiouszealotssawthehistoricaltreasuresfromtheancientAfricancivilizationascontrarytoIslamandsoughttoorganizeagainst thepreservationofthesites.FortunatelyforEgyptandtheworld,thegovernmenthasfoughtagainstsuchradicalassaultsonthegreathumantreasuresintheNile Valley.Ithastakenitsroleasthecustodianofthemonumentswithseriousnessandhassoughttopunishthosewhowoulddestroythemonuments.PyramidsThereareninetysixpyramidsinEgypt.TheGizaplateauhasthemostspectacularpyramidsofwhichKhufu,Khafre,andMenkaureareamongthemostbeautifulever built.Gizaliesabout6milesfromCairo. ThemostfamousstructureintheworldistheGreatPyramidofKhufuitwasbuiltbyKhufu(calledCheopsbytheGreeks),thesecondkingoftheEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage58Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.StatueofRamsesIIatLuxorTempleUniversityFourthDynasty.Itwaserectedaround2650B.C.E.Khufuspyramidstands449feethigh(originallyitstoodat479feet).Nearly2.5millionblocksofstonewere usedtobuildthepyramid.Itmeasures2,743squarefeetatitsbase.Whatismostastoundingaboutthepyramidisnotitssizebuttheprecisionwithwhichthe Egyptiansconstructedit.OnitseasternflankarethreesmallpyramidsdedicatedtoKhufuswives. ThePyramidofKhafrewasbuiltbyKhafre(calledChephrenbytheGreeks),thesecondsonofKhufuandthefourthkingoftheFourthDynasty.Thepyramidis 446feethighandislocatedsouthwestofKhufu.RetainingonitsupperpartssomeofthelimestonethathadoncecoveredtheentireEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage59Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheGreatSphinxresplendentpyramid,Khafregivesoneafairlygoodimpressionofwhatitmusthavelookedlikewiththeoutsidefinishonit.Itmeasures2,312squarefeetatitsbase.Thepyramid hastwoentrancesonthenorthside.KhafrehasanaccompanyingTempleoftheValley,amortuarytemple,wherereligiousriteswereperformedwhileembalmingthe kingsbody. Athirdpyramid,builtbyMenkaure(calledMycerinusbytheGreeks)whowasthesonofKhafreandthefifthkingoftheFourthDynastyissouthwestofKhafre.It ismuchsmallerthantheothers:203feettall.Itisdistinguishedfromtheothersbythefactthatitslowerpartretainstheoriginalgraniteslabcovering.Thepyramids weretombstopreservethebodiesofthedeadkingswho,itwasbelieved,weretoexperienceresurrectionandimmortality.Onecancelebratethebrilliantconceptions oftheancientEgyptianpeoplebyrecognizingthathundredsoftombsdotthelandscapeofEgyptasatestimonyofthepeoplesfaithinimmortality. AtGizaonecanalsoseethesolarboatsofKhufu.Thewoodenboats,meanttobeatthedisposalofthekingwhenhewentonhisjourneyofDayandNightwith theSunGodRaintheafterworld,werediscoveredontheeastandwestsidesoftheGreatPyramid.Ahugeboatwasfoundbehindthegreatslabsofstoneonthe southsideoftheGreatPyramid.Itismadeofcedarandisinverygoodcondition,theoars,ropes,andakioskforsittingwerealsorecovered.Theboat,whichisnow housedinaspecialmuseumatthesite,is143feetlong,withaprowof16feetandasternof23feet.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage60Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TempleatAbuSimbelValleyoftheKingsNumeroustombsdotthedesertlandscapeoftheValleyoftheKings.TheyrepresentaveritablehistoryoftheNewKingdomandspeaktotheingenuityoftheancients increatingenormousmonumentstotheachievementsofthekingsandnoblemenoftheNewKingdom.ItwasherethatthetombofKingTutankhamenwasdiscovered in1922.ItwasalsointhisvalleythattheRamseshadtheirtombsconstructed.Thevalleyitselfisagraveyardforthemostfamousnamesinantiquity.TempleofRamsesIIOneofthegreatestwondersofthemodernworldisanancientmonumentontheedgeofLakeNasseratAbuSimbel.ThemassivetempleofRamsesIIandthesmaller templeofNefertari,hiswife,representthecrowningachievementofconstructionduringtheNewKingdom.Here,onwhatisabarrenhilltop,barelysixhundredfeet fromwhereitwasfirstbuilt,sitsoneofthetreasuresoftheworld.ThetempleofRamsesIIatAbuSimbelhasnoequalinEgyptandcertainlynoneinanyotherpartof theworld.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage61HistoricalChristianSitesCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.AmongtheChristiansitesarethechurcheslocatedintheoldcityofCairo.TheprincipalonesareAlMuallaqahChurch(HangingChurch),whichdatesbacktothe fourthcenturytheChurchofAbuSergahtheChurchofSt.Barbara,foundedinthefifthcenturytheChurchofSt.Mina,builtinthesixthcenturytheChurchofAl Adra,datingtotheeighthcenturytheChurchoftheVirgininZaytountheChurchofMarieGuirgisandtheCathedralofSt.Mark,thesecondlargestchurchinAfrica. TheremainsofSt.Mark,thefirsttopreachChristianityinEgypt,wereremovedtothiscathedral.ThereisalsoTheVirginsTreewheretheVirginMaryissaidtohave restedwiththechildJesuswhentheycametoEgypt. EgypthasmanyotherChristiansitesofinterest.Therearenumerousshrinesinthedesertareasandintheoasis,particularlymonasteries,sinceEgyptwasoneofthe earliestsitesofmonks.HerealsowasthecenterofoneofthebiggestcontroversiesintheChristianchurch:thecrisisoverwhetherJesuswasmanorGod.Thisdebate ledtoaseriesofinternationalmeetings,includingtheCouncilofNiceain325C.E.HistoricIslamicMonumentsTheIslamicsitesincludethousandsofmosques,soonlythemostfamouswillbementionedhere.ThefirstistheMosqueofAmrIbnAlAas,whowastheArableader whocametohelptheEgyptiansthrowofftheRomanlaw.ThereisalsotheMosqueofAhmedIbnTuloun,theAlAzharMosque,theMosqueandMadrassaofSultan Hassan,TheBlueMosque,theMosqueofalMuayyad,andtheAlabasterMosqueofMuhammadAli.Thereareotherbuildingsthatmightholdinterestforthe reader,suchastheFortressofSalahadDinalAyyubicalledSaladinintheWestandknownasTheCitadelandtheHouseofAlSeheimi.Itisalsopossibleto studythemosquesofEgyptasahistoryofthecountrysincethearrivaloftheArabsin639C.E.becausethemosquesconstitutethephysicalevidenceofconstruction, reconstruction,andactivityinvarioustownsandcitiesduringtheconquestofIslam.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage62Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Thispageintentionallyleftblank.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage63Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.3 ReligionandWorldviewRELIGIONplaysamajorroleinthelifeoftheordinaryEgyptian.Fromthetimeonewakesinthemorninguntilonegoestosleepatnight,religionisapartofthe averageEgyptiansdailyritual.Infact,itisawayoflife.NothinginEgyptisuntouchedbyreligion.Thus,thepolitical,economic,andculturallifeofthepeopleis impactedandinfluencedbythereligiousoutlook.TheofficialreligionofEgyptisIslam.SoonaftertheestablishmentofthereligioninMecca,ArabsconqueredEgyptin 639C.E.andsetupthefirstmosquesinthecountry.1SincethattimeIslamhasbeenthemostdynamicreligioninEgypt,becomingthedominantwayoflifebarelyone hundredyearsaftertheconquest. ModernEgyptisessentiallymadeupoftheIslamicculturewithlimitedornoregardtotheancientreligionofthepharaohs.Althoughthereissomeofficialrecognition oftheancienthistory,itdoesnotfigureintheethicsormoralityofcontemporaryEgyptians.Asfarasthegovernmentisconcerned,theEgyptofthepharaohsisan iconicpartofthehistorythatcanbereferredto,used,andexploitedfortourists,butitisnotarealpartofthelivesofthemasses.Infact,theEgyptianpeopleseethe ancientmonumentsasadistractionfromthepietythatshouldbegiventoAllah. TheordinarypeopleofEgyptseetheirnationasareligiouscountry,althoughthereisagrowingsentimentforthecountrytobesecular,becominginonesense,more likeaWesternrepublic.IslamisthemajorreligioninEgypt,butfreedomofreligionistechnicallyprotectedbythegovernment.Since91percentofthepeopleare Muslims,only7percentareChristians,andfewerthan2percentarecategorizedasOther,itishardlyanydoubtEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage64Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.MosqueofMohammadAlithatthedominationoftheIslamicfaithisallencompassing.TheChristianslargelybelongtotheCopticOrthodoxChurch,althoughthereareafewChristiansfromother denominations.ThewordCoptcomesfromtheGreekAeguptosandappliestoChristiansoftheEgyptianChurch,whereastheEgyptianCatholicChurchholds associationwiththeRomanCatholicChurch.OnemightencounterthenamesEgyptianChurch,EgyptianCopticChurch,orEgyptianOrthodoxChurch,buttheyall referessentiallytothesamepeople.HISTORYThefinaldefeatoftheRomanarmyunderthecommandofArmenianGeneralManuelbyArabGeneralElAsmarkedtheendofRomanruleandthebeginningofthe endfortheChristianreligioninEgypt.AlthoughCopticChristianshadassistedElAsinhiscampaignagainsttheRomans,whohadalsobeenviolentlyopposedtothe Christianreligion,theCoptsdidnotknowwhatawaitedChristianityattheconclusionoftheArabconquest.WhiletheCoptsthemselvesweresparedutterdestruction becauseoftheiraffiliationwiththeArabconquerors,ChristianityitselfasareligionwouldonlyexistafewmoreyearsbeforeIslambecamethestatereligion.Itshould bepointedoutthatElAscomplainedtothecaliphthattheCoptshadbeenmistreatedEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage65 bysomeofthecommandersalthoughtheyhadbeenalliesinthedefeatoftheRomans.HeorderedfullcompensationtobepaidtotheCoptsfortheirlosses(Butler 1902,488).ThesuppressionofManuelandtherecaptureofAlexandriabytheArabswereperhapsthedefinitivemomentsoftheestablishmentofIslamintheNile Valley. WhenElAshadconqueredAlexandriaforthelasttime,hewasorderedbythecaliphtoleavethecountryafteronlyonemonth.Thegovernanceofthecapitalcity ofEgyptwasturnedovertoAbdallahibnSaid.WhentheRomans,nineyearsaftertheconquest,triedtomountafleettoretakeEgypt,itwasalreadytoolate:the Arabshadbeguntomasterthesealanesaswell.TheArabfleetmettheRomansintheMediterraneanSeaandwiththeassistanceofamightystormdecimatedthe Romanarmy.ThisbrokeRomanpowertochallengethenewrulersofEgypt.WiththeexceptionofafewraidsonthecoastaltownsbyByzantinepirates,thecountry ofEgypt,atleastaroundtheDelta,wasunderthefullswayoftheMuslims. Thereligiousandsocialtransformationsthattookplaceasaresultoftheconquestwereremarkable.TherewasanalmostswiftdecayoftheGrecoRoman civilizationinEgyptaccompaniedbyaslowbutsteadygrowthofthereligionofIslam.InonesensethereligionofIslammustbeseenasoverlayingtheGrecoRoman culture,whichhadtriedtooverlaytheancientAfricancivilizationthatgavebirthtothePharaonicreligionandsociety.Islambanishedthetraditionalcultureofthe GreeksinEgyptCopticChristianitytotheconventsandmonasteriesofthedeserts. ItispossibletoseehowIslamandtheArabicculturespreadoverthecountryinthelate7thcenturybyexamininghowArabicfirstappearedincoins.Fromitsusein coinage,theArabiclanguagewasthenusedinpublicofficesandpublicdocuments,quicklyovertakingCopticandtotallydrivingouttheGreekinordinarycommon speech.ExceptforthefewGreekwordsthattookonanArabicformorremainuntilthisdayembeddedintheCopticlanguageGreekisessentiallydeadasalanguage inEgypt.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.ISLAMIslamcamewiththeconquerorsofEgyptandremainsthereligionofthevastmajorityoftheEgyptianpeopletoday.Itisareligionthatisbasedontheprincipleslaid downbyitsfirstandonlyprophet,Muhammad.TheProphetMuhammadMuhammadwasborninMeccaaround570C.E.AtthistimeMeccawasgaininginpopularityasacitywithexperiencedcaravanleaders.MeccansgotEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage66 permissionfrompowerfulkingdomssuchasAbyssinia,Byzantium,andPersiaforthecaravanstotraversetheirterritoriesandtotransactbusinesswiththosecountries aswell.MeccansmademoneywhentheyprovidedescortstoforeignerspassingthroughArabia.Whilenotinterestedmuchintheartofwriting,Meccanscultivated artssuchaspoetry,oratory,andspokendiscourses. Thesocialrelationshipsbetweenwomenandmenwerenottyrannical.Womenweregenerallywelltreatedandhadtheprivilegeofowningproperty.Furthermore, theygaveconsenttomarriagecontracts,andcouldaddtheconditionofreservingtheirrighttodivorcetheirhusbands.Theycouldremarrywhenwidowedordivorced. ItwasinthiscontextthatMuhammadwasbornaboutthreeweeksafterthedeathofhisfather,Abdallah(hisgrandfatherraisedhim).Aswasthecustomoftheday, MuhammadwasentrustedtoaBedouin,fostermother,andlivedwithherforseveralyearsinthedesert.Whenthechildwasbroughtbackhome,hismother,Aminah, tookhimtohismaternalunclesatMedinatovisithisfatherstomb.Onthereturntrip,hismotherdiedsuddenly,andwhenhereachedMeccahefoundthathisbeloved grandfatherhaddiedaswell.Withsuchsufferinganddeprivation,MuhammadwasplacedinthecareofhisuncleAbuTalib.Althoughhisunclewasgenerous,hedid nothaveenoughresourcestosupporthisownfamily.ThisconditionledtheyoungMuhammadoutofthehousetoearnhislivelihoodasashepherdboy.Thenwhenhe wasten,heaccompaniedhisuncleonacaravantoSyria. WhenMuhammadwasabouttwentyfive,heestablishedareputationforhonesty,integrity,andbeingofgoodcharacter.Itisnowonderthatarichwomantookhim inheremployandconsignedtohimhergoodstobetakenforsaletoSyria.SoonMuhammad,thecaravanagent,marriedKhadijahshewasfortyandhewastwenty eight.MuhammadtraveledtofairsinYemenandOmanwherehemettradersfromAbyssinia,Persia,India,andChina. ThestoryistoldamongMuslimsthatonedayaYemeniteimprovisedasatiricalpoemagainstsomeMeccanswhohadrefusedtopayhimthepriceofwhathehad sold,andotherswhohadnotsupportedhisclaimorhadfailedtocometohishelpwhenhewasbeaten.Soonthereafter,Zuhair,oneofMuhammadsuncles,feltgreat remorsewhenheheardthispoem.Heorganizedanorderofchivalry(calledHilfalfudul)withtheobjectiveofaidingtheoppressedinMecca,irrespectiveof whethertheyweredwellersofthecityoraliens.Muhammadwasanactivememberoftheorganization. WhenMuhammadwasaboutthirtyfivetherewasafirethatdestroyedthedraperiesofthewallsoftheKaaba,ahugebuildinginMeccathatisreportedtohave beenestablishedbyAbraham.ItwasabuildingdedicatedCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage67 totheOneGod.ThepeoplestartedtoreconstructtheKaaba,andeachpersonwhohadearnedhonestmoneywasaskedtocontributetotherebuildingprocess. (Muhammadsshoulderswereinjuredwhilecarryingheavystonestothesite.)Ablackstonewassetinthewalltocreateamarkerforthebeginningplacefor circumambulation.Therewascompetitionamongthecitizensfortherighttotransportthestonetoitsproperplace.Thecitizensalmostcametoblowsandthenitwas suggestedthattheyacceptthearbitrationofthepersonwhoarrivedfirstatthesite.ItsohappenedthatMuhammadwhowaspopularlyknownbythetitlealAmin (thehonest)justthenturnedupforworkasusual,andhebecamethearbitrator.Heplacedalargepieceofclothontheground,putthestoneonit,andaskedthe chiefsofalltheclansinthecitytoliftthestonetogethersothatitcouldbesetinitsproperplace.Accordingtotherecordsfromthismoment,Muhammadbecame absorbedinspiritualmeditations.Inthetraditionofhisgrandfather,hewouldretireduringthewholemonthofRamadantoacaveinJabalanNur(Mountainof Light). OnenightneartheendofthemonthofRamadan,afterhisfifthconsecutiveyearmakinghisretreats,anangelannouncedtoMuhammadthatGodhadchosenhimas Hismessenger.Theangeltaughthimthemodeofablutions:thewayofworshippingGodandtheconductofprayer.Shakenbytheexperience,thefortyyearold Muhammadreturnedhomeandrelatedtohiswifewhathadhappened,expressinghisfearsthatitmighthavebeensomethingdiabolicortheactionofevilspirits. Khadijahcomfortedhim,sayingthathehadalwaysbeenamanofkindnessandgenerosityhelpingthepoor,theorphans,thewidows,andtheneedyandassured himthatGodwouldprotecthimagainstanyevilthoughtsorbeings. Itwouldbeanotherthreeyearsbeforetheprophetwouldreceivemorerevelations.HewastoldthatGodhadnotforsakenhimandthatheshouldtakecareofthe orphansandthepoorandtoproclaimthebountyofGod.Muhammadsawthisasanordertopreach.Anotherrevelationdirectedhimtowarnpeopleagainstevil practices,toexhortthemtoworshipnonebuttheOneGod,andtoabandoneverythingthatwoulddispleaseGod(Q.74:27).Yetanotherrevelationcommandedhim towarnhisownnearrelatives(Q.26:214)andProclaimopenlythatwhichthouartcommanded,andwithdrawfromtheidolaters.Whilethefirstrevelationcamein hissleep,thesubsequentonescamewhilehewasfullyawake. Muhammadstartedhismissionsecretly,tellingonlyhisclosestfriendsandrelatives.HeinsistedonthebeliefinOneTranscendentGod,inResurrectionandtheLast Judgment.Hetaughtthatallmenmustbegenerousandshowbeneficence.Hetookthenecessarystepstopreserve,throughwriting,theCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage68 revelationshewasreceiving,andorderedhisadherentstolearnthembyheart.TheQuranwasnotreceivedallatonce,butinpartsandfragmentsasthespirit revealedittoMuhammad. Butasthemembersgrewinnumber,sodidtheintensityoftheopposition.Infact,theoppositiondegeneratedoverthecourseoftimeintophysicaltortureofthe prophetandofthosewhohadembracedhisreligion:theywerestretchedonburningsands,cauterizedwithredhotiron,andimprisonedwithchainsaroundtheir ankles.Someofthemdiedoftheeffectsoftorture,butnonewouldrenouncehisreligion.Indespair,theProphetMuhammadadvisedhiscompanionstoquittheir nativetownandtakerefugeabroad,inAbyssinia,wheregovernsajustruler,inwhoserealmnobodyisoppressed.DozensofMuslimsprofitedbyhisadviceasthey fledtoAbyssinia.However,everyonedidnotleavethosewhoremainedinMeccawerepersecutedevenmore.Tiredofthepersecutionmetedoutbytheirneighbors, thosewhobelievedbecamedevotedtothenewreligionandtheypracticeditwithardentpassion.TheProphetMuhammadcalledthereligionIslam,meaning submissiontothewillofGod.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheQuranandIslamicLawTheQuranistheholyscripturesoftheMuslimfaith.ItcontainstherevelationsmadetoMuhammadthroughthemediationofthearchangelGabriel.Theseteachings werecommunicatedtoAbuBakr,whoisreportedtohavewrittendownthewordsoftheprophet.Thebookcontainsalargeamountofethicalteachingsthatcomprise thefoundationoftheshariadiscussedfurtherinalatersection.Itismadeupoflegalinjunctions,prohibitions,andpreceptsmeanttoassisthumansintheproper wayoflivingtheirlives.NotwithstandingtheextensiveinstructionsintheQuran,whentheyarenotenoughtoprovideexplanationsforvarioussituations,agroupof teachingscalledSunna(habits)iscalleduponforfurtherexplanation.Thesetraditionsofauthoritycontainthewordsanddeedsoftheprophetduringhislifetime. SpecificstoriesofactivitiesoftheprophetandhisfollowersarecalledHadithandformastrongbodyofexpressionsthatareclaimedtohavecomefromtheprophet. LikemostIslamicsocieties,EgyptianlifeisoftendeeplyinfluencedbythefourschoolsofIslamiclawthattaketheirnamesfromthefourfoundingteachersofthe religion:HanafiafterAbuHanafi,MalikiafterMalikibnAnas,ShafiiafterAlShafii,andHanbaliafterAhmadibnHanbali.Muslimsacceptthesefourschoolsof lawasorthodox. IslamhadtoovercomeboththeremnantsoftheancientEgyptianreligionsandChristianitythathadbeenestablishedinAlexandriaamongtheCoptsEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage69 almostsevenhundredyearsearlierinordertoassertitswillovertheEgyptianpopulation.Thus,althoughChristianityremainsintheformoftheCopticChurch,Islam hasimprintedeveryaspectofthesociety.AfewChristiandenominationsarefoundinthecountry,buttheyarelimited.Whilethereislipservicetofreedomofreligion, therecanbenoofficialsupportforcompletereligiousfreedom,thatis,openingthecountryuptomissionariesandevangelists,suchasonefindsinotherAfrican countrieswhereevangelicalChristianityisgenerallyleftalonetoflourishamongthepeasants.EgypthastoleratedtheCopticChurchandsomeRomanCatholic congregationsbutithasnotalwaysbeenhospitabletootherChristiandenominations. OlderthanIslamwastheJewishreligioninEgypt.JewshadbeeninEgyptformanyyearsbeforethearrivaloftheChristiansandhavecontinuedinEgyptuntilthe present.SeveralquiteancientsynagoguesstillexistinCairodespitethefactthattheyareoftentargetsofbitterness.EgyptiansgenerallyacceptthepresenceofJews however,thepopulationoftenexpressesangeratIsraelipoliciesagainstthePalestinians.ThiscausestheEgyptianJewishpopulationtobeapprehensiveandtoremain lowkeyintheiractivities.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheFivePillarsofFaithTheMuslimreligionisbasedonthefivepillarsoffaith:shahada,prayer,fasting,pilgrimage,andzakat.Thepillarsareclearlyidentifiedinthefollowingpractices: 1.ThebelievermustconfessthatthereisnoGodbutGod,andMuhammadishisprophet. 2.Thebelievermustprayfivetimesaday. 3.ThebelievermustfastduringthemonthofRamadan. 4.Thebelievermustmakeapilgrimage,hajj,toMeccaduringhislifetime. 5.Thebelievermustgivecharity,zakat,tothepoor. ThefirstpillarshahadaemphasizesanallencompassingmonotheismandthebeliefthatMuhammadistheprophetofAllah.Thesecondpillarisprayer,andthe MuslimbelievesthatprayercanbeofferedanywhereapersoncanprostratehimselfbeforeAllah.Thereshouldbefiveprayers:atsunrise,atnoon,afternoon,sunset, andatnight.ThemostimportantprayeristheFridaynoonprayerreferredtoassalatelGomaa.Fastingthethirdpillarisespeciallyimportantfortheninthmonth oftheMuslimyear,calledRamadan.Theideabehindfasting,accordingtotheteaching,isrestraint.Thus,apersonistoobservecompleteabstinencefromfoodand drinkorsmokingEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage70 fromthefirstsignofdaybreakuntilsunset.Alargemealmaybetakenaftersunset(Iftar),andalighteroneistakenbeforegoingtobed,butnotafterdawn.Those whoareilloraretravelingmaybeexemptfromfasting,thoughtheycouldstillcompensatebytakingupfastingtheexactnumberofdayslaterintheyear.Ramadanis observedasaholymonthbecausethetwentyseventhofthemonthisthecommemorationoftherevelationofthefirstsurah(chapter)oftheQurantotheProphet Muhammad.Thefourthpillarispilgrimage(hajj).EachbelieverissupposedtomakeapilgrimagetotheholyhouseofMeccaduringthetwelfthmonthoftheMuslim year.Thebelieverdoesnothavetomakethehajjifheisunabletodosofinanciallyorphysically.DuringthehajjthebelieverputsontheIhramgarments:awhite seamlesscloththrownacrossthebodywiththerightarmandshoulderexposed.Thepilgrimisprohibitedfromimmoralactsorsexualintercourseduringthistime.The fifthpillariszakat(charity,orthegivingofalms),whichisanoutwardsignofpietyandameansofsalvation.ZakatisseenasaloantoAllahthatwillberepaida hundredfold.ThebelieverisrequiredtogiveaportionofhiswealthtoassistthepoorasanobligationofIslam.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EGYPTIANISLAMThosewhopracticeIslamareusuallyreferredtoasMuslims.EgyptianIslamprohibitsgambling,drinkingalcohol,andeatingpork.NoimagesoftheProphetare permitted.Likemostreligions,Islamseekstoprovidemoralguidancetoallbelievers.Theprohibitionsoncertainbehaviorsaremeanttoensureahealthyand productivesociety.Therearenopriestlyclasses,assuch,inIslam.Instead,thereligionhasmosqueleaders(imams)whoareselectedfortheiradherencetothefaith, exemplaryconduct,andpiousbehavior,aswellastheirknowledgeandpracticeoftheFivePillarsofFaith.Islamicscholars(ulama)areresponsiblefordeepstudyof theQuranandcanissueedictsonvariousaspectsofthedoctrineofIslam.Theyareparticularlyusefulingivingauthoritativeverdicts(fatwas)regardingdisputesof doctrineandinterpretation. InEgypttherearetwoprincipalsectsofIslam:SunniandShiite.ThedisputebetweenthesectsoverthelineofsuccessiontotheProphetMuhammadisthecentral reasonforthedifference.TheShiitesbelievethatAli,thefourthoftheprophetssuccessors,carriesthelegitimatelineofthesuccessionratherthantheprophetsthree companions:AbuBakr,Omar,andOsman.WhilebothprincipalMuslimgroupsbelieveintheFivePillarsofFaith,theyareabletofindsufficientreasonsfor disagreementsovertheinterpretationsofthereligiontocauseoutbreaksofviolence.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage71TheSufiOrdersCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EgyptiansareveryreligiousandtheytakeIslamseriously.Therearetwoexpressionsofreligiouspracticeinthecountry:theofficialIslamofAlAzharMosqueandthe popularIslamofthemassesofEgyptians.Oneisthereligionoftheleadershipofthecountry,andtheotheristhereligionofthehumblestbelievers. Forgenerations,concurrentwiththeIslamofthemosquehasbeenthesufi(mystic)Islam.ThepractitionersofsufiturntoamoredirectinteractionwithGod, believingthatthemosqueistooformalisticandtendstokeepGodawayfromthepeople.Whenmengroupedthemselvesintosufiordersortariqas(paths)they wereestablishingawaytoexpressamoredirectIslam.Egypthasdozensofthesesufigroups,allundertheHighSufiCouncil.Thesufiordershaveattractedfarmore peasantsthanelites.Perhapsasameansoffindingcomfort,thosewhofeelthreatenedbythesocietysrapidchangesjointhesufiorders.Loyaltytothesufiorderand spiritualbondingareexpressedinmeetingsthatarecalleddhikrs.AtthesemeetingsritualsareperformedinwhichthenameofAllahisrepeatedhundredsoftimesto rhythmicdrumminginamysticalmanifestationofreligiousconnection.Eachmemberoftheorderseekstoachievetheidealstatewherebythereisperfectunion betweenthedevoteeandGod.Somefollowershavebeenknowntomumblethevariousformulasforlonghours,cuttingthemselvesonthearmsandlegsuntiltheyare quitebloody. Likeallreligiousorders,thesufiordershaveholidaysinwhichtheycelebratespecialoccasionsinthereligion.Amongthemostimportantcelebrationsismawlid(the birthday)ofasufisaint.Thisisusuallyabigfestivalfortheentirecommunity.ThelargestofthesefestivalsisthatofAhmadalBadawiwhodiedinTantaintheyear 1276.EveryOctoberhistombbecomesthecenterofamassivecelebrationandcommunityfair.Duringthiscelebratoryperiodpeoplecanvisitthetombandreceive blessingsfromthesaint.Theycouldalsoenjoythefestivespiritatthecelebrationwherebooths,cafes,fireworks,bands,stalls,andprocessionsaredisplayedinhonor ofthesaint.AnothercelebrationistheFeastoftheSacrifice.ThisoccasionmarksthekillingofasheepduringthepilgrimagetoMecca.Perhapsathirdcelebrationthat thesufiordersrecognizeistheendingofthemonthofRamadan.Manytimesthegovernmenttakesadvantageofthesefestivalstominglepoliticswithreligionby illuminatingphotographsofnationalleadersunderfestivearchesthatshowthenameofAllahinlights.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage72 SHARIACopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.InmanyIslamicsocietiestheonlylawthatneedbefollowedissharia.ItisalawbasedontheQuranandtheteachingsandinterpretationsofMuhammad.According tothebelievers,thesharialawcoversallaspectsofhumanlife,althoughtherearesomeprovisionsthatmightbeaugmentedfromcustomarylaw.Somanyissueshave confrontedmodernsocietiesthatithasbecomeincreasinglydifficultforQuraniclawtoanswerallissues.Thus,inEgypt,asinothercountries,lawyershaveintroduced secularlawalongsidetheIslamiclaw. Egypt,becauseofitsmanyculturalinfusions,alsohasalongtraditionofsecularlaw.Thistraditiongoesbackhundredsofyearsandwasmeanttoregulatemost aspectsofpubliclife,suchascommercialandcriminalissues.Infact,officiallythelegalsystemisbasedonEnglishcommonlaw,Islamiclaw,andNapoleoniccodes. Furthermore,judicialreviewbytheSupremeCourtandCouncilofStateserveasafurtherlayerofprotectionforthepublic. However,legalissuesandproblemsofmarriage,divorce,andlandinheritancearelefttotheshariacourt.By1956theshariacourtsofEgyptwerefullyintegrated intothenationalsystem.TheulamaallowedthismovetooccurwithoutmuchoppositionlargelybecausetheyhadseenhowthecourtsystemfunctionedinCairowhere theshariawasnotparticularlyaffectedbysecularlaw. Secularization,however,hasproducednewcallsforArabnationalismaswellasarevivalinIslam.Thepoliticalaspectsofsuchrevival,asintheMuslim Brotherhood,increasedthroughoutthe1990s.Varioussheikhshaveusedthereligiousplatformtoincreasethemembershipoftheirorganizations.Theyhaveoffereda visionofsocietythatisawayfromsecularizationandtowardmorerelianceontheIslamictraditions. ImmediatelyaftertheSeptember11,2001WorldTradeCenterandPentagonterrorattacks,Islamicmilitantsandfundamentalistsrepeatedthecallforassaultsonall formsofAmericanism.WhiletheoverwhelmingmajorityofEgyptians,accordingtothepress,followedthenationalleadersinexpressingcondolencestotheAmericans forthetragedies,someimams,sympathizingwithOsamabinLadenandhisEgyptiancolleaguesinAfghanistan,urgedMuslimstojoinajihad,holywar,against America.THECOPTSTheCoptsarealargeminoritywhoareneitherMuslimnorArab.TothedegreethattheyarenonArabstheyareliketheEgyptianNubianswhoEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage73 representtheothermemberoftheoriginalfamilyofEgypt.However,unliketheNubians,theCoptshavemaintainedtheirchurches.TheCoptsaredescendantsofthe firstEgyptianChristians.AlthoughthehistoricalrecordsshowthatmanyofthemwereofGreekdescentfromAlexandria,theygraduallybecameintegratedintothe society.WhetherruledbyAraborOttomanMuslims,theCoptskepttheirreligion,faith,andeducationalcurriculum.However,theyabandonedtheirlanguageand adoptedArabic.ItisonlythechurchleadersthatstillspeaktheCopticlanguage. ThereisarespectabletoleranceofeachotherbetweentheCoptsandtheMuslims.InUpperEgypt,MuslimwomenobservetheSpringChristianfestival,atwhich ancientritesareperformedjustbeforeEasterSunday.Specialfoodsarepreparedandeaten.ThisisconsideredanEgyptianfestival,andsoMuslimsparticipateinit muchlikenonMuslimsparticipateinthemanyMuslimfestivalsheldinthecountry. Coptsnormallyclaimtobeonesixthofthepopulationandassuchhaveoftensoughttohavemoreofasayingovernment.Theyhavestakedtheircaseontheirlong affiliationasEgyptiansandtheirservicetothenationduringhistoricalevents.However,manyEgyptianleadershavebeencautiousaboutusingtoomanyCoptsinthe government.ThishasoftenstrainedrelationshipsbetweenArabsandCopts.UnderPresidentGamalAbdelNassertherewaslittlesympathyfortheCopts.Hewasan ArabnationalistandfailedtoappointCoptstoanymajorhighpostduringhisadministration.ItseemsthatNasser,whilerecognizingtheCoptsasnationalcitizens,did notseethemascooperatingwiththeordinary,peasantfarmersofEgypt.Theyweremainlyurbanizedcosmopolitanswhoidentifiedwiththeindustrialandbusinesselite ofthesociety. TheCoptshavesurvivedthroughhorrendousharassment,discrimination,andpersecution.Theyretainedtheirreligionandbecameengineers,lawyers,doctors,and teacherswhohavecontributedtotheEgyptiansociety.TheyhaveclungtotheirfamilytraditionswhilerespectingthoseofIslam.ThisattachmenttoChristianityisa remindertotheMuslimsthatallEgyptiansdidnotacceptthedoctrineofMuhammad.Insomeways,itisathorninthesideoftheIslamicculture. TherehasalwaysbeenapoliticalinterpretationtothepopulationofCopts.Thegovernmentseekstominimizethenumbers,whiletheCoptshavealwaystriedto increasethenumbers.Itisbelievedthatthereareatleast12millionCoptsinEgypt.Itisdifficulttosayexactlyhowmanytherearebecausepeasantfamiliesliketo keepthenumberofchildrentheyhavesecret.SomeCoptsthinkthatthegovernmentdoesnotconsidertheirruralpopulationcountingonlytheurbanizedCoptic people.Onethingiscertain.Coptsbelievethattheyareunderrepresentedinthenationalgovernment.DuringCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage74 thetimeofNasser,Islamwasdeclaredtobethereligionofthestate.Underthevariousreignofforeigners,Islamhadcoexistedwithotherreligions,andalthoughitwas dominantformanyyears,ithadnotbeendeclaredthestatereligion.NasserswillfulattempttoimposetheMuslimfaithastheidentityofthenationalstatecreated problemsformanyotherreligiousgroups.Nevertheless,CoptsdemonstratedtheirloyaltytoNasserbutstillbelievedthatheregardedthemwithindifference.Thiswas tochangesomewhatunderAnwarSadatandHosniMubarak,whoeachappointedafewmoreCoptsinthenationalgovernment.Noneofthesechangesin governmentpositionshasactuallychangedthestatusoftheCoptsinthesociety.Theyarestilllookeduponasaminority,remaindiscriminatedagainstbecausetheyare notIslamic,andhaveoftenbeencriticizedbythenationalleaders. FundamentalistIslamicgroupshaveattackedtheCoptsopenly.BombshavebeenplantedoutsideofCopticchurches,andCopticleadershavebeenthreatened.In fact,duringSadatsadministrationtheCopticcommunityprotestedagainstharassmentonlytoberebukedbySadatwhotoldthemtostopplayingpolitics.Sadatlater hadtheheadoftheCopticChurcharrested.2Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.THEISLAMICDEFINITIONOFTHESOCIETYThepracticeofIslaminEgyptisthedominantreligiousbeliefsystem.AlthoughthevastmajorityofthepeopleareMuslimtheysharetheirsocietysspiritualspacewith severalsmallerfaiths.However,itisIslam,aboveall,thatdefinestheuniquequalitiesoftheEgyptiansociety.Becauseofitsubiquitousnature,thereligionofIslam dictatessocialcustomsandcommercialbehaviors.Everyonewholivesinthecountryisawareoftheprohibitionsofthereligionandthevaluesofmaintainingthespecial qualitiesofthefaith. YetthisdoesnotpreventEgyptfromhavingsomeverysignificantmodernactivities.CairoandAlexandriaremaintwoofthemostfashionconsciouscitiesinAfrica. IngyYassin,whoisEgyptianLebanese,isayoungcontemporarydesignerwithadistinctiveeleganceandtaste,butwhokeepstheIslamicmotifsandiconsinallofher fashions.OnecandiscoverintheworksofmodernartistssuchasDr.FaroukShehata,Dr.SneedHeddaya,Dr.AdelElMasri,andDr.AttiaHusseinAlexandrians allarespectfortraditionsbutastrongoverturetothecontemporaryworld.Thus,faithinEgypt,whileoftenbreedingfundamentalists,doesnothavetomean abandonmentofthemodernworld.ThosewhopracticethemostfundamentalformsofIslamenduphatingnotonlytheinfidelsbutthoseoftheirownreligionwhodo notsharetheirviews.InEgyptthishasledtointrareligiousfightsbetweendevoteesofthereligion.Dogmatismandfundamentalismtendtoleadtothedisregardforthe opinionsofothers.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage75MAJORHOLIDAYSCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.ThereareanumberofholidayscelebratedinEgypt.Thecountryrecognizesthreecalendars:theHijri(Islamic),theGregorian(European)calendar,andtheCoptic calendar.TheHijricalendarislunarwithtwelvemonthsoftwentynineorthirtydaysandistenorelevendaysshorterthantheGregoriancalendar.TheCopticcalendar isasolarcalendarwiththirtydaysinamonthandfivedaysinthethirteenthmonth. Mostoftheholidaysholydaysarerelatedtoreligiousobservances.ChristmasisobservedonJanuary6and7.ItbeginsonthenightofthesixthwhentheCoptic Christiansleavetheirhomesandgotothechurchesatabout10oclockfortheholymass,andaroundmidnighttheyhavealargefeast,usuallyinvolvingtheeatingofa turkey.Thenextmorning,theyexchangegifts,andtheyoungchildrenaresentouttovisittheirgrandparentsandhavelunchatthehomesoftheirgrandparentsorother relatives. EgyptiansalsoobservetheholidayofShamelNessim,whichiscelebratedimmediatelyafterEaster.Itis,therefore,alwaysonMonday.ThepeopleofEgypthave celebratedthisholiday(SpringDay)formorethan4,500years.ItiscalledShamelNessimbecausetheharvestseasoninancientEgyptwascalledShamo.InArabic thewordShamashortenedformofShamomeanstosmellandthewordselNessimmeantheair,soliterallytheexpressionistosmelltheair.Theearly Egyptiansofferedsaltedfish,lettuce,eggs,andoniontothedeitiesduringthisfestival.Now,thesamekindsoffoodareeatenbutthereisnoofferingmadetoRa, Amen,Atum,orPtah.Onthatday,however,themodernEgyptianssaythatlettucerepresentshopefulnessatthebeginningofthespring.Eggsareusedtorepresentthe renewaloflifeintheseasonofthespring.PeopledyetheeggsinvariouscolorsinatraditionthatgoesbacktotheancientEgyptianswhowereprobablythefirstto introducethispractice.Saltedfishrepresentsfertilityandwelfare. AnotherholidaycelebratedinEgyptiscalledEidelFetr,afestivalthatcomesafterRamadan.Peopleeatspecialcookies.AspecialMuslimversionofthisholiday iscalledtheEidelAdha,thatis,festivalofsacrifice.Itisafourdayholiday.Onthefirstdayatdawnallthemengotothemosquetopray.Everyfamilyissupposedto slaughterasheep,whichtheywillhaveboughtthedaybefore,andtakesomeofthemeattodonatetothepoor.Thecelebrantshavebreakfastthatincludesfata(a mixtureofmeat,bread,rice,andvinegar).Thentheyouthoryoungerpeoplevisittheolderpeopleinthecommunityandeatfoodwiththem.Theremainingthreedays ofthefestivalisonebigfeastafteranotheratthehomeofrelatives. OnOctober6,thenationcelebratesArmedForcesDay.ThisisthecelEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage76 ebrationofthebrilliantEgyptiantacticalmoveofcrossingintotheSinaiin1973.Suchwasthepsychologicalliftthatthismilitaryactiongavetothenationthatthe Egyptianpeoplewereeagertomakeitanimportantholiday,anexampleofthenationinitsfinestmilitarymoment. ThereisalsotheIslamicholidayMulidelNabawythatpointstotheholydayoftheProphetMuhammadsbirth.Itiscelebratedbymakingspecialcandiesand sellingtheminthestreetsandatstoresthroughoutthecountry.Thecandiesarepinkandareusuallyintheshapeofahorseoradoll.Peoplenormallyweartheirbest clothesonthisholiday.Familiesgettogethertocelebrate,anddecorationsarefoundonthestreetsandbuildings.Insomesenses,MulidelNabawyisequivalentto Christmas.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.NOTES1.TheconquestofEgyptunderGeneralElAsbeganin639C.E.butwentonfornearlyfiveyears.Infact,ElAsfounditmostdifficulttopacifytheUpperEgyptians aroundAswan.Anexpeditionwhich[ElAs]sentagainsttheNubians[did]notmerely[fail]tovanquishthem,butwasforcedtoretreat,havingsufferedmuchloss fromtheexceptionalskilloftheNubianarchers,whomtheArabshenceforthdistinguishedastheeyewounders(Butler1992,432).By644whenElAsdelivered asermonatthemosquenamedafterhim,allofEgypthadcomeunderArabdominationandhecouldthankAllahforblessinghisvictories. 2.ItisimportanttoseetheworkofHopwood(1982,165)inthisregard.HeclearlyshowsthattheCoptswereinserioustroublewiththegovernmentofSadat.Thereis somebeliefthattheCoptsthoughtthemselvessuperiortotherestofthepopulationbyvirtueoftheirrelationshiptotheancientlanguageofEgypt.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage77Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.4 ArchitectureandArtARCHITECTUREONEWOULDTHINKthatacountryasoldasEgyptwouldhavehadmanyarchitecturalinfluences.However,thearchitectureofmodernEgyptisprimarily influencedbyIslamicculture.1Thus,tospeakofhowEgyptiansbuildtheirhomesandtheirgreatpublicbuildingsistoidentifythewaytheymaketheiridentityconcrete inthemodernera.Architectureisauniquehumanactivitythatprovidesforlandmarksofhistoricalachievementinapeoplesculture.Theenvironmentischanged, alteredinwaysthatestablishacertainresponsetothenaturalspacesarounduswhenarchitectureispracticed.Hence,Egyptianarchitecture,takingitsmainleadfrom theIslamicreligion,hascertainidentifyingcharacteristics. First,itisanarchitecturethatconcernsitselfmorewithinteriorspacesthanwithexteriorspaces.Enclosedspacethatisboundedbywalls,vaults,andarcadesisthe mostimportantelementofEgyptianarchitecturebasedontheIslamicmodel.Theonlyexteriorareasthataredecoratedarethedomeandtheentranceportaltherest ofthedecorationisreservedfortheinterior.Second,unlikeancientEgyptianarchitecture,modernIslamicarchitecturedoesnotemphasizetheactualmechanicsofa structurebutratherconcentratesonarchitecturaldecorationthatdeemphasizestherealityofweightorthenecessityforstructuralsupport.Thethirdelementthatsets Islamicarchitectureapartisthevarietyofdesignsusedtoproduceasenseofunlimitedspaceandlightness.Onwallsandpillars,anarchitectusesmosaicsoftiles, painteddecorationsofpolychrome,andthousandsofvariationsbasedonEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage78 calligraphy,geometricshapes,andfloralpatternstocreatearchitecturalstylesthatareunknowninanyotherpartoftheworld.Islamicarchitectureisspecifictothe religiouscultureoutofwhichitisderived.Itcouldbenotedwithoutexaggerationthattheendlessrepetitivedesigns,floralpatterns,andgeometricformsonthewallsof buildingscreatetheideaofinfinitythatcomplementsthevastarrayofarches,colonnades,rooms,andpassagesintheinteriorsofthegreatpublicbuildingsofEgypt. ThecityofCairoisoneofthenineortencitiesintheworldthatmightbecalledamuseumofacivilization.LikeFlorence,Philadelphia,Kumasi,NewYork, Kyoto,London,Boston,Beijing,Paris,orRome,Cairoisitselftheseatofanationalandculturalreservoirofbeautyandart.ThehistoryofIslamistoldinthenarrative ofCairoasanArabiccity.Ithasmorethaneighthundredbuildingsdatingfromtheeleventhcentury,whichwastheperiodofIslamsfastestgrowth.Itisstillcalledthe Cityof1000Minaretsbecauseofthenumerousmosquesbuiltineverysectionofthecity.CairoisajewelofIslamicarchitecture. TherearehundredsofhistoricalbuildingsinCairo.OnesuchbuildingistheMuseumofIslamicArtthatcontainsoneofthelargestcollectionsofceramicsinthe world.Itisalsoacenterforancientmanuscriptsandacollectionofbeautifulwoodwork.However,ofallthehistoricalbuildingsinCairo,themosquesseemto dominateintermsofarchitecturalimportance,asifonebuilderwastryingtooutdothenext.TheMosqueofIbnTulunisoneofthelargestintheworld.Somecritics eventhinkthatitisthebestmosqueinCairo.Itwasbuiltbetween876and879C.E.inaplain,straightforward,powerfulstyle.Itattractsvisitorsfromalloverthe world. ApersonvisitingCairocancrosstheTahrirBridge(flankedbytwobronzelionsateitherend)ontoGeziraIslandandvisittheCairoOperaHouse,whichwas openedin1988,aswellasthecitysmostfamouslandmark(afterthepyramids),the614foothighCairoTowerbuiltin1961.Thetowerfeaturesapopularrestaurant fromwhichonecanviewthecitybelow.Lookingoutoverthemanyminaretsofthecity,oneisimpressedbythemanyculturesthathavecontributedtoCairosimage astheMotheroftheWorld. TheKhanelKhaliliBazaar,borderedbyAlAzharandMuskiStreets,isamassiveshoppingareaconsistingofhundredsofsmallshopsalongnumerouswinding alleyways.Itisathirteenthcenturymarketplaceinthemiddleofatwentyfirstcenturycity.Thehugemarketwasestablishedin1292andhasbeeninservicesincethat timewithcraftsmenstillplyingtheirtraditionalcraftsinthenarrowstreets.AttheWikaletelGhouriacrossfromtheShariaMuskimarketarea(similartotheKhanel Khalili)andnexttotheAlAzharMosquethereisaschoolthatteachescrafts.StudentscometotheschoolCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage79 tolearnthebasicartofmakingbaskets,paintinghieroglyphicsonpotteryandjewelry,andjewelrymaking.2 KhanelKhaliliisthebargaincenterforleather,glass,gold,silver,andspices.InCairo,theothermaindowntownareasforshoppingareTalaatHarb,QarrelNil and23rdofJulyStreets.Egyptiansocietyisamarketcultureandallmajortownshavemarketssome,suchastheAswanMarketwithitsspices,arespecialized. Cairo,ontheotherhand,asthesupremecapitalhasmarketsthatcontainproductsandproducefromalloverthecountry. AllarchitectureinEgyptisnotonagrandpublicscale.Thereistheordinaryarchitectureoftheeverydayhouse.Likethelargepublicbuildings,thehouseisalso basedonthecreationofinteriorspace.Rectangularhousingunitsarealwaysorganizedaccordingtothisprincipleoffocusoninteriorspaces.Thisismostoftenshown whenonelooksattheroleofthecourtyardinEgyptianhomes.Theoutsideofthehouseoffersonlyasmalldoor.Itisusuallywindowlessonthefront,givingthe impressionofamastaba(arectangularlyshapedbox). Itisevenusefultothinkofthehouseasacourtyardorcourtyardsconnectedtoapartments.Inthiswayonegainsanappreciationforthecomplexityofthedesignas ahouse.WhereastheWesternhouseisusuallyacollectionofroomsattachedtoeachotherwithanoccasionalhallway,theEgyptianhousemightbethoughtofasa massivelyexpandedcorridorwithroomscomingintoit. Thehousesintheruralareas,andinsomesectionsoftheurbancommunities,mightbeclusteredtogethersothatlargefamiliescanbeaccommodated.These courtyardhousesareusuallywithinawalledcomplexandaremeanttocontainanextendedfamily.Theyareexpandableshouldothermembersneedhousing.One entersthecomplexthroughasingledoorthatleadstoacorridorfromwhichanapartmentmightbereached.Egyptianfamiliesareaccustomedtoaddingontotheir courtyardclustersuntilallofthelandaroundthemainclusterisusedup.Whenthatisaccomplished,thebuildinggoesupwardtoaccommodatestillmorefamily members. ThereisoneotherfeatureofthetraditionalEgyptianhousethatmustbementioned.SincethereismaleprivilegeinEgyptandthemaleheadofthehouseholdoften hasmaleguests,itisnecessarythatthehousebeconstructedinsuchawaythatamalevisitordoesnotviolatetheharemorcomeintocontactwiththewivesofthe host.Thus,thehouseisdividedintwobyawallseparatingthemalesectionfromthefemalesection,andthemaleguestroomisusuallylocatedneartheentrance lobby.(TheArabnomadsusedtohangascreenorarugdownthemiddleofthetenttoseparatethemalesCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage80 fromthefemales.)Whilemanyofthesetypesofhousesstillexist,itseemsasifWesterninfluencesarecomingintoplayinmanyconstructions.Somestylesof architecturearecreatingnovelwaysofseparatingmenandwomenintermsofsleepingandworkingspaces,whilekeepingtheWesterninfluencesofconvenienceand efficiency. Architecturally,theEgyptianhouseisanadvancedstructure.Theopenairinteriorallowsairtocirculatetoalloftheapartmentsthatareconnectedtothecourtyard.It isasystemthatregulatestheflowofairandassistsinclimatecontrolinthehot,dryclimate.Italsoservesasanairwellwherethecoolnightaircanpenetratethe variouscorridorsandapartmentsheatedbythesun.Muchlikethepublicbuildings,theordinaryhousehasathickwalledfrontfacadethatisdesignedtowithstandthe sunandwind.Mostroofsareflatandtheyhavehighparapets.OnecanpickoutanEgyptianhouseusuallybythecharacteristicdesignsontheroofline. Sometimesthisarchitectureofthecourtyardisreferredtoasthearchitectureoftheveil.Becauseitisenclosedbyaplainfacadeandistheinnermostareaofthe house,thecourtyardiskeptasasecret.Oneneverknowswhatawaitswhenenteringacourtyard.Thereonecouldfindchildrenplaying,eldersinconversation,or familycelebrations.Whatisbeingexpressedbythistypeofhousingdesignistheneedtokeeptheoutsideworldoutwhileprotectingthefamilydeepinsidethewalls. Theprivatehouseusestheconcealedcourtyardstyleofarchitectureasadefiningcharacteristic.Thefeaturealsoappearsinnonresidentialstructures.Infact,most architectureinEgypt,likethatinmanyIslamiccommunities,isnotfunctionspecific.Youmightusethesamestructureforseveralfunctionsoryoumightcreateaform thatcanserveavarietyofpurposesbecausethereisanabsenceofspecificarchitecturalformsforspecificfunctions.Onegoodexampleisthefouriwandesign.An iwanisanarchedopeningorporchreachedfromacentralcourtyard.Manybuildingsusethefouriwanmodel.Yetonecaneasilyseethatthisdesigncanbeadapted tohomes,mosques,palaces,andmodernbuildingssuchasbanksandmuseums.Thisallowstheuserofthestructuretoadaptittotheirfunctionsdespitetheform. InmanywaysthemodernEgyptianarchitectureisdifferentfromtheoldarchitectureofPharaonicEgypt.Oneseesthedifferenceexpressedinoneoftheprincipal featuresofIslamicbuildingsinwhichthereisnoinherentconcernfordirectionalquality.Thus,whereastheancienttemplesweredevelopedalongaxiallineswith directionalqualitybeingatthecenterofthestructure,Islamicbuildingsmayhaveadifferentqualitythatignoresthenotionofdirectionality.Onecouldenterabuilding withoutbeingpointeddirectlytothemainareaoffunction.Suchisthecasewhenyouenterabuildingfromthesidewherethereisanaltarthatcouldhavemoreeasily, inCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage81 theancientsense,beenreachedbyheadingstraightontowarditfromthedirectionalfront. LookingatthegrandarchitectureinCairoandAlexandria,onegetstheimpressionthatthereisaconvivialmeetingofmaterials,ideas,andtechniqueswhenthe builderscreateastructurealongtheIslamicpath.ItisnotpossibletoascertainalotofinformationaboutsomeoftheearlierarchitectsinEgyptianhistory,butitis knownthattheyhadtostudygeometry,mathematics,anddrawingtodeveloptheskillstheymasteredintheconstructionofthelargepublicbuildings. MostofthegreatmosqueswereerectedduringthelifetimesofthearchitectsunlikemanyofthegreatestbuildingsintheWestwherethearchitectwhoconceiveda projectmaynotbetheonewhocompletedit.AmongtheIslamicbuildersthiswasrare.TheybuiltquicklyandwithoutmanyofthefinancialconstraintsoftheWestern nations.Ifanemperororkingwantedabuildingbuilt,hewouldnothavetoconsultwithanyone.Therulerswereoftenquitedictatorialandcoulddemandthata buildingbeerectedwithinacertainperiodofmonths. Theorganizationofthetradestobuildwasakeyelementinbeingabletocompleteaprojectontime.Sawyerswereusedtopreparetheroughtimbertothecorrect dimensionscarpenterswerecalledintodetailmostofthewoodworkinthebuildingsturnerswereusedtomakewoodenscreensforwindowscarverswerethose whodecoratedandworkedwithpreciousstones,woods,ivory,andmotherofpearl. Similartothewoodworkers,thequarrymenwerealsodividedintospecialties.Somepreparedtheroughstonesforinnerwallsandfoundationsskilledcarvers helpedtofinishsomeofthestoneblocksmasonswereusedfortheroughstoneworkontheinnerwallsandothermasonswereusedfortheroughinnerandouter coresbetweentheouterandinnerfacesofthewalls.Otherimportanttradespeopleincludedbricklayers,claywallers,metalworkers,andplasterers. Theminaretatall,slendertoweronamosqueisoneofthemostvisibleexpressionsofIslamicart.Itisusedbythemuezzin(aMuslimcrier)tosummonthe peopletopray.Climbingtothetopoftheminaret,themuezzincallsthefaithfultothehourofprayer.Minaretswerefirstbuiltaslow,squaretowersusedforpagan andIslamicrituals,suchasinthecaseoftheSyrianminaretsthatexistedbeforetheIslamicera.Islamicarchitectsbuiltthemtallertoaffordthemuezzinagreater opportunitytocallpeopletopray.Thecommonformofminarethasasquarebase,toppedbyseveralstories,andthenabalconyconstructedoutofbalsamwood. Thissquareplanminarethasbeendevelopedfurther:thetoweriscrownedbyadomeoraconicalroof.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage82FINEARTSCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.MostscholarsdatetheoriginsofthemodernEgyptianfineartstotheyear1904.InthatyearthecityofAlexandriaaccepted210paintingsandthesumof500gold poundsfromaGermanartdealer,EdwardFriedham,withthestipulationthatthecitywouldstartamuseum.SoonthereafterthemunicipalitycreatedtheMuseumof FineArtsofAlexandria,rentedanapartmentonFouadStreet,andopenedforbusiness.BaronCharlesdeMenashadonatedavillatohousethemuseumin1926. WhentheRevolutionaryGovernmentcametopower,itplaceditsstampofapprovalontheMuseumofFineArtsin1954.AyearlaterthecityofAlexandriaheldthe firstBiennialforMediterraneanCountriesinordertolinkartandcultureinthevariouscountries.Theaimofthisgatheringwastoemphasizewhateachcountryhadin commonwithitsMediterraneanneighborbecauseofthecommongeographicalandhistoricalexperiences.SoonthereaftertheRevolutionaryGovernmentopeneda FacultyofFineArtsunderthedirectionoftheblackEgyptiansculptorAhmedOthman,oneofthemostdistinguishedofEgyptianartists.3 In1908,PrinceYoussefKamalcreatedthefirstSchoolofFineArtsinEgyptonDarbelGamamizStreetinCairo.Oneofthefirststudentswasthegreatsculptor MahmoudMukhtar.AlloftheteachersattheSchoolofFineArtswereforeigners.NoEgyptianswerepermittedtoteachsincetheideawastoprepareEgyptiansfor theWesternworld. TheschoolsooncameunderthecontrolofthenationaluniversityandwasjoinedtotheArtsEducationDepartmentintheMinistryofEducationaswell.Theschool wasmovedtoanotherlocationin1926.BythistimethetensionsrunningintheschoolwerequitehighbecausetheEgyptiansbelievedthattheschoolshouldbe Egyptianizedinstaffandcontent.EffortsweremadetohiremoreEgyptianfacultymembers,andtheschoolbecameahighschooluntil1950.Thenitwascalledthe RoyalFacultyofFineArtsuntil1961whenitbecameapartofthenationalMinistryofHigherEducation.By1975ithadregaineditsstatusasanartsfacultyandjoined theHelwanUniversity. EarlyoninEgypttherewasadistinctionmadeintheartsbetweentheappliedartsandthefinearts.Infact,in1909theSchoolofFineArtsopenedasectioncalled AppliedArtstodealwithdecorativeartsandcrafts.By1918,ithadbecomeindependentandwentbythenameTheSchoolofEgyptianDecorativeArts.In1941, thenamewaschangedtoHigherSchoolofAppliedArts.By1950theschoolhadundergoneyetanotherchangeinnames,anditwasnowcalledtheRoyalHigher FacultyforAppliedArts.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage83 Womenstudentswerepermittedforthefirsttimeinthe19561957schoolyear. Egyptwasnotunlikeothercountriesunderthecontrolofdominatingnations.SowhentheFirstWorldWarended,agroupofteacherswassenttoLondonin1920 tostudyhowtodraw.InthisfirstgroupwasHabibGorgi,amathematicsteacherturnedartist,whospecializedinartseducation.Heplayedamajorroleingetting fellowstudentsthroughthecourseinEngland.AboutthistimeaDepartmentofFineArtswhichbecametheMinistryofCultureaftertheRevolutionaryGovernment instituteditin1958wascreatedintheMinistryofEducationinCairo.HabibGorgisinfluencewaspowerfulduringtheearlyyearsofartsdevelopmentinEgypt becausehewasaleaderinartseducation,teachingmanyofthegreatestartistsinEgyptianhistory.TheInstituteofArtEducationwasestablishedinCairoin1937.Its namewaschangedtotheFacultyofArtEducationandaddedtotheHelwanUniversity. In1976,anartistsguildwasestablishedbythegovernmentwhenitenactedLawNo.83.ThesameyearanotherdecreeorderedthataFacultyofFineArtsbe createdatMinyainUpperEgypt. ThefineartsinEgyptwereencouragedbyanunlikelysource.WhenRaghebAyyadwenttoRomein1924onamission,hewasimpressedbythequalityofstudents thathadcomefromothercountriestostudyart.AyyadwasinstrumentalingettingthegovernmenttosetuptheEgyptianAcademyofArtsinRome.In1929,that academywasformallyestablished,andtheartistShehabAlmazwasappointeddirector. Egyptiangovernmentshavetriedtodowhattheycouldtoencourageartappreciation.In1975,alawwaspassedthatgrantedastateprizeforcreativityto encourageartiststowork.However,by1984onlyfourartistshadbenefittedfromtheaward,whichwastostudyattheEgyptianAcademyofArtsinRome.Itwas onlywhenFaroukHosni,anartist,becameMinisterofCulturein1987thatanewlawwasenactedthatimplementedchangesthatbroughtaboutresults. Egyptsmodernhistoryisoneoftryingtogatherintherichlegaciesofthepastandmakethemtheworkforthepresentandfuture.Inthisregardthecountryhas beensomewhatsuccessfulwithaparadeofoutstandingartists.WhileEgyptiswithoutpeerintheareaofancientartandarchitecture,ithasnotenjoyedthesame statureincontemporaryart.Thefineartstradition,intheWesternway,hasbeenslowtoemergegiventhetremendousstrengthofEgyptsclassicalhistory.Yetthe greatartistshavecreatedworksequaltothatofanyotherartistsanywhereintheworld. TheGeneralDepartmentforMuseumsbecameapartoftheMinistryofCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage84 Culturein1966.Ithadbeenformedin1959duringaperiodofconsolidation.Togiveitmoresupport,thegovernmentencouragedittobecomeapartoftheMinistry ofCulture.AbdulQaderRizk,directoroftheartmuseums,beganatraditionofholdingaGeneralNationalPlasticArtsExhibitiontoallownewartiststodemonstrate theirversatilityandcreativity.Rizkwantedtheexhibitiontobringtogetherthemakersandthebuyersofart.Hisideawasthatindividualsandcorporationswouldbring jointinterestsinarttotheexhibitionandbothpartieswouldbenefit. WhenRizkretiredin1972,AbdulHamidHamdibecamedirectoroftheGeneralDepartmentofFineArtsandNationalMuseums.UnderthedirectorshipofHamdi, thenameofthedepartmentwaschangedtotheGeneralAuthorityforArtsandLiterature,consistingoftheAcademyofArtsandtwoDepartmentsforLiteratureand SpecialCreativityGrants.Hisaimwastogiveartistsenoughleisuretimetodevoteenergytocreatingart.4 ChangesoccursomewhatconstantlyintheartworldinEgypt.Itisacountryofdynamicartmovements,manybeinginitiatedbynewartistswhoareinfluencedby outsideartisticmovements,butmostcomingfromsourcesinsidethecountryandinspiredbythegovernmentagenciesthemselves.Soonafterthecreationofthe GeneralAuthorityforArtsandLiterature,theSupremeCouncilforCulturewasinstitutedandbecame,in1980,thegeneratorofallartsprograms.TheSupreme CouncilforCulturecreatedtheNationalCentreforPlasticArtstohandletheactivitiesofthepreviousGeneralAuthorityforArtsandLiterature.Thiswasamajorstep forthecountrybecauseitbroughtlegitimacytothemanyworksandactivitiesoftheartistswhohadworkedontheirown.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CairoMuseumsCairoisfamousforthehugeEgyptianMuseumofAntiquities.Noothermuseumintheworldcompareswithit.Inmanywaysitisthedefinitionofthetermart,for mostpeoplewhoconsiderEgyptianart.Thishasbeenamajorproblemformodernartandartists.Overshadowedbytheancientworldinsuchamassiveway,thefine artstraditionhasgonethroughmanyshifts,trends,andorganizationsinanefforttostabilizeandpopularizetheartisticprofessionsandtraditions.Nevertheless,thereis, andhasbeenforalongtime,amuseumdedicatedtothefinearts. Themostmomentous,yetcharacteristic,acttoadvancethefineartstraditioninEgyptwasthecreationin1930oftheCairoMuseumofModernArt.Itwaslocated intheMosseiriPalaceonFouadIStreet,nowcalled26thJulyStreet.Sevenyearslaterthismuseumwasmovedtothecenterofthecityandlocatedinthepalaceof HodaShaarawinearBabelLouk.AfewEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage85 yearslateritwasmovedtothepalaceofCountZogheibinKasrelNilStreet.Thispalacewasdemolishedin1964tomakewayforahotel,whichin2001stillhadnot beenbuilt.Themuseumhadtobemovedagain,and,thus,itwastakentoavillainFinnySquareinDokkiwhereitremaineduntilitwaslocatedinanewbuildingin GezirehbetweentheCairoOperaHouseandthePlasticArtsGuild.ThechallengeofafineartsmuseumwasundertakeninCairolongafteronehadbeensetupin Alexandria.Thiswascriticalforthegrowthoffineartsinthecountry,buttheinstabilityinlocationswasanindicationofhowinsecurethetraditionwasforaperiodof time.FindingaplacewheretheartscouldflourishprovedtobesomethingthatEgyptiansdidnotseeasapriorityinearliertimes. TheRevolutionaryGovernmentcametopowerin1952withtheideaofopeningnationalartmuseums.Theleaderswereliterallyfullofideas.Insomewaysthey representedthespiritoftransformationthatwassweepingtheworldandwouldcausetheWesternnationstopauseandadmiretheenergyandartisticabilitiesofthe newlyindependentandfreednations.EgyptsNasserwasavisionary,notunlikeKwameNkrumahofGhanawouldbein1957whenhiscountrygainedits independence.Theseweremenwhobelievedthattheircountriescoulddoandbeanythingthepeopledesiredthemtobe.InNasserscase,hewantedEgypttobein theforefrontoftheworldsnationsanddidnotsubscribetotheideathatEgypthadtoremainathirdratenationinanyfield.Asinenergy,soitwastobeinartEgypt wastoreachforthetopineverythingitdid.By1959,thegovernmenthadopenedtwomuseums:theGawwadHosniMuseuminPortFouadandtheNational ResistanceMuseuminPortSaid.In1960,twoothermuseumswerecreated:theNationalMansouraMuseum(DaribnLuqman)andtheDenshwayMuseumin MonofiyaGovernorate.In1962,itopenedthemuseumsofMahmoudKhalil,Gezireh,andMahmoudMukhtarinCairo.InMay1968,anothermuseumwassetupin thePyramidsQuarterandwascalledMohamedNaguiMuseumandin1972,theMahmoudSaidMuseumwasestablishedinAlexandria.5Egypthadfinallyfoundits waytothecreationofagroupofmuseumsreflectiveofthecontemporaryhistoryofthenation. TheMuseumofMahmoudMukhtarattheHuriyyaGardenswasdesignedbythegreatarchitectRamsesWissaWasseftohousetheworksofthepioneerinmodern Egyptiansculpturethatthemuseumwasnamedfor.Thesameyear1962theMuseumofMohamedMahmoudKhalilwasopenedandhislargecollectionof Europeanimpressionistswasdisplayed. WhenPresidentAnwarSadattookofficein1970thecontentsoftheMuseumofMohamedMahmoudKhalilweremovedtotheAmrIbrahimPalaceinZamalek andthebuildingwastakenoverbythepresidency.ByJuly1975,thepublicwasinvitedtoareopeningofthemuseuminitsnewCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage86 quarters.FaroukHosni,asMinisterofCulture,wasabletogetthecontentsofthismuseummovedbacktoitsoriginalquartersaftertheinaugurationofPresidentHosni Mubarak.Mubarakopenedthemuseumonceagainin1995.NationalGalleries Althoughthecountryhadestablishedanumberofmuseums,includingtheearlyAlexandriamuseumandtheCairomuseum,until1966itonlyhadtwopublicgalleries wherepeoplecouldcometoviewtheworksofnewartists.Thosetwogalleries,runbytheMinistryofCulture,weretheFineArtsGalleryintheChamberof CommerceinBabalLoukandtheAkhenatenGallery.Bothwererentedspaces.TheMinistryofCulturesoonopenedtwoadditionalgalleriesintheheadquartersof theSocialistUnionandonemoreintheGezirehFairGroundsthatwascalledNileHall.By1967,itwasclearthattherewasademandforgalleriesasthepublic expresseditswilltopurchaseartandtheartistswantedtoselltheirworks.Anannualbazaarforsellingworksofartwasstarted,butitisbelievedthatsocialor religiouspressuresbroughtthepracticetoanendwithinafewyears. Manyartistsdecidedtotravelabroadtoperfecttheirwork.MohamedAbdulMonemMuradwenttoFrancein1967tostudypaintedfabrics.Uponhisreturn,a projectwasstartedattheRakayibMuseuminHelwan.FranceagreedtogivegrantstoEgyptianartiststostudytextilepaintingattheAubussonInstituteinFrance. Whentheyreturned,theycreatedbeautifultextilesunderthesupervisionofMuradGhalib.Althoughtheprocessbywhichtheworksofartistsisviewedbythepublic seemsdifficultattimes,theworkcontinuesandtheartistsaremakingatremendousheadwayintheplasticartsfield.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.KEYARTISTSAhmedOthmanandMahmoudMukhtarstandastwoofthegreatcolumnsofmodernEgyptiansculpture.Othmanisregardedmoreasanadministratorofart,a guidingforceintheworldofsculpture,andasingularlyimpressivegeniusatdiscoveringwithinEgyptianmaterialsalloftheemotions.Mukhtarisregardedasthe nationalspiritcombinedwithclassicalandWesternstylesasseeninhisworkNahdatMisr(EgyptAwakening),TheGuardoftheFields,andTheBrideoftheNile. HisworksarefoundthroughoutCairo. OnecannotspeakofthefoundationsofEgyptianpaintingwithoutmentioningthenameofRaghebAyyadwholivedfrom1892until1982,spanningagreatpartof themodernperiodofEgyptianart.Infact,AyyadwasEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage87 soinspiredbythefactthatEgypthadsuchagloriouspharaonicheritagethathetriedtoemulatethetraditionbypaintingtheordinaryactivitiesofthepeopleinthe countryside:fishing,farming,andworkinginvariousindustries.Acontemporaryofhis,YusefKamel,wholivedfrom1891until1971,oftenpaintedscenesofthe landscapeofEgypt.Helikedverymuchtopaintthewaythelightwasreflectedinthecolorsoftheflowersinthefields,theplantsinthegardens,treesalongsidethe Nile,andthebeautifulEgyptiansunlightbeamingdownonsomelonelyfarmerorboatman.BothAyyadandKamelmightbecalledimpressionisticartists.Theywere notalone,however,intheiremphasisontheordinaryexperiencesofEgyptians.Otherartists,particularlyAhmedSabri(18891955),MohamedHassan (18921961),OthmanMurtada(18961925),andMahmoudHassan(18991955)madeenormouscontributionstothedevelopmentofmodernEgyptianart.Sabri paintedpeoplewithgreatsensitivitytotheirfaces,seekingtobringouttheirinnermostexperiences,andtoestablishthehumanpresenceasanenduringvisual experience.MohamedHassanwastheintellectualamongpainters.Hisstylewasexact,precise,andhelovedtousethepropercolorsandlinestomakeholistic compositions.MurtadaandMahmoudHassanweresculptorswhoseworkdealtwithnumerousmodernfiguresinEgyptianartandculture.Theirworksaddedtothe valueoftheEgyptianWaxMuseum. AsecondgenerationofartistswastrainedbytheSchoolofFineArtsandbecameleadersintheartestablishmentofEgyptafterthe1940s:thesculptorsSalah AbdulKerim,MahmoudMoussa,andAbdulHamidHamdithepaintersHosnialBananiandKamelMustafaandingraphicsandceramics,KamalAminandHassan Sadek.SomeoftheseartistswerefortunateenoughtobeattachedtoanatelierinLuxorin1942wheretheywereencouragedtomoveamongtheancientmonuments forinspiration.Theatelierwaslaterclosedandtheartistswerelefttotheirowndevices.Insomewaysthisdeepenedtheirgiftsasartistsbecausetheywerenolonger overlyinfluencedbythegeniusofthepast.Manywentontocreategreatworksofart. WomenhavenotbeenabsentfromtheculturallifeofEgypt.Infact,EffatNaguiwasoneofthebestpaintersofhergeneration.HerbrotherMohamedNaguihad beenoneoftheleadingpaintersinAlexandriaatthebeginningofthetwentiethcentury.Butinherownright,Effathadsucceededincreatingherownfollowingby paintingfolksubjectssuchasicons,charms,pendants,andtalismans.Finally,inApril2001,amuseumdevotedtotheworkofEffatNaguiandherlatehusbandSaad ElKhademwasopenedtothepublicinavillaonKarimStreetinHeliopolis,asuburbofCairo.EffatbequeathedthevillatotheEgyptianpeoplewiththestipulation thatherhomebeturnedintoamuseumexhibitingherworksandthoseofherhusband.TheybothpaintedwithcharacteristicfolkloricmotifsandmagicalCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage88 interpretations.ElKhademhadbeenaprofessorofarteducationandwasfamiliarwiththetradesandfolkloricgenres.Oneofthethemesthatisrepeatedinhisworkis theinspirationfromtheNubianandthepharaoniccultures.Effatwasgreatlyaffectedbythisstyleofworkaswell.SheproducedthecaptivatingworksontheZodiac thatbecamealmostasignatureofherwork,particularlyScorpioandPisces,twoofherbestworks.TherehavebeenmanyotherEgyptianwomenpainters, includingInjyAflaton,KamelelTelmissani,TaheyyaHalim,andGazibiyyaSirri,whowerethemainwomenpaintersofthe1950s.Aflatonwasfamousforsurrealistic paintingselTelmissanidrewontheordinarylivesofEgyptiansforherinspirationHalimuseddarkshadesofcolorstodepictanimals,landscapes,farms,andpeople andSirriusedabstractcompositionstoemphasizetheroleofwomeninsociety.ShewastheclosestEgyptianpaintertothefeministideainart. TheJuly23,1952revolutionwaslikeashockwavethatwashedawayalldanglingpiecesoftheartculturenotfirmlyplantedinthesouloftheEgyptianpeopleand gavethemanewfoundbrandofpoliticalart.TherehadbeenmanyattemptstorevolutionizeEgyptianartpriortothecomingofthecolonels.However,thoseattempts hadlargelybeenmovesbyWesternerswhosoughttotransformEgyptianculturalhistory.TakethecaseoftheAlMohawilounorTheEssayistsastheywerecalled in1934.ThiswasamovementledbytwononEgyptians:JulesLevyandAlbertSalitel.ItfailedtogalvanizethemassesoftheEgyptianpeople,butitdidestablishthe factthattherewasapublicwaitingtodiscoveraconnectiontotheWestthroughtheartchannel.TheEssayistspublishedajournalthatwascalledUnEffortandwhat aneffortitwastokeeptheintellectualfocusclearsothattheartistswouldhavespacetowork.Itwasjustafewyearslater,in1937,thatanothergroupwasfounded calledTheNewEasternGroupinresponsetothedesiretohaveastatementfromtheIslamists.Theywere,afterall,inAfricaandreallysouthernersbutthey identifiedwiththeEastasEasternersasareactiontotheinfluenceofthenonEgyptiansinUnEffort. By1939,agroupcallingitselfsimplyArtandFreedomappearedintheartworldand,throughtheirwritingsandlectures,begantoinfluencetheartcultureof Egyptinwaysthattheothergroupshadnot.Therewasagenerationofartistsbeingpreparedwhowouldhavepoliticalcommitmentbutexcellentartisticskills.They wereledbythelikesofGeorgeHenein,RamsesYounan,FouadKamel,andKamelelTelmissani.Theyfoundsurrealismtobeoneofthebestmodesforthecreation ofchangeinthesociety.RamsesYounan,forexample,expressedacontemplationandsurrealistoutlookthatmightbecalledashatteredabstractcompositionwith strangecolorsandshapes(Gharib1998,18).OtherssuchasFouadKamelandSalahTaherCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage89 wereconvincedthattheyhadtousedisturbedcompositionstoupsetthetraditional,toannouncethattheywereindeedpresentintheartisticworld.Theywererebels againstanarchaicpoliticalsituation.Ofcourse,thepoliticalestablishmentarrestedandjailedmanyoftheseartists. Theseartistsinspiredthemovementtowardmodernity,whichthenewabstractartistsacceptedasapartofrebellion.Some,suchasMonirKanaanandAhmad FouadSelim,soughttoemblazontheArabiccalligraphyincolor.AbdulRahmanalNasharwasanimpressionistwhoincreasinglybecameageometrician. Nevertheless,theyinspiredthecontemporaryartgenerationthatis,thegenerationoftherevolutionitselfwhichwasfoundedaround1946bytheartteacher HusseinYoussefAminandthepainterSamirRafe,whohadworkedwiththeArtandFreedommovement.Participatinginthenewmovementwerepeoplesuchas AbdulHadialGazzar,HamedNada,IbrahimMassouda,andMaherRaefinfact,NadaandalGazzarhadstartedassurrealistsseekinganewpathfortheir expression.Theywereoutstandingpainterswhousedmythology,symbolism,andceremoniestocreatetheirworks.SomehaveclaimedthatNadasworkwashappy andmerryandthattheworkofalGazzarwasbasedonfolkthemes(Gharib1998,19).Clearlytheseartistswereconvincedthatitwasnecessarytousethestrongest possibleartisticmethodstobreakwiththearchaiccharacteristicsofmuchEgyptianart. Exhibitionswerethekeytosuccessforthisgroup.TheywereinfluencedbythedevelopmentsintheworldaroundEgyptandalthoughtheysawtheimportanceof Egyptiansocietyanditsrelationshiptothecontemporaryarttheywereproducing,theycouldnothelpbutbeimpactedbythepoliticalandsocialclimatearoundthem. Oneoftheavenuestheyusedtoexpresstheirpoliticswasthroughtheexhibitionsofpaintingsofthepoorpeopleofthevillagesandtheeconomicallypoorregionsof Cairoitself.Theywereonamissionasclearlyandassurelyasthecolonelswouldsoonbeonamissiontobringanewdispensationtothecountry. Althoughthecontemporaryartmovementsurvivedduringtherevolutionandcontinuedtoexhibit,itwouldhavecompetitionwithothergroupsthathadtheir beginningsaboutthesametime.OnewastheVoicesoftheArtist,foundedbythesculptorGamalelSegeiniin1945.Severaltransformationshappenedinthisgroup anditwasfinallycalledModernEgyptianArt.ButthelongestlastingofallthesecontemporarygroupswastheArtandLifeSocietythatwasfoundedbythe intellectualHamedSaidin1946.Saidhadsetastrictdisciplineforhisgroup,disavowinganypoliticalorientation,rejectingEuropeandominationofartconcepts,and avoidingheatedpoliticalandsocialissues(Gharib1998,16). Whentherevolutionoccurred,agroupofartistsinitiatedamovementtoCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage90 underscorethecommitmenttonationalhistoryandevents.The1956TripartiteAggression,asitiscalledinEgyptianhistory,thebuildingoftheAswanHighDam,and theJune1967defeatofEgyptbyIsraelwereallmemorializedbytheartists.TheGroupofFiveArtistsformedin1962byRedaZaher,NabilWahba,AbdulHamid alDawakhli,NabilelHosseini,andFarghaliAbdulHafizwasimportantintheartisticevolutionthatoccurredduringthe1960s.Thisgroupwasmainlycenteredin Cairo.Theirinfluenceonthegenerationthatfollowedwassignificantbecausetheycombinedtheinterestsoftheearlierrevolutionaryeraartistswithaconcentrationof skills,talents,andimagery. AGroupofThreeArtistsappearedinAlexandriaataboutthesametime,andalmostasaresponsetotheCairoGroupofFiveArtists.TheGroupofThree wascreatedin1965andincludedSaidalAdawi,MahmoudAbdallah,andMustafaAbdulMoti.Thisgroupwascalledanexperimentalcadreofartistsandshouldnot beconfusedwithanotherGroupofThreeformedinAlexandriain1969,calledArtandMan,whichincludedAdelelMasri,FaroukShehata,andAhmedAzmi.All theartistsfeltaneedtoexpressanEgyptiancharactertoartandculture.ItwastheLoversofNatureandHeritagegroup,undertheinfluenceofAbdulQader Mukhtar,thatexpresseditsmissionastheaffirmationofaparticularEgyptiancharacterinfineartsin1979. TheEgyptianpeopleareproudoftheirhistoryaswellasthemassivecollectionsofancientandcontemporaryartpresentinthecountry.Thus,thediscovery,orthe rediscovery,oftheKasrelEiniMusuemofMedicalArtscausedastirinCairoanditssuburbsin2001.ProfessorMahmoudFawzielManawi,professorof gynecologyatthefacultyofmedicineatCairoUniversity,hassoughttopreservetheKasrelEiniasamuseumtohonorthepioneersofmodernEgyptianmedicine. OriginallybuiltasapalaceforAhmedibnelEiniin1447,thebuildingwasusedastheheadquartersfortheFrenchExpeditionin1799.ItbecameapartoftheCairo Universityasamedicalschoolin1925.ItistheperfectsettingforthecombinationofartandhistoryofmodernEgypt. ElManawilearnedinthe1970sthattherarecollectionsofmedicalpapers,drawings,illustrations,andpaintingswerenearlyruinedbecauseofplumbingproblems. Hewasgreatlydisturbedbythisconditionandsoughttoagitatethegovernmentofficialsandanyonewhowouldlistenabouttheneedtosavethepapers.Rescuingthe papersstoredinthebasementofKasrelEiniin1973,elManawifoundsupportfromthenMinisterofHigherEducation,Dr.MofidShihab,tosavethedocuments. Theywereinfestedwithinsectsandsomehadbeendamaged.Oilpaintingsandgranitebustshadtoberestoredorcleanedandproperlycurated.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage91 SoonateamoffortyrestorationistsfromtheAntiquitiesRestorationCentreofCairoUniversity,headedbyelManawi,begantheirwork.Theneglectedstorage buildingwastransformedintoawelllit,beautifulshowcaseforthemanyobjectsandpapersdiscoveredinthebasementofthemuseum.Thegovernmentspent2million Egyptianpoundsontheproject,butmuchmoreneedstobedonetobringtheitemstoaninternationalpresentationlevel. AmongtheitemsondisplayisacopyoftheoriginalDescriptiondelEgyptebyDominiqueVivantDenonandhisteamofFrenchwriters.Thiscopywas supposedlydonatedtothemedicalschoolbyFerdinanddeLesseps.Therearealsomapsoftheeighteenthandnineteenthcenturies,raremedicalbooksand manuscripts,andbustsandpaintingsoffamousmedicalpersonalitiessuchasAntoineBertelemyClot,founderofthemedicalschoolTheodoreMaximilianBilharz, discovererofbilharziasisAliPashaIbrahim,thetwentiethcenturypioneerofmodernEgyptianmedicineMohammedOliviPasha,professorofophthalmology,who persuadedPrincessFatimah,daughterofKhediveIsmail,togiveallherpropertyforthesettingupofCairoUniversityandMohammedelBakliPasha,who EgyptianizedtheKasrelEinimedicalschool. ItisbelievedthatthismedicalmuseumistheonlyoneofitskindinthewholeofAfricaorinsouthwestAsia.TheworkdonebyelManawiisremarkableandthe Egyptianpeoplebestoweduponhimthe2000StateMeritAwardforhisindefatigablespiritinbringingtotheforefronttheextensivemedicalhistoryofthecountry.In acceptingtheaward,hesaid,Myeffortsareonlyasmalldonationtoaninstitutionwithoutwhichnoneofourprofessorscouldhaveattainedsuchhighlevelsof excellencesinthefieldofmedicine(EgyptAugust2001,57).Heremainscommittedtorescuingevenmoreworksfordisplay.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.GRAPHICARTSEgypthassomeofthebestgraphicartistsworkinginthecontemporaryartworld.Theyarecommittedtotheirartandthestrongsymbolismtheyhavetodrawuponin ordertoadvertiseorrepresentcorporations,companies,orgovernments.Perhapsnogroupofgraphicartistsinanycountryhasatitsdisposalsomanyvarietiesof artisticimagesandthemesasthemodernEgyptiangraphicartist.Theyareatoncetheintellectualinheritorsofthemostmonumentalcivilizationinantiquityandatthe sametimehavereceivedthelegacyofIslamsmostauthenticallyrichandpowerfulheritageinAfrica.Someofthecreativedesignsoftheartistsharkenbacktothe daysofthegodsandgoddessesoftheancienttimes,andmanyoftheirdesignssimplyEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage92Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.ChildrenmakingcarpetsreflecttheinfinitevariationsofArabiccalligraphy.Inbothcases,theresourcesandskillsoftheartistshavebeenusedinpopularmagazines,airlinejournals,department stores,hotels,andnewspapers.TEXTILESANDFASHIONManytypesofweavingexistinEgyptinfluencesexistfromPersia,TurkeyandAfghanistan.Thecountryisanationthathasnotforgottenitsoldtraditions.Infact,the creativestylesoftheweaversandcarpetmakersaregroundedinthehistoryandcultureofthepeople.Likethethousandsofsculptorswhoworkatthetouristsites,the weaversandcarpetmakersareseekingtodemonstratetheirskillandintheprocessmakealiving.Veryfewofthetextilemakerswilldeliberatelyseworweaveclothes intotheWesternstyle,althoughtheappetiteforWesternclotheshasnotdiminishedinEgyptsincethedaysofJohnF.Kennedy.Egyptiansarealwaysapologizingfor thelackofskilledpeopleinsomeofthetrades,buttextilesisnotoneofthembecausethereisanabundanceoftalented,trainedpeoplewhoworkinthisfield.Indeed, thecarpetschools,oftenthoughtofasexploitative,areresponsibleforcreatingavastnumberofyoungpeoplewhoknowhowtomakealiving. EgyptisthefashioncapitaloftheArabworld.RichprincesandprincessesEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage93Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CarpetschooloftheArabemiratesandSaudiArabiaarriveinCairodailytoshopandviewthelatestinfashions.ButitisnottherichsheiksalonewhofindCairofashionsattractive andappealing.MoreandmoreEgyptiansaretakingtotheshoppingmallsthatarespringinguparoundCairoandAlexandriatofindtheirownspecialdressesoroutfits. Pricesrangefromveryexpensivetoinexpensive,thuspoorpeoplecanalsoaffordtoshopinthemalls.Theclothing,mostlymadeofcotton,inEgyptiswellmadeand reflectsthedesireonthepartofthemanufacturerstobeabletosupplythemasseswithgoodlookingordinaryclothes.Ontheotherhand,someoftheGizaand Heliopolisshopscarrythemostexpensivefashionstobefoundonearth(seealsothesectiononclothinginChapter5,SocialCustomsandLifestyles).NOTES1.ThisdoesnotmeanthattheEgyptianswereuninfluencedbyothercultures.Forexample,themoderncitiesofCairoandAlexandriahavemanybuildingsofFrench, English,andItalianarchitecture. 2.Itshouldberememberedthatmanyoftheartisanskillsaremasteredbytheruralpeoplewithoutthebenefitofschools.Mostofthemaretrainedbytheirparentsfrom anearlyage.OnecanstillfindinthesmalltownsofEgyptcarpetschoolswhereyoungpeoplearetrainedtomakecarpetsforthenationalandinternationalEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage94Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.markets.Inaddition,onefindshieroglyphic,jewelrymaking,andpapyrusmakingschools. 3.ThegovernmentofPresidentGamalAbdelNassersoughttobringallEgyptiansintotheinstitutionallifeofthecountry.Thus,AhmedOthman,oneofthefinestartists inmodernEgyptianhistory,wasgiventhepositionofadministeringtheFacultyofFineArts. 4.ForathoroughaccountingoftheartisticdevelopmentsincontemporaryEgypt,seeGharib(1998). 5.AgoodsourceforthisconcreteinformationisGharib(1998).EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage95Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.5 SocialCustomsandLifestylesINANCIENTTIMES,EgyptwascalledthelandoftheNileandthesun.1EvennowthesetwofeaturesdominatetheclimateofmodernEgyptandhaveaprofound influenceonthesocialcustomsandlifestylesofcontemporaryEgyptians.WinterisfromDecembertoFebruary.Duringthistimethelandenjoysbrilliantsunshine. SpringisfromMarchtoMaysummerfromJunetoAugustandautumnfromSeptembertoNovember.Whilewinteristheseasonoftheclearestskies,owingtothe lackofdustandsandintheair,allseasonsarepleasant.Forinstance,summerisnevertoohotbecauseoftheconstantlyblowingnortherlywinds.Ifitishotduringthe dayitcangettomorethan100degreesFahrenheititwillalwaysbemuchcoolerduringtheevenings.Mostoftheyeartheweatherisdry,becominghumidafew daysayearduringAugust.Inthedesertonecanseeextremelysharpcontrastbetweensummerandwinter,dayandnight,temperatures.However,intheNileValley thetemperaturesareunusuallystable.Onedoesfindcontrastsbetweenthetwomainseasonsbutforthemostpartifitissummer,itisuniversallyhot,andifitiswinter, itislesshotbutwithbrilliantsun.Onecanjustaboutdependontheweatherbeingconsistentfromdaytoday.Inmanyrespectsthisisapartofthelegacyofstabilityin Egyptiansocialcustomsandlifestyles.TRAVELTravelinEgyptisquiteeasyandcomfortable.TheEgyptianpeopleareeagertoassistoneanotheraswellasforeignerswhovisitthecountry.ThereEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage96 aremanymilesofpavedhighwaysforautomobileandbustravelaswellashundredsofmilesofrailroadtrackfortraintravel.Personsseekingtomovebetweenmajor citieswillfindseveralairlinesthatflydomesticroutes.TheprincipalairlineisEgyptAir,however,thecountrysupportsseveralsmallerairlinesaswell.InEgypt,the principalindustrialandeconomiccitiessuchasAlexandria,Aswan,Cairo,Hurghada,Luxor,andPortSaidareserveddailybymodernjetaircraft. RailtravelinEgyptissecondtonone.Thetrainsarecleanandrunontime.Onecanunderstandthatefficiencyisbuiltintothesystemlargelybytradition.Ifthe Egyptianshaveprideinanythingitseemstobeinthewaytherailwaysarerun.Thereisareasonforit.Egyptwasthethirdcountryintheworldtobuildarailroadwhen theCairoAlexandrialinewascompletedinthenineteenthcentury.Allthemoderntrainsareairconditionedandhavediningcars.Normallyonecanfindatrainthatisa rukkab(ordinaryU.S.equivalentoflocal)aswellasanexpress.Therukkabstopsateverystation,whiletheexpressonlystopsatthemostimportantstations. ThousandsofpeopleridethetrainseachdayandoneofthebesttouristexperiencesistakingthetrainfromCairotoAswan.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.OwnershipofPropertySocialorganizationbeyondthefamilyisbasedonownershipoflandorotherproperty.Ownershipiseitherpublicorprivate.ThismeansthatthegovernmentofEgypt cananddoescontroltheownershipofsomelargepublicenterprisessuchasthepostoffice,railways,roads,ports,airports,anddams.Someoftheheavymining industriesarealsosupportedbythegovernmentalthoughthereisheavypressurefromtheinternationalmoneysectorforEgypttoopenupevenmoretoWestern industrializedcapital.Allbankingandfinancialinstitutionsremainundertheauthorityofthegovernment.Thus,whileindividualsandcorporationshavealargestakein theownershipofproperty,thegovernmentisthemajorownerofthemeansofproducingwealthinthenation. Thereisanactiveandenthusiasticprivatesectorthatoperateswiththeguaranteethatprivatepropertycannotbeexpropriatedwithoutjustcompensation.Inthe touristtrade,therearenowinternationalcorporationsthatownsomeofthehundredsofriverboats.Tourismisbecomingoneofthegreatestareasforcapitalgrowthin thecountryasmoreyoungentrepreneurswithWesterneducationsreturnhomefromtheUnitedStatesandEuropetosetupbusinessesdirectlyrelatedtothetourism trade.Theyowncompanies,hirelocals,andengageininternationalcommerceataverysubstantialrate.Thismeansthattheprivatespherehascontinuedtoexpand evenastheEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage97Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.PapyrusstoreinCairogovernmenthastriedtoholdthereinsofmajorindustriessoasnottounsettletheeconomichealthofthenation. Privateownershipoffarminglandsismaintainedandprotectedbythegoverningauthorities,andfarmsaresubject,asbuildingsare,tothelawsoftaxation.Under thegovernmentofHosniMubaraktherehasbeenamovementtowardmoreinvolvementofthemasseswithcontroloffarmsandsmallbusinesses.Egypthas recognizedthebenefitofentrepreneurs,especiallyinthetouristindustry,whoarecommittedtothepoliticalandeconomicgoalsofthesociety.Thereisagrowing respectamongthestateeconomistsforthevalueofnewentrepreneurs.ThishasbroughtaboutalotofchangesinregardstohowEgyptisviewedandhowitviews itselfwithinthecontinentofAfrica,whichisseekingtobroadentheparticipationofitspeopleinthedemocratizingofproperty.FARMINGEgyptisafarmingcountry.AsoneofthethreepillarsoftheEgyptianeconomy(theothersbeingtourismandoil),Egypthasalwaysmadeagricultureakeycomponent ofitslifeasanation.AgriculturewasbornintheNileValleythousandsofyearsagoandhasremainedoneofthenoblestofEgyptianoccupations.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage98Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.FarmhouseandfarmTwoaspectsoffarminginEgypthavecapturedtheimaginationofthemodernperson:theuseofagriculturalimplementstoassisthumanlaborandthedevelopmentof farmirrigation.TakentogethertheseaspectsofthemodernEgyptiansocietyrepresentacontinuingrelationshipwiththepastbecausethereseemstobelittlevariationin someoftheimplementsandirrigationmethodsthatwereusedinthepast.Ofcourse,ifoneweretolookatthelonghistoryofEgypt,thevariationwouldbeobvious. Forexample,waterliftingdevicescamelateinthedevelopmentofagriculture,buttherehavebeensomeshiftsinconstructionanddesign.Theshaduf,thesocalled counterpoiselift,wascreatedabout1500B.C.E.butisquitepresentincontemporaryEgyptasisthesakia(waterwheel)whichdidnotappearuntilthefourthcentury B.C.E. AgriculturecouldnotexistinEgyptwithoutirrigationbecausethereisnotenoughraintherefore,itisnecessarytotakethewaterfromtheNileanddistributeit throughoutthefarmlands.Thishasalwaysbeenthecase,sothepeopleareaccustomedtocreatingtheirownmethodsofbringingwatertotheirfarms.Themodern methodsaremerelyevolutionsoftheold.TheNileiseveryonesrainstormandwithoutittherewouldbenothingbutdesertinEgypt.Ifonelooksatthebeginningof themodernperiodofNileRivercontrol,in1843,onecanappreciatethefactthattheconstructionofelKanaterelKhairiyaBarrageattheapexoftheDeltawasa waytoraiseEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage99 thelevelofwaterupstreamandthenallowthewatertofloodtheDeltainthelowseason.Thenin1902,theAswanDamwasbuilttofurtherthestorageofwater. However,themosteffectivesystemofwaterstorageandfloodmaintenancewasthebuildingoftheAswanHighDamin1960.Waterisdistributedamongvarious canalsunderarotationsystemofwateringandclosingdayswhosedurationvariesdependingontheseasonandthezone. ThishealthysupplyofwaterhasmadeEgyptoneofthebestproducersoffoodinitsregionofNorthAfrica.Cultivationoflandshavebeenincreasedmorethan threefoldsincethebuildingoftheAswanHighDam.Whiletherehasbeenasteadyplantodiversify,thecountrystillhasastrongagriculturalsectorthatplaysamajor rolealongsidetourism,theSuezCanal,oilproduction,andfoodprocessingasapillarfortheeconomy.Cottonistheprimarycropbutothersrice,onions,beans, fruits,andoilcontributetotheeconomyaswell.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.LIFESTYLESHowdothepeopleofEgyptlivedaytoday?ThissectionwilldiscussthewayEgyptiansliveandindeed,insomeinstances,havelivedfromtheearliestoftimes.The customsoftheruralpeoplearequitedifferentfromsomeofthoseoftheurbancentersthathaveincreasinglydefinedthecountryofEgypt.Forexample,themiddle classorrichCaireneshaveamuchdifferentapproachtolifethanthepeopleofEsnawhoknowalloftheirneighborsandwhomaycomeinfromthefarmseachmarket daytomeetrelatives.InCairo,thepaceisratherfast.Onecouldgetverylostinacityof18millionpeople. AlmostallcustomsinEgyptarerelatedtotheIslamicreligionoritsinfluence.ThismeansthatthefollowersoftheCopticChristianreligionandtheJewshavebeen impactedbythepredominanceofIslamicculture.EgyptsparticipationintheIslamicculturedoesnotmakeitthesameasotherIslamicsocietiesinfact,itisquite differentinmanyrespects.ThepeopleofEgyptseethemselvesasconnectedtotheAfricancontinentandhavingsimilaritieswithotherpeoplesofAfrica,particularly SudanandLibya. Yetthemorninggreetingassalaamalaikum(Peacebeuponyou)andtheresponsewalaikumsalaam(andtoyou)aretypicallyIslamicandareunderstood byallEgyptiansregardlessoftheirbackground.Thus,tohaveanyrealunderstandingofEgyptiancustomsonemusthavesomeappreciationoftheArabiclanguage inasmuchastheancientAfricanlanguageMdwNtr(thedivinewords)andotherlanguageshavebeensweptasidebythehistoricaladvanceofArabic. TheArabiclanguageisquiteeloquentinitsuseofadjectives,adverbs,andEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage100 namesofaffection.Thus,Egyptiansareveryfondofusingwordssuchasdear,brother,sister,orappellationsofrespectforelders,leaders,andpersonsofhigh regard.FloridArabicisconsideredthebestArabic,andthosewhohavethecommandofitaredeemedeloquentintheuseofthelanguage.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.WOMENSPOSITIONSAdvocatesofwomensrightsandprivilegeshavebeenmany.QasimAmin(18631903)appearedasadefenderoftherightsofwomenlongbeforeindependence. ContrarytopopularbeliefaboutEgypt,numerouswritershavewritteninsupportoftheliberationofwomen.However,themostimportantwriterpriortothe revolutiontoaddresstheissuewasAmin.HistwobooksTheLiberationofWomenandTheNewWomanrepresentedanassaultonbothOttomandomination andWesterncolonialism.TheLiberationofWomenwaspublishedin1899,andTheNewWomanwaspublishedin1900.Bothbooks,whichwerereprintedin 2000inonevolume,addedtotherichcorpusofAminswritingsandgaveaneworientationtothesocialcustomsofthesociety.HewasamemberoftheNationalist ReformMovementthatchallengedtheWesternintellectualswhoattackedthesocialmoresoftheArabicculture. WhenAminwrotethesebooks,EgyptwasstillunderBritainsyoke,althoughthetimeswerechangingandthesentimentforfreedomandindependencewasgaining groundamongtheEgyptianintellectuals.Buthowcanyouadvancethemovetowardindependenceandrepresentationwithouttakingwomenalong?Thiswastheissue thatAminconfrontedinhisbooks.Heargued,asotherAfricanintellectualswouldlater,thattheliberationofwomenwasaprerequisitefortheliberationofthesociety. Youcouldnothavemenfreeandwomenenslaved.Inthisforwardthinkingwork,Amincontendedthattheoppressionofwomeninthehomewassimilartopolitical oppression.TherewasaseriousphilosophicalbenttoAminsargument.Sincewomenarethenucleusofthefamilyandthefamilyisthebasicunitofsociety,thento liberatewomenwastoliberatethesociety.Hesawtheimportanceofeducationforwomenasthekeytothesuccessofanypoliticalfreedom. AminsoughttoconveytohisreadersthattheQuransupportedhisview.HeusedthesayingsoftheProphetMuhammadasabasisforhisideasonthesubjectof womensliberation.Aminthendiscussedhowsomehadmisinterpretedtheshariaandconsequentlyhadmistreatedwomenbasedontheirmisinterpretations.He attemptedtopresentamorereasonablerenderingofthevariousworks.Furthermore,hearguedthatsocietiestendedtopassdownfromonegenerationtothenext ideasandopinionsthatmaybeEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage101 negativeforthesociety.Thus,thereweresomemenwhokeptwomenoppressedbecausethatisthewayitwasdonebytheirfathersandtheirfathers.Aminresisted thistendencyandopposedtheintegrationofthistendencyintoIslamicfaith. TheNewWomanopenlypraisedWesternideals.HeclaimedthatwomeninEuropeandNorthAmericahadagreaterstatusthaninEgypt.Healsosawvaluein usingthepoliticalstatusofwomeninthoseregionsasacomparativebasisforEgypt. InmanywaysQasimAminwasarevolutionaryinthathisbooksexpressaprogressivevisionoftheroleofwomeninEgyptiansociety.Indeed,Egyptianfeminism waspresentasearlyasthe1890sandwaspromulgatedbyaman.Thus,therecentemphasisinEgyptontherightsofwomenhasaprecedentinthenineteenthcentury workofAmin.TheworkofAminsuggestedthattheintellectualsinterestedintheculturallandscapecouldfindenoughmaneuveringspacewithintheframeworkofthe Qurantoadvanceaprogressivesociety.Evenasrecentas1999,thegovernmentofHosniMubarakestablishedtheNationalCouncilforWomen(NCW)withthe firstladyasitspresident,totackletheimbalanceinwomensrepresentationinthepoliticalprocess.Ofthe355membersofthePeoplesAssemblyjustfiveare women.Thetraditionalviewremainsthatwomenshouldnotbeinpoliticsbecausetheyhaveotherdutiessuchasraisingafamilyandhomemaking.Sincemenarenot usuallytaughttobeattunedtothespecialneedsofwomen,womensneedsoftengounmetbecausetheirvoicesarenotheard.PresidentMubarakhastriedtojointhe NCWwiththeUnitedNationsDevelopmentFundtoincreasefemaleturnoutduringelections.Itshouldbepointedout,however,thatthismovecomesdecadesafter thereversalbytheEgyptiancourtofaquotarulethatexistedduringthegovernmentofAnwarSadatwhen10percentofallassemblyseatshadtobeheldbywomen. Whenthatlawwasstruckdownin1984,thenumberofwomenrepresentativesdroppedfromthirtysixtofive.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.ISLAMANDWOMENEgyptianwomenhavewagedalongstruggleforequality.Althoughtheyhavemadegreatstridesingainingtheirlegalrights,theyremainwellbehindmeninboth socioeconomicandculturalrights.Nevertheless,theEgyptiangovernmenthasexpressedaninterestandcommitmenttotheriseofwomenineverysectorofthesociety (Brooks,1995). LikewomeninotherAfricansocieties,Egyptianwomenhavesoughttobetterthelivesoftheirchildrenandthemselvesbyseekingtoexpandtheircivilrights.Inany Islamicsociety,thissearchfornewrightsforwomenisEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage102 fraughtwithcontroversy.EgyptisaspecialcasebecauseithasledinthefightfortheliberationofwomeninIslam.WhenonethinksofIslamicfeminism,onlyafew nationscometomind.Egyptisoneofthem(Fernea,1998).WesternersoftenthinkofEgyptianwomenaspowerless,dependent,andpassivelysubordinatetomen. YetthisisnotanentirelyaccuratepictureoftheEgyptiansociety.Althoughitistruethatwomensrolesaredifferentfrommens,womenhaveincreasinglyattained recognitionasequalcitizensofthesociety.OnecouldeasilyperpetuateaviewofEgyptianwomenasdisempoweredsincesomuchofthenewsonehearsorsomany ofthefilmsoneseesaboutMuslimwomenarenegative.Butthisviewisadisservicetothecourageouswomenwhohavemadeenormousadvancesinthefaceofmale dominationandinsodoinghavemadetheirowncontributionstosocialandculturalchange. SeveralorganizationshavehelpedthewomenscauseinEgypt.AmongthemaretheAllianceforArabWomen,theArabWomenandValueSystem,theArab WomensSolidarityAssociation,theEgyptianOrganizationforHumanRights,theEgyptianWomenAssociation,andtheNationalCouncilforWomen.Inaddition,the governmenthasadepartmentofwomensaffairsintheMinistryofSocialAffairs.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheIssueoftheHijabOneareaofIslamiclifethathascomeundergreatscrutinyintheWestisIslamicdress(Gole,1994).ManyWesternersbelievethatthedressofIslamicwomenis oppressive.InEgypt,manywomenwearthehijab(thescarfasheadcovering)asapartoftheirdailydress.However,itshouldberememberedthatmillionsof EgyptianwomenalsowearWesternstyledress.AndEgyptianwomencanoftenbeseenwearingIslamicdresswithouttheveil.Manyurbanwomendonotwearthe fullhijab.Infact,CairoandAlexandriaareratherfashionablecentersofmoderndress. InIslamicsociety,dressforwomenisasymbolofcertainreligiousorthodoxies.InsomesocietieslikeIranortheformerTalibanrunAfghanistan,mencreatedrules andregulationstocontrolwomen.Egyptdoesnothaveanystrictgovernmentallawsregulatingwomensdress.Infact,eventheauthoritariangovernmentsofIranor Afghanistancouldonlyimposetheirrulesinthefaceofpublicoutcry.ThosewhostresstheimportanceofIslamicdressforwomenhavearguedthattheyaresimply seekingtoprotectthehonorofwomenandtoprovidefortheirdignity(Ahmed,1992).TheEgyptiangovernmenthasnoneedforanysuchrationalizationtoexplain policy.Mostofthewomeninhighplacesinthesociety,professionalorgovernEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage103 mental,donotwearveils.NotallEgyptianmen,however,approveofthisbehaviorbywomen. Thosewhowearthehijabvoluntarilyaresignalingtheirreligiousconservatism.IfoneseesthehijabinCairoorAlexandria,then,itisprobablybeingwornbyrural IslamicwomenorwomenfromotherMuslimnationssuchastheUnitedArabEmirates.ThoseEgyptianwomenwhodowearthehijabmaintainthatitallowsthemto beobservantMuslims,itprotectsthemfromthelustfuleyesofmen,itallowsthemtogainrespectamongotherwomen,itsymbolizesaresistancetoasecularsociety, anditislessexpensivethanWesternclothes,allowingthemtogetbywithfeweroutfits. EgyptianwomenwhofavorWesterndresstendtowardfashionsthataccentuatetheirfemininity.Theythereforefavorearrings,necklaces,andotherjewelry. EgyptianwomenwhoadoptWesternfashionsarestatingtheirindependence,careerorientation,desiretobelessdeferentialtomen,andselffocus.Incontrast,the wearersofthehijabaredemonstratingtheirmoretraditionalMuslimorientation,andthereforetheirgreaterdeferencetohusbands,family,andbeliefintheseparation ofthesexesinpublicspaces.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.PolygamySinceEgyptisaMuslimnation,polygyny(thepracticeofamantakingmultiplewives)ispracticed.AccordingtoIslamicdoctrine,amanmaymarryuptofourwives. AlthoughmostmeninEgyptdonothavefourwives,theveryfactthatitispossiblesuggeststoWesternersthatwomenareoppressed,especiallywhentheyconsider thatwomenarerestrictedtojustonespouse. Thepracticeofpolygynyismostoftenseenintheruralareasandamongthelesseducated.Manyruralmenbelievethatmultiplewivesmeanmorechildrenand thereforemorehandsinthefieldsforsowingandharvesting.However,inurbanareaswherethecostoflivingishigherandtheagrarianlifestyleisnotsupported,itis difficultandevenfoolhardyforamantohavemorethanonewife.GivenEgyptsrapidpopulationgrowth,theneedformoneyinurbanareasisamajorconcern.With theacceleratingmodernizationofthecities,polygynywillprobablycontinuetoattractfeweradherents.Nonetheless,itisafirmlyentrenchedpartoftheconservative Islamictradition,andMuslimmenseeitasoneofthecardinalvaluesofIslam.WomenandtheRighttoDivorceEgyptisfacingissuesfoundinallmodernsocieties.Thereareinstancesofmenabandoningtheirchildrenandfamilies,impoverishedwomentrappedinunemployment withoutfood,andwomenwhoareinunproductiveandEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage104 oftendestructivemarriagesbutcannotescapethemwithouttheapprovaloftheirhusbands.Evenifawomanshusbandhadabandonedherforyears,shewasnotfree toremarrybecauseshehadnotbeenreleasedfromthewaywardhusband. InMarch2000,EgyptputintopracticeoneofthemostfarreachingfamilylawchangesintheArabworld:Womenwerenowabletosecureadivorce.Some womenhadchosennottomarrypriortothechangeinthelawbecausetheyfearedbecomingslavestomen.Amoreequitablejusticesystemmadeitpossiblefor womentofeelasenseofprideanddignity.Nowawomancandivorceherhusbandwithorwithouthisconsent.Awomancanalsogarnishherhusbandspaycheckby goingtothecourtanddemandingchildsupport.Ifthemanshoulddisappearandthewomancannotfindhim,shecan,withthehelpofthestate,relocatetoan apartmentandtakecareofherchildren. Inthepast,forawomantogetadivorce,shehadtoprovetothecourtthatherhusbandwasadrugaddict,beather,wassterile,ordidnotsupportthefamily. However,inpracticewhatthismeantwasthatamancouldgetadivorceandthewifecouldnot. The2000reformisagreatbreakthroughforthesocietybecausethecivilandcriminalcodesinEgyptareanamalgamofsecularandIslamiclawthisisarealchange inthewaythepeoplelive.In1979,PresidentAnwarSadatissuedadecreethatanywomanwhowantedadivorcebecausesheobjectedtoherhusbandtakinga secondwifecouldgetone.However,itwasonlylegalforafewmonthsuntilacourtdeclareditunconstitutional.Nowthenewlawshouldgivewomensomemore protection.Aninterestingpointoffact:Therearemorethan1milliondivorcecasesfiledeachyear,butthejudgesonlygrantabout75,000.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.WEDDINGSEgyptiansloveweddings.Inthepastmostweddings,evenhighsocietyweddings,wereheldinthehome.Thehostswouldoftencreateareasingardensoronroofsto accommodatethemanyinvitedguests.Thisisnotthecaseanymore.NoweveryonewantstohaveaweddingatoneofthenewerhotelsinEgypt.Theweddingsare quiteexpensiveandincludelivemusiciansandlargelimousines.Toreallyunderscorethefactthattheweddingisimportant,itisnecessarytohaveabellydancer.Inhis bookWhateverHappenedtotheEgyptians?(1995,p.24),GalalAminwrotethatwhenhewasgrowingupinEgypt,weddingsweremoretraditional.Therewere nobellydancers,nobuyingoftheweddingdress,andnocoiffeur.TheseaccoutrementsareEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage105Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.BellydancernowquitestandardinmiddleclassweddingsinEgypt.Theyaddconsiderableexpensetothecostsofthewedding. ThewordforweddinginArabicisfarah,whichcarrieswithitthemeaningofjoyandmerriment.Beforethe1952Revolution,Egyptianscouldnothave conceivedofhavingaweddingwithoutneighborsandfriendsfromthecommunityinvolvedintheactivities.Whiletherevolutiondidnotcausethechangesintheway thefarahwascarriedout,itbroughtaboutnewideas,innovations,andnovelexpressionsofculture.Bythe1970sthemiddleclasshadalreadybeguntohave weddingsinlargehotels,althoughthenumberofhotelswaslimitedbecausetourismhadnotyetbecomesuchamajorplayerintherecreationalindustry.Nevertheless, theEgyptianideaofagreatweddingwasbeingdefinedbythebigbashesattheMenaHouseandotherhotels. Whateverthetraditionshadbeen,newritesandritualsdevelopedasmoreandmoreweddingstookplaceathotels.However,therewerecertainactivitiesthatcould notbeperformedathighpricedhotels.Forexample,thecelebratoryululationsofwomen,thezaghruta,arescarcelyheard,ifatall,atthesehotelparties(Amin 1995,111).Itissurmisedthatmanyoftheweddingpartiesathotelsareattendedbyinvitedguestswhothinkofthezaghrutaasbeneaththembutitmaybemorea matterofhotelprotocol.Havingwomenperformthehighpitchedshrillinthehotelballroomsmightbeseenasoutofplaceinamodernhotel.Butwhataboutthe practiceofEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 10:47 AM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage106 sharingmilabbis(sugarcoatedalmonds)orthedrinkingofsharbat(adrinkmadefromdilutedsyrup)?Athotelweddingpartiesthesharingofmilabbishasoftenbeen forgottenashasbeenthedrinkingofsharbat.Thesearesmallchangesintheweddingcelebrations,eventhoughEgyptianculturesuggeststhatsweetfoodsshouldbe associatedwithgoodtimes.Thesweeterthefood,thebetterthecelebration.ManyEgyptiansrefertosomethingthatisraresuchasafruit.Thus,peoplegotogreat lengthstoaddsweetstotheircelebrations. AccordingtoAmin,thesplendorofthemilabbiscontainerwasoneoftheprincipalmeansbywhichtheupperclassesdistinguishedthemselvesfromthelower.In hotelweddings,however,ifthemilabbisfeaturesatall,itmakesanembarrassedappearanceasiftheremnantofacustomonitswaytoextinction(ibid.).The sharbatisoftenmixedwithfruitjuicestopleasetastesofmoreWesterners,whooftenattendhighsocietyweddings. Aswithmostweddings,thereistremendouspressureonthefamilies.However,hotelmanagersaddevenmoretensionbecauseofcertainnontraditional requirements.Forexample,fewhotelsallowchildrenatweddings,andtheinvitedguestsareoftentoldontheirinvitationsnottobringchildren. Theweddingpartyisusuallysurroundedbymusiceitherliveorrecordedwhichishighlyamplified,makingitalmostimpossibleforgueststoconverse.However, thisisconsideredagoodthingbecauseEgyptiansfeelthatitisquiteEgyptiantohaveloudmusicplayinginthebackgroundataparty.ItisalsoquiteEgyptiantohavea goodtimeatawedding.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.FOODSEgyptianfoodiswellknownintheArabworldandisbecomingmorepopularintheWest,asevidencedbythemanyMiddleEastern/Mediterraneanrestaurantsand theofferingofMiddleEastern/Mediterraneanfoodingrocerystores.TheideaofMiddleEasternfoodsisinterestingbecausethereisrarelyacountryidentifiedwith it,mostpeopleassumethatitrepresentsthecreationoftheMediterraneanbasin,withtheexceptionoftheGreekssincetheGreekshavetheirowntypeoffood.Toa largedegreeonedoesseeinfluencesfromdifferentcountriesonEgyptianfoods,butthemainportionofEgyptscontributiontoworldcuisineisEgyptian.Thisisnotto saythatothershavenotborrowedheavilyfromEgypt,astheworldhasforthousandsofyears,toprovidetheirownpeoplewithrichnessandvariety. ThereisnotmuchregionalvariationtothefoodsofEgypt,andsoitispossibletolistafewofthemthathavegainednationalandinternationalprominence.Kebabis skeweredmuttonpieces,nowtypicallyinterspersedEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage107 withbeeforchicken,grilledovercharcoalandgarnishedwithparsley.TheEgyptiansalsoskewerandgrillpigeonsandservetheminkebabrestaurants.Hamamfil tagenispigeonsburiedinpilafrice,mixedwithcream,andplacedinatagen(claypot)andbakedinanoven.Dulmahormahshiishollowedouttomatoes, eggplants,greenpeppers,orsquashthatarestuffedwithricemixedwithmincedmeat,parsley,andspices.Itisservedwithyogurt.Messakaisslicedeggplantcooked inoilandtomatosauceandtoppedwithmincedmeatandpinekernels.Bamia(okra)iscookedintomatosauceandbeefbroth.Itisusuallytriedwithpaprikaand lemonjuiceadded.Bamianashfaiscrusheddriedokracookedwithpiecesofmuttoninabrownhotsauce.Ruzbelkhartaisamoundofricetoppedwithchicken livers,raisins,pinekernels,andnutsandisusuallyservedwithturkeyorchickencutlets. SomeofthevegetablesgrowninEgyptareasfollows:Tomato,Uta Turnip,Left Artichoke,Kharshuf Cabbage,Koronb Carrot,Gazar Celery,Karafs Cauliflower,Arnabit Chard,Sala Cucumber,Khiar Peas,Besella Eggplant,Betengan Garlic,Tom Haricotbeans,Lubyia Lettuce,Khas GreenPepper,Felfel Parsley,Badunis Potato,Batatis Raddish,Fegle Spinach,Sabanekh Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.ManymodernEgyptianspreparefoodsinthesamewaythatithasbeenpreparedforgenerations.Itisnotuncommontoseeoutdoorovensatwhichwomensitfor hoursbakingbreadastheirgrandmothersdid.PerhapsthisiswhyEgyptianfoodhasgainedawidereputationforbeingexcellent.TheEgyptianwomenareamongthe bestbakersintheworld,andthevariousfoodsofthesocietyarehighlyseasonedandspicedasbefittinganationwithsomanydifferentculturalstrands. FoodisimportanttoEgyptiansduringalongdaybecausetheyriseearlyandstayuplateintothenight.Thetypicaldaywillbeginat6:00A.M.andendabout9:00 P.M.However,someurbandwellersdayswillbeevenlongerbecausetheywillspendhoursfraternizingwithfriendsandcelebratingatparties.InCairo,some nightclubsareopenallnight.Thisisnotthecaseinruralareas,however,becausestrict,conservativeIslampreventssuchbehavEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage108 ior.Bytheendoftheday,apersonhasbeenexposedtofoodsanddrinksreflectiveofthehospitalitythatislegendaryamongtheEgyptians. Egyptianfarmerssendtheircustomersanenormousvarietyoffreshvegetables,fruits,fish,andmeats.NooneneedeverworryaboutthevarietyoffoodanEgyptian willprepare.Mosttableswillhaveacombinationoffruits,breads,andmeats.Theideaistogivethepersonasmuchchoiceasnecessarytosatisfyhungeranddesire. TherearetwomaintraditionsinEgyptianfoods:AfricanandArabic.Africancuisineisseeninthemanyusesmadeoffish,cattle,wildgame,andtropicalfruitsand plants.ThisisacontinuingfoundationformuchofEgyptiancuisine.However,theArabiccuisinethathascometodominateEgyptianfoodisrelatedtowhathasbeen calledtentcookery,withabaseofdatesandricetransportablefoods.Inaddition,theinclusionoflamb,goat,andcamelinthecuisineisdirectlyrelatedtothe ambulatorynatureoftheanimals. Culinaryresponsibilitiesaregenderspecificinthesensethatonealmostneverseesamanbakingortakingonthemajorityofthecooking.Itisconsideredawomans job,andmanywivesbelievethatiftheyareunabletocook,theirhusbandswillleavethem.Theidea,therefore,isforayounggirltowatchhermothersothatshewill masterthetechniquesofpreparingtherecipesthathavebeenhandeddownfromgenerationtogeneration.Onecaneasilyseeyounggirlsofsixorsevenyearsold assistingtheirmotherswiththecookingchores.Bythetimeagirlisfifteensheshouldbeanexpertatmakingthemajordishesoftheculture.Ofcourse,citygirlsare quitedifferentfromruralgirls,andtheydonothavethesamepressuresonthemtoexcelatculinaryduties. RuralEgyptiancookingiscenteredaroundthecookinghearth.Stonesserveasatripodwithapotsetoverburningfirewoodinanopenspace.Allkitchenshave facilitiessuitableforboiling,frying,roasting,grilling,steaming,andbaking.TheEgyptianovenisaseparatestructurefromthehearth,normallymadeofclayasitwould beinNigeriaorSudanorotherAfricannations. Aswithotherthings,EgyptianfoodhasnumerousinfluencesfromothercountriesinAfricaaswellasAsia.Theacquisitionofspicesandrecipesfromthevarious peopleswhomakeupthesocietyhasaddedtotheluxuriantmealsthatareservedinthecountry.Thefoodishighlyappreciatedforitsrelianceonnaturalingredients andtheeasewithwhichitisdigested.Thisdoesnotmeanthatthefoodismonotonousordullrather,itisthatEgyptians,whoprefertheirownfoodstoanyother,have masteredtheartofspicingtheirlocallygrownvegetablesandmeatstomakethemdistinctiveandinviting. CustomandtraditionarealwaysatthefrontdoorofanEgyptianhome.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage109 Soenteringahomebringswithitspecialjoysandritualsthatmustbepracticedandhonoredastheyhavebeenforhundredsofyears.TheEgyptianhostisacreatureof tradition.OnecannotescapethecustomsevenasaWesterner.AnEgyptianisnotexpectedtoresistbut,instead,tounderstandthefundamentalsofgoodetiquette. Futoor(breakfast)isanimportantmeal.Itusuallyconsistsofmorethanoneofthefollowingitems:fulmedames(bakedbeans),gebnabeida(softwhitecheese), eggsandpastorami(curedbeef),halawa(sweetsesamecake),jamorhoney,andchai(tea)orahwa(coffee).Breakfastdishesvaryfromfamilytofamilymanyuse yogurtasabase.Afamilywillusuallybeginthemorningwithchaiandcoffee.OnecanhaveatypeofArabicbread,oftencalledpitaorshammy,withanytypeof meatexceptporkoradip.Somefamilieseatgebnabeidainanejje(omelette),whichalsoincludesvariousvegetables,anddrinkmilkforbreakfast.Otherseata typeofslowcookedmashofbrownfavabeansandredlentilscalledfoul.Mostofthesefoodsarepreparedthedayofserving,althoughsomeofthemarepreviously preparedandkeptforthemorningmeal. Althoughbreakfastisanimportantmeal,theEgyptianfamilygoesalloutfortheeveningmealthatmightstartasearlyas4:00P.M.oraslateas8:00P.M.Itishere whereoneseestheincrediblearrayofspices,meats,andcheesesdisplayedinadazzlingfashionbythecooks.Mostpeopleintheworldhavebecomefamiliarwith manyofthefoodsusedintheEgyptianhomeor,atleast,knowsomethingaboutthepreparationofthosemeals.Forexample,whoisnotfamiliarwiththekebab (skeweredchunksofmeatorfishcookedovercharcoal)orhummus(atypeofpureeofchickpeas),tahina(lemonandgarlicservedwithadip),falafel(adeepfried pattyfilledwithspicedgroundchickpeas),orbaklava(alayeredpastryfilledwithnutsandhoneylemonsyrup,usuallycutintotriangles).Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.FastFoodIndustryThefastfoodindustry(mostlyAmericancorporations)hasinvadedthemajorcitiesofEgyptCairo,Alexandria,andLuxoronedoesnotfindfastfoodoutletsinthe smallertowns.KentuckyFriedChicken,McDonalds,Wimpys,PizzaHut,andBurgerKingareextremelypopularintheCairometropolitanarea,particularlyinthe GizaandHeliopolissuburbs.Traditionalistshavecomplainedabouttheinvasionoffastfood,butthedemandsofurbandwellersforquicklypreparedfoods,especially forthelunchhour,havegainedimmensepopularitysincethe1980s.However,itisunlikelythatthetraditionalkebabandkoftalambchops,lambshank,grilledand stuffedpigeon,andgrilledchickenrestaurantswillbereplacedbytheAmericanEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage110 andEuropeanupstarts.Inmostpartsofthenation,thepeoplehaveneverheardofBurgerKingorMcDonaldstheycarryouttheirdailyquesttosatisfytheirfood desirewiththesameregularityastheirforemothersandforefathersdid. ThepeopleofAswanandLuxor,althoughheavilyinfluencedbythetouristindustry,havemanagedtostayinsidetheirhomesandinsidetheirculturewithoutbeing toomuchinfluencedbythehabitsoftheAmericansandEuropeans.ThisisobviouslyduetothestrengthoftheIslamiccultureinthecountry.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.OtherFoodsSnacksarenotaregularpartoftheEgyptianscultureyettheyarebecomingincreasinglypopularwiththeadventofthefastfoodculture.Therefore,manypeoplehave takentopeanuts(whichtheycallgroundnuts),pineapples,mangos,bananas,andorangesforsnacks.Thisistobeexpectedsincethecountryisabundantlyrichin termsofagriculturalresources,particularlyfruitsandnuts.Onecanoftenfindvendorssellingfoodsonthestreets,includingvariousricebasedproducts,nuts,plantains, andkebabs. Egyptianseatalotofvegetables.Theyarefoundinsuchabundancethatsomefamiliessubsistonvegetablesandfish,nevereatingmeat.Thepriceofvegetablesand fishdependsontheingenuityofthefamily.TheNileRiverprovidesagreatstoreoffishfortheindustriousfamilyandtheearthgivesupitsbountyquitereadilyifthe familyiswillingtowork.BEVERAGESEgypthasmanypopulardrinks.Teaisafavoriteofthemiddleclasses,butthemostpopulardrinkinEgyptisbyfarcoffee,whichisbelievedbyEgyptianstohave developedandbeenperfectedintheircountry.Egyptiancoffeeisverythickandaromatic. UponenteringanEgyptianhome,avisitorisimmediatelymetbythehostofferingacupofmintteaorafreshlybrewedcupofcoffeethisisanageoldcustom practicedforbothsocialandbusinessoccasions.Decliningthisgiftisregardedasuncivilizedanddisrespectfulofoneshost.However,itisperfectlyacceptableto takejustasipandsettherestaside.Thetraditionoriginatesfromthepastwhenpeoplewouldtravelformanymiles,ofteninthehotsunorunderheavyrains(certainly notinEgypt,though).Oncetheyarrivedattheirdestination,thehostwouldofferthemwaterorteabeforeanybusinessorsocializingwouldtakeplace.Theofferofthe tea,coffee,orwaterisnotritualizedinEgyptamongallclassesofpeople.ThosewhoenterEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage111 theportalsofthehousemustknowwhatthecustomsareandthenrespondappropriately. EgyptianmenoftenmeetatrestaurantsandcafesandsitforhourssmokingtobaccofromwaterpipesandsippingtheTurkishstylecoffee.Drinkingcoffeeisa nationaltradition.LocalcoffeehousesmuchlikemenonlyclubsintheWeststillcatertomenwhocometodrinkcoffeeandconverseaboutpolitics,sports,and women.Thecoffeeismadefromfinelypowderedbeansthatarebrewedinasmallironpot.Whenthewaterbeginstoboil,thecoffeegroundsfloattothesurfaceina darkfoam.Itisthenpouredfromthepotintoademitasse.Theheaviergroundssticktothebottomandthelighteronescreatethefoaminthecup.Thisisthemarkofa perfectlybrewedcupofahwa.OnequicklyfindsthattheEgyptianssipcoffeecarefullytoavoidtheheaviergroundsatthebottomofthecup.Whenthelastofthe coffeeisfinished,thecupisturnedupsideallowingthedregstoformapatternthatcanbereadbythecoffeedrinker.Supposedlytheinterpretationofthedregsshould bringgoodconversationtotheparticipants. Agoodstrongcupofcoffeeinthehomeisthoughttobringgoodlucktoonewhodrinkswithafriendandreadsthedregsatthebottomofthecup.Ofcourse,some cannevercompletethecupbecauseofthestrengthofthecoffeeandsoneverhaveachancetoreadthedregs.Manycoffeedrinkersrefertothetasteastartbutthe tasteofEgyptiancoffeereallydependsonthemixtureofthebeansusedinthegrind.ThelargerthepercentageofArabica,thesweeterandmorechocolatetheflavor. Thecoffeecomesinseveralversions.Ahwasadaisveryblack,ahwaarihaislightlysweetened,ahwamazbootismoderatelysweetened,andahwaziyadaisvery sweet.Coffeeandconversationareacceptablereasonstospendtimeatacafe,especiallyinCairoandAlexandria. Anotherpopulardrink,especiallyinAswan,iskarkaday,whichismadefromthehibiscusplant.Itsrichtaste,withthefragranceoftheflower,isafavoritewhenthe weatherishot(whichismostofthetime)inUpperEgypt.Innovatorsoftenaddspicestothedrink,butmostEgyptianslikeitinitsnatural,redform.Muchlikethe ubiquitousAmericancoladrinks,karkadayisenjoyedbymostEgyptians.Theremaybeafewpeoplewhorefusetodrinkitorsaytheydonotlikeit,butmost Egyptiansconsiderthekarkadayoneoftheirfavoritebeverages. Bottledwaterispopularwithtouristsinthecountry.Itisavailableinbothsmallandlargebottlesandcanbefoundonmostofthestreetsneartouristattractions.The EgyptianwatersystemismostlysafeintheurbanareasthedrinkingwatermeetsthestandardsofmostnationsontheAfricancontinent. Freshfruitdrinksarealsoavailablethroughoutthecountry.ShopkeepersblendthewholefruitandsmallamountsofsugariceorsugarwaterandthenCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage112 strainthismashintoglasses.AmongthefruitdrinksthatarepopularwiththemassesofEgyptiansaremanga(mango),farawla(strawberry),mohz(banana),and burtuaan(orange).Onecanalsofindfruitjuicesmixedwithvegetablejuices,especiallykhiyar(cucumber),tamaatim(tomato),andgazar(carrot).Combination drinkssuchasnusswanuss(carrotsandorange)andmohzbilaban(bananasandmilk)arealsoeasilyfoundinshops.Asirlamoon,acommontypeoflemonade,is verystrongandsweet.Itisfoundeverywhereinthecountryaswell. TherearemanyAmericanandEuropeandrinksinEgypt,whichcanbefoundinalmostallstores.ThepopularbrandsofWesterndrinksarePepsi,SevenUp, Schweppes,Fanta,andCocaCola.Whenyoupurchaseasodafromastreetvendor,itisexpectedthatyouwilldrinkitonthespotandreturnthebottletothe vendor. EgyptisaMuslimcountryanddevoutMuslimsrefrainfromdrinkingalcohol.However,onecanfindalcoholicbeveragesbehindcloseddoorsinbars,restaurants, andsomegrocerystores.ThelocalbeeriscalledStellaandisquitepopularamongtheworkingclassandtheupwardlymobile.Zibibisalocalalcoholicbeverage thatisakindofEgyptianouzo,aftertheGreekdrinkofthatname.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.FAMILYSTRUCTUREResponsibilitiesinanEgyptianfamilyaredependentongenderandage.Thepivotalpersonisthefather,whointheIslamictraditionisthepersonresponsiblefor providingfortheneedsofthefamily.Themotherraisesthechildrenandmaintainsthehome.However,themodernEgyptianfamilyischangingandnowonecansee husbandsandwivessharingintheresponsibilitiesofraisingthefamilyandprovidingforthechildren.Insomeinstances,thehouseholdchoresmaybetakencareofby domesticworkers.ThefactthatmenandwomenaresharinginsomedecisionsisnottobetakenasauniversalbehaviorinEgypt.Itisfundamentallyanurban experiencethatwouldnotbetoleratedinthemoreconservativeruralcommunities. Sonsanddaughtersaregiventheirdutiesaccordingtoage.Sonsaretaughthowtobeprotectorsoftheirsisters.Sonsarealsosupposedtohelpthefatherwithhis dutiesinsideandoutsideofthehouse.Whateverthefathersroleis,thesonsroleistobesupportive.Amalechildbecomestheeyesandearsofhisfather.Daughters aregiventheroleofbeingtheemotionalsupportofthefamily.Theylearnfromtheirmotherhowtomakepeoplecomfortable,takecareofthemen,andbecomea goodhomemaker. Educationhascreatednewwaysofapproachingthefamily.Thehusbandandwifearebothallowedandencouragedtoattendcollege.PartoftheEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage113Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CelebratingachildinAswancontemporarychangeinthegenderresponsibilitiesandrolesisduetoeducation.Somethings,however,donotchange.Onesonisstillexpectedtoremainathometo takecareoftheparents.Girlsarestillexpectedtolearnhowtotakecareofthehome.AwomanwhomarriesanEgyptianmanwillusuallynottakehisname.However theroleofwomenisquiteclearlydefinedinthecustomsofEgypt.Awomanlivesatherfamilyhouseuntilsheismarried.Oncesheismarriedsheisexpectedtomove tothehomeofherhusband.Itisalmostunheardofforamantomovetohiswifeshome. Overthepasttwentyyears,changeshaveoccurredinurbanEgyptiansocietyinthewaywomenareviewedandthewaytheyviewthemselves.Ayoungwoman mightholda10to5job,attendgraduatecoursesattheuniversity,cookandcleanathomeforherhusband,drivethroughthecrowdedstreetsofCairoorAlexandria toashoppingcenter,andreturnhomeintimetogowithherhusbandtoaweddingreceptionatoneofthebeautifulCairohotels.Thechangesforwomenhavebeen meaningfulforthesocietybecausewomennowworkingovernmentorbusinessalongsidemen,teachincollegesanduniversities,andholdpositionsinbankingand socialservices.Thus,therelationshipwithmenhaschangedforwomen,andtheynowexhibitgreaterselfconfidenceandindependence. Oneexampleofthechangethatmightconfuseanuninformedonlookeristhespreadofthehijab(thecoveringforthehairthatisnowusedbymanyEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage114 middleclasswomen).Sincethehijabissocommonamongwomennow,itcouldbeassumedthatitreflectsanewprovincialismhowever,GalalAminbelievesthat thewearingofthehijabrepresentsatrendtowardgreatermovementofpreviouslysecludedwomenintotheoutsideworld(2000,84).Soitisnotconfinementor fanaticismthatcausesthewearingofthehijab,butevidenceofmoreopennessandfreedomamongwomeninthesociety. However,thechangingstatusofwomenisnotapprovedbyallEgyptiansociety.Therestillremainsagroupofmenwhobelievethatthechangingconditionsinthe livesofwomenhavecreatedrestlesschildren,instabilityinmarriages,andmorefamilydisputes.Thus,whileitistruethatwomenhavecomealongway,theystillhavea longwaytogotofullequality.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.NAMINGOFCHILDRENThenamingofchildrenfollowsthereligioustradition.Therefore,mostnamesareMuslim.MostchildrenreceivenamesafterindividualsfromtheQuranorfromIslamic history.BoysandgirlsarehappytohavenamesthatrelatetothefamilyoftheProphetMuhammad.ThemostpopularnameinEgyptisthemostpopularnameinthe worldformales:Muhammad.BIRTHDAYCELEBRATIONSTheurbanmiddleandupperclassescelebratetheirchildrensbirthdayswithpartiestowhichotherchildrenareinvitedtoshareinfoodandgames.Itisrareforthe birthdaysofchildrenintheruralareastobecelebratedwithasmuchfanfare.OccasionallythewealthyholdbirthdaycelebrationsatmajorhotelswithWesterndance musicplayinginthebackground.Thecelebrationofbirthdays,whiletraditionalinEgypt,hastakenonsomeaspectsoftheWest.Forsomeurbanbirthdayparties, invitationsareoftensentandguestsbringgifts.SOCIALBEHAVIOREgyptiansnormallybehaveconservativelyinpublic.Theydonotdisplayaffectionbetweenthesexes.Egyptiansareprivatepeopleandbelievethatoneshouldkeephis orherpersonalaffectionsprivateandbehindcloseddoors.Whenmenarearoundwomeninpublic,theyusuallydonotexhibitraucouslaughteroranykindofbehavior thatwillseemuncontrolledhowever,inprivatetheymaybequiteboisterous.Argumentsbetweenfriendsandspousesarealmostnevermadepublictheideaisto guaranteethatnooneelseisawareofaproblem.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage115 Whenamanmeetsawoman,henevergreetsherwithakiss.Ifthewomanextendsherhand,hemayshakeit,but,otherwise,greetingherwithwordsisappropriate andexpected.Furthermore,amannevercommentstoanothermanaboutthebeautyofhiswife.TheseareconventionsthathelptomaintaintheEgyptiansenseof privacyinpersonalmatters.Itisnotanothermansplacetocommentonamanswifesbeautytodosoistomeddle. PrivacyisanimportantaspectofEgyptianculture.Evenhousesarebuiltwithsolidwallstoensureprivacyfromthestreettrafficandneighbors.Peoplewhovisit relativesorfriendsstandatthefrontdoorinsuchawayasnottolookintothepersonshouseandtheydonotenteruntilthehostinvitestheminwithanoutstretched palmuprighthand.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CUSTOMARYBEHAVIORSThepatriarchalfamilyisthebasicunitinthesociety.ItisbasedonIslamicmoralityandreligionandthetraditionsofthesocietyareembeddedinchildrenataveryearly age.Safeguardstothefamilyareprovidedintheformsofsocialinsuranceforthosewhoareill,handicapped,ordisabledbutwomenremainundereducatedand relegatedtothebackgroundinmostruralfamilies.ThereischangeunderwayinEgypt,however,asthelargecosmopolitanpopulationofCairoisdrivingtherestofthe societytowardamoreliberalpolicyregardingwomen.Nevertheless,theoverwhelminglypatriarchalnatureoftheEgyptianfamilyremainsanessentialfactoflife. ThereareanumberofcustomarydutiesthatallEgyptiansmustobserve.Oneofthemostimportantislookingaftersomeonewhoisill.Whensomeonegetsill,the neighborswillgotothehousetogreetthepersonandwillprovidesupport,food,andcomfort.Thisalsohappenswhenthepersonisinthehospital.Avisitormight bringfruits,nuts,chocolates,andcoffeetothesickperson.Olderrelativesofthesickpersonmustpreparerefreshmentsforthosewhoarevisitingthesick.Insucha waythereisageneralattitudeofhospitality. Thesametypeofgenerosityandhospitalityisshownwhentwopeoplemarryorhaveababy.Friendsandrelativesbringgiftsofmoneyorsomethingusefulforthe house.Whenababyisborn,therelativesandneighborscongratulatethewomanandpresentherwithgifts.Mostmothersremaininthefamilyhouseforfortydaysafter thebirthofthebaby.Shewillbetakencareofbyhermotherandsisters.Thebabywillbeheld,changed,andfedbyallofthewomeninthehouse.SincetheEgyptian cultureisverydetailoriented,theneighborsandrelativesmustobservethesocialrulesofcaring,generosity,andrespect.Thesevaluesareactuallycarriedoutbythe kindsofactionsthatpeopletake.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage116 Arabicasalanguagehasanumberofphrasesthatpeopleusetodemonstratetheirrespectandcare.Forexample,whenvisitingasickperson,onemaysay,Maa TeshoofSharr,AferWaafiaInShaaAllah(Ipraythatyoudontseeharm,andbyGodswillitwillbeaddedpointstoyouwithAllahandyouwillbecured).When someoneisreturningfromalongtrip,theneighbormaysay,AlHamdoLillahAlaAlSalamah,(IthankAllahforbringingyoubacksafe).Whenvisitingsomeonewho hasanewbaby,YetrabbaBeEzzekum.WaaAllahYajaluhohMinElThorriahAlSalehah(MayheberaisedinyourgoodnessandmayAllahmakehimbeagood son).Whenvisitingsomeonewhoisgettingmarried,onewouldsay,Mabrook(Congratulations).Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CLOTHINGMeninEgypttypicallywearthegalabea(alongsleevedonepiecedressthatcoversthewholebody).Thisgarmentcomesinseveralcolorshowever,mostmenwear whiteorlightblue.Onecanalsofindthemingray,brown,green,andblack.Theblackisusuallyreservedforformaloccasionsorforfunerals.Thegalabeaisanairy garment,madesotoallowtheairtocirculateandkeepthebodycoolduringthehotsummerdays.ThemultitudeofwhitecottondressedmencomingdownaCairo streetremindsoneofalowcloudmovinginslowmotion.Normallythemenwhowearthegalabeaalsowearthethreepieceheadcoverthatconsistsofasmallcap worndirectlyonthehead,alargepieceoffabric(usuallywool)thatisascarflikewrappingthatcoversthecap,andalargebandthatholdstheentireheadpiecein place.NOTE1.WhenHerodotusvisitedEgyptinthefifthcenturyB.C.E.,heobservedthatthesunandtheNileRiverwerethetwoelementslargelyresponsibleforthecountryof Egyptitself.SincethetimeofHerodotus,theEgyptianshavealwaysrecognizedthespecialfavortheyreceivedfromtheconstantsunandtheperpetualriver.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage117Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.6 TheMediaandCinemaARABICistheofficiallanguageofEgypt,althoughEnglishand,toalesserdegreeFrench,areusedfrequently.EgyptianArabichasbecomethedominantformof Arabicintheworldbecauseofitswidespreaduseinmagazines,television,andcinema.PeopleinotherpartsoftheIslamicworldtendtodefertotheEgyptianstyleof ArabiclargelybecausetheyaremorefamiliarwiththeEgyptianmediaandcinemathantheyarewiththemediaofothercountries.Withthepresenceofthepowerful newschannelAlJazeerainQatar,therewillbesomecompetitiontotheoverwhelmingreachoftheEgyptianmedia.Nevertheless,whatisclearfromthefirstfewyears ofAlJazeeraisthefactthateventhespokenArabicofthenewschanneltakesonmanyoftheEgyptianforms.Thus,Egyptremainsadominantinfluencethroughthe mediaintheArabicspeakingworld.THEINFLUENCEOFPOPULARCULTUREDespiteitsantiquity,Egyptisgreatlyinfluencedbycontemporarypopularculture.Ordinarypeople,aswellasmembersoftheupperclasses,oftenusephrasesand termsfromtelevisionstarsandentertainersintheirconversation.Justasinprevioustimeswhenthelanguageofpoetsenteredtheconversationandcustomsofthe peoplewholistenedtothem,nowthewordsofthemovieactorsortelevisionactorshavebecomethephrasesbywhichpeopledemonstratetheirmodernity.Inmany waysthisparticularculturalstyleofborrowingfromthemediaissuitedtotheEgyptianpersonalityandculture.Egyptiansarefondofpoeticexpressionsandrepartee thatcomefromtheEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage118 cinemaorperformingarts.ThereisastronginterestinsubjectsandthemesthatrecreatethefundamentalvisionofanIslamicsocietybutthereisalsoastrandinthe societythatlookstopopularcultureasthewaytomodernity.Thepersonwhoisabletospeakorholdaconversationandatthesametimerefertosomethingthathas beenonthetelevisionorinapopularmovieisconsideredquitecontemporarybecauseitshowsthatyouareintouchwiththepresent. ThetermpopularculturecannotbetranslatedadequatelyinArabic.Theclosestexpression,Althaqafaalshabiyya,referstofolklore,quaintspeech mannerisms,andfestivals,andsodoesnotreallyconveythesamethingastheEnglishtermpopularculture.1 Masscultureisconsideredtheprovinceofthenonintellectual,theignorant.Manypeopleseethetraditionalculturesasbackward.Thisisnotunlikethesituationin manyAfricancountrieswheretheculturesoftheancestorsarelookeduponasnotfunctionalinthemodernworld.YettheEgyptianpeoplerecognizeadidactic tendencyintheculturethatalwaysbringstheartistbacktotheauthenticpathwaysofthetraditionalculture.Onecouldexpand,elaborateinways,andperhapsmodify, butitmustallbedoneinaccordancewiththetraditionalstandards. Aprominentliterarycriticonceaskedthequestion,IsthecultureoftheEgyptiancountrysidetrulysuitabletodaytobetherawmaterialforthecivilizationofthe 20thcentury?(Awad1969,6).AwadpuzzledthatthebourgeoisieofCairoistryingtosavethebourgeoisieoftheprovincesfromthecoarsehellofthecountryside lurkingallaboutthemlikeaghoulwaitingtoambushthemandswallowthemup(1969,p.6).Ofcourse,thesevereattackthatAwadleveledagainsttherural peasantscouldhavebeenmorebitterhadheattackedtheurbanpeasants.They,too,didnotlivethemodernlifealthoughtheylivedsoclosetomodernity.Whatwas trueofthecountrypeoplewasalsotrueoftheurbanpeasants. Modernculturehasundergoneareevaluationsincethetimeofthe1967warwhenEgyptwashumbledbytheIsraeliarmy.Thisdefeathadadefiningcharactertoit fortheEgyptianpeople.Itmeantaquestioningofeverything,includingthepopularcultureanditsuseinthedevelopmentofthenation.By1973,theendofatransition periodawayfromtheoldformofimitatingtheWestculturallytoanew,bolderselfassertionofEgyptianculture,thesocietyhadfoundrespectabilityagainonthe battlefield.Ithadalsofounditselflookingtoitsownculturalrootsinanationalisticswingtomodernity. TheInfitah(opendooreconomicpolicycomingafter1973)acceleratedthepathtowardmodernity.Egyptians,likemanyAfricanandArabicnations,feltan obligationtodemonstratetheirunderstandingandappreciationoftheCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage119 modernworld.Egyptwasbentonbeingnotjustamakeroftheancientworld,butafigureinthemodernconstructionofhistoryaswell. ThereisnowaythattheEgyptiansociety,withitsnaturalhistoricalheritage,couldabandoncompletelyitspast.Inthesensethatitistiedtoitspast,Egyptisdifferent frommanycountriesthatwanttoabandontheirpasts.FortheEgyptians,modernityisbestdefinedintermsthatemphasizecontinuity,notdiscontinuity.Thisisa rational,logicalapproachtomodernity.Inthemindsoftheintellectuals,mediaandcinemawouldserveastwinenginestobringthenationintothemodernworld. However,Egypt,perhaps,ofallArabicculturesfindsitselftornbetweenthedesiretodefendtheclassicallanguageandtodemonstratetheflexibilityinthepopular languagethroughthemediaandcinema.Therearetwostreamsofcommunicationgoingonallthetime:theclassicalwrittenlanguageandthespoken,mediated languageoftelevisionshows.TheEgyptianpeopleareapracticallot,andtheyrespondtoboththeclassicalandthepopularlanguage.Intheend,theywillprobably makefurtherinroadsintothenatureoftheclassicallanguagesincelanguagebynaturegrowsandincreasesincomplexitywithageandtime. Slangexpressionscomefrompopulartheater,film,andtelevisionandcanhaveanimpactonthewayyoungerEgyptianscommunicate.Tosayshehasal timsaha(whichliterallymeanscrocodile)istospeakofsomeonesmaterialachievements.Justasthisexpressionhasdevelopedoutofthematerialconditionsand responsesofthepeopletoculturalartifacts,otherlinguistictermswillcertainlyappearasthepeoplespeakthelanguageofthepopularculture.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.THEMEDIATelevision Televisionhasbecomeacriterionformodernityinmostsocieties.Egyptisnodifferent.ThisisnottosaythattheriseoftelevisioninEgypthasbeenwithoutitscritics. TherearethosewhoapplaudthepresenceoftelevisionbutdecryitsuseinEgypt.Theproblemsarenumerousasseenbycriticalviewers.Manymembersofthe governmentrecognizedthatsomethinghadtobedonetoimprovetheconditionoftelevision.In2001,MervatRagabwasnamedchairwomanoftelevisioninEgypt. ShewasaskedtorestoretheEgyptiantelevisiontoitspastglories. BroadcastingbeganinEgyptasearlyas1928withradio.Whentelevisionwasaddedinthe1940s,ERTV(EgyptianRadioandTelevision)becametheEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage120 firstcompanyofitskindontheAfricancontinent.TheEgyptianTelevisionOrganizationwasfoundedin1960,andMiddleEastRadiowasfoundedin1964.These remainthemajortelevisionorganizationsinthecountry. ThereareseveralissuesthatconfrontEgyptiantelevision.First,unlikemostdemocraticsocieties,thereislittleinvestigativereporting.Second,theredoesnotseemto beamasterplanfortelevisionprogrammingthatpreciselystatesitsmissioninEgypt.Third,criticsbelievethattelevisionprogramminginEgyptneedstoberevamped. AlloftheseproblemshavebeensetoutbyMamdouhelDakhakhniinanarticle(2001,22).2HiscontentionisthatthelackofhardnewsonEgyptiantelevision meansthattheviewersdonotlearnmuchaboutwhatisgoingonintheworld.ThemostpopularnewsprogrammingintheArabicspeakingworldcomesfromAl Jazeera,abroadcasttelevisionstationbasedinthesmallemirateofQatar.SoonaftertheattackontheWorldTradeCenterandthePentagononSeptember11,2001, AlJazeerabeganbroadcasting,directlytotheArabicworld,theresultsoftheAmericanbombardmentofAfghanistan.SeveraltimesAlJazeeracorrespondentswere abletogainaccesstonewsthatthelargeWesternnewsservices,suchastheBBCandCNN,werenotabletosecure.InEgypt,AlJazeerabecametheauthoritative sourceofinformationaboutAmericasWaronTerrorism.Severaltimesinlate2001,AlJazeerawasabletogaininterviewswithMullahOmarandOsamabin LadenwhenWesternjournalistscouldnotfindthem.Egyptiantelevisionhasnotbeenabletobreakoutofthemoldoffollowinglocalpoliticiansaroundasiftheyare reportingonwhatisgoingonintheworld.Investigativereportingislacking. ThethreemainchannelsofEgyptiantelevisionimitateoneanother.Thereishardlyanydifferencebetweenthemwhenitcomestoprogramming.Viewersoften complainthatthereisnovarietyandlittlediversity.OnechannelcouldquiteeasilyspecializeinpresentingthepersonalstoriesofordinaryEgyptianssuchastheCopts, theBedouins,ortheNubiansthiswouldbeaneducationforthecountrysviewers.AnotherideawouldbetocoverthenewsofothercountriesinAfrica,andifnotthe entirecontinent,certainlythenewsinLibyaandSudanthis,too,wouldleadtoaninformedpopulation.Asitisnow,eachofthethreemainchannelsplaysitsafeby spendingtheirtimedoingwhattheybelievetobeacceptablepolitically.Thetenorsosatellitechannelsaretoomanytobefollowedregularlyandmanyadultsdonot liketoleavethosechannels,iftheycanaffordsatellite,totheirchildren.However,theywouldliketohaveinterestingandinformativeprogramming. InElDakhakhnisopinionEgyptianTVisverynoisyandeachprogramhasanunnecessarilylongpreamblewithblaringmusic,flashingpicturesandlonglistsof nameswhichservelittlepurpose(2001,23).3AnyonewhohasCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage121 watchedEgyptiantelevisionknowsexactlywhatheistalkingabout.Almostallprogramshavelongintroductionsthatreallytakeawaytimefromtheprograms themselves.Insomesocietiescreditsrunquicklyandsilentlyattheendoftheprogram.Itmay,however,beapartoftheEgyptianculturethatcouldbemodifiedrather thaneliminated. Inadditiontotheseissues,ElDakhakhnifindsanotherproblemwiththewaytelevisionprogramsarestructured.Hebelievesthatscriptwritersarenotusingallofthe possibilitiestheyhaveavailabletodevisestoriesthataresubstantive.ThereisnothingoftheherowhohasbothgoodandbadqualitiesinEgyptiandramathereareonly characterswhoareinvariablyeithercrooks,womanizers,wheelerdealersordrugtraffickers(ibid.). PerhapswhatElDakhakhniwantedtodowasinformthenewchairwomanoftelevisionthatalleyeswouldbeonherasshetriedtoreformtheindustry. Furthermore,sinceEgyptiansareinfluencedbytelevisionintermsofbehavioranddress,itwouldbeintheinterestofthecountryforprogrammingtobetakenmore seriously.Infact,ElDakhakhniwasencouragedbythepossibilitythattelevisioncouldbringaboutasalutarychangeinthebehavioralpatternsofsociety.Itispossible thatthelate1980stheeraofTheWhiteFlagwastheperiodofpastgloriesthatthegovernmentofficerswerereferringtowhentheyappointedMervatRagab. TheWhiteFlagwasanEgyptiantelevisionserialthatfirstairedonDecember5,1989.ThepowerfulopeningthatshovedsereneshotsoftheMediterranean coastawindsweptcornichenearAlexandriawasbrokenbycannonbombardmentandabulldozerrazinganarea.Afemalevoiceopensthefirstspeakingscene withExcuseme.Thisisntanewworldwar.ItsFadda.Asixtyyearoldwomanyells,Hammo,boy!Thecrocodile,letsgo! ThecharacterFaddaalMadawiwouldentertheEgyptianimaginationforthenextfifteennightsasfewothercharactershadeverdone.Herwordswouldbecome partofthepopularculture,andordinarycitizensonthestreetsofCairoandAlexandriawouldtaketheconversationofTheWhiteFlagtothecoffeehouses.The MercedesBenz300thelonger,lower,costliermodelwasthealtimsaha,crocodile.AlesserversionoftheGermancarwascalledthekhanzira(thatis,pig) becauseitisboxier,lessflashy,andlessexpensivethanthecrocodile.InEgyptianslang,thenewerMercedeswitharaisedrearendiscalledsomethinglikethe backsideofachicken,zalamukka. Whatwasmosttellingtothecriticsaboutthisshowwasthattheapparentvilenessofsomeofthescenesnothingofcourseapproachingwhatonewatchesinthe Westwasatremendoussuccess.FaddawasapersonwhousedlowclassArabicandunmistakablygavethecommon,everydaypersoninthestreetsomeonewith whomtoidentify.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage122 Accordingtooneobserver,theuseofthecrocodilecatchphrasewaslargelyajoke.AyoungmalefriendlivinginapoorquarterofCairoleftthehousecallingtohis brotherMuhammad,WalahHammo!Alshanta,yalla(Hammo,boythebag,letsgo!).Therewouldhavebeennopointinhimorthousandsofothers impersonatingFaddaifthejokehadnottouchedonsomethingrealtheknowledgethatsomeonewhotalkedlikeFaddaalMadawicouldneverlegallyacquirethe meanstobuyatimsahabutajokeimpliesambiguity.4WhattheobserverunderstoodwasthefactthatEgyptianssawsomanypeopledrivingMercedesthat Faddaswordshadmeaning.Howcouldapoor,hardworkingperson,whospokelikeFadda,obtainaMercedeswithoutbeingacriminal?Infact,therehadtobe someformofgreed,vulgarity,borderlinecriminality,andguiletoallowapersonsuchasFaddatosucceed.Intime,thenameFaddabecamesynonymouswithbeing pushy,vile,andvulgaritisalsousedtoindicatesomeonewithnoclass. EgyptiansrespondedtoTheWhiteFlaginanationaloutpouringofdiscussion,debate,andevaluation.Somepeoplehaveviewedsuchshowsasanattackonthe divisionsbetweentherichandthepoor.AcommoncomplaintwasthatEgypthadbecomeacountryofmoney.Yetpeopleralliedtothepublicdiscussionsoftheshow toexpresstheirsupportfortheissuesthatwererevealedintheserial.Middleclassmenandwomencrowdedhallstodiscussthepowerofmoneyinthesociety.Fadda wasconsideredtheevilcharacterandDr.Mufid,theopposingcharacter,amuchbetterperson. Thedirectoroftheserial,MuhammadFadil,achievedsuperstatusbyconstructingadramathatrevealedtheextremesofgoodandevil.Fadilsaidthatthereasonhe choseawomantoplaytheevilcharacterwastoheightenthesenseofgoodandevil.MoneyplayssuchamajorroleinthelifeofCairo,butthisisnodifferentfrom othersocieties.However,inacityof18million,whereonemightcounttenMercedeseachcostingmorethan$50,000withinfiveminutesindowntownCairoor Heliopolis,andyetmostworkersearnlessthan$20,000amonth,thedivisionbetweenrichandpoorisbrutal.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.NEWSPAPERSThepresenceofaEuropeanprintingpressontheAfricancontinentdatesbackto1794inFreetown,SierraLeone.AssoonasthepressarrivedfromLondon,a Frenchraidingpartycameashoreanddestroyedit,sackedthecity,rapedthewomen,andslaughteredthelivestock.5FiveyearslatertheFrenchinvadedEgyptunder NapoleonandbroughtwiththemthefirstmodernprintingpressinEgypt. EgyptspressmayhavestartedwithAlIttihadalMisrinAlexandriain1871.AlthoughthisnewspaperwasfoundedinthelatterpartofthenineEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage123 teenthcentury,ithasremainedvibrantandoccupiesofficesonShariSidiAbdarRazzakinAlexandria.WithitslocationontheMediterraneanSea,thecityof AlexandriahasalwaysseenlivelyjournalismfromnewspaperssuchasBaradachCharikat,LeJournaldAlexdrie,AsSafeer,TachydromosEgyptos,andLa Reforme.InCairo,thenewspaperspublishinginArabicaremainlyAlAhram,ElShaab,AlalamAlyoum,AlMessa,andAlGomhuria.Ofthese,AlAhramisthe largestcirculatingnewspaper.GiventhefactthatbothCairoandAlexandriaareimportantcosmopolitancenters,Egypthasmanyforeignlanguagepublicationsincluding theimportantEnglishlanguageCairoTimesandtheMiddleEastTimes. Egyptisacountrywithastrongtraditioninjournalism,althoughtheprofessionhasoftencomeunderfirefromgovernmentofficialswhoaredispleasedwithsomeof thearticleswrittenbythejournalists.Thistension,betweenwhatthepoliticiansseeastheneedforsocialandeconomicdevelopmentandwhatthejournalistsseeasthe needfordemocraticdevelopment,isatthecoreofmanyproblemsjournalistsfaceinEgypt. TheEgyptianjournalistshavetriedhardtomaintaintheirindependenceinthefaceofsometimesbittercriticism.Theyhavebeencriticizedbypoliticiansandassaulted byreligiousfundamentalistsfortheirreporting.Despitetheconstantthreatofharassmentandthepossibilityofcensorship,thenewspapersinEgyptmanagetopublish enoughnewsarticlesthatmanyEgyptians,especiallyinCairoandAlexandria,havecometorelymoreonthenewspapersthanthetelevisionforhardnews. Yetitistruethatnewspapersmustbecautiousincountrieswherethegovernmentcontrolsmuchofwhatthepressdoes.Forexample,thegovernmentalwayshasin itshandsthepowertoseizetheprintingpresses,toownthenewspapersoutright,ortocontroltheallocationofnewsprint.Ittakesintegrityandasenseofmissionfora journalisttosufferabusefromgovernmentandstillretainacommitmenttodemocraticprinciples.OneofthebestexamplesofEgyptianheroisminjournalismisthecase ofMustafaandAliAminofthepopularnewspaperAlAkbbar.Thepublisherswereunderattackbyseveralgovernmentsandcreatedanauraofconsistencybasedon theirilltreatmentbyofficialswhodislikedwhattheywrote.Infact,Mustafawasarrestedtwentyonetimesin1950beforetherevolution.Aftertherevolution,in1960, PresidentGamalAbdelNassernationalizedAlAkbbarandallofMustafaspublishinginterests.In1965,Nasserchargedhimwith165crimesandimprisonedhim. OfteninEgypttheaimsofAlAkbbarandthoseoftheauthoritarianNasserwereatoddsinsuchcasesthejournalistsalmostalwayslost.Intheend,thelosswasthe peoples.In1974,afterbeinginprisonfornearlytenyears,MustafaAminwasfreedbyPresidentAnwarSadat.ThevenerableEgyptianjournalistwasquotedinthe InternationalCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage124 HeraldTribune(April8,1982)assaying:Afreepressisalightinthedarkness.Asfarasdemocracygoes,Americahaditwhenitsilliteracyratewasashighas Egypts.IfwewaituntileveryEgyptianhasaPh.D.wewillneverhavedemocracy. In2001,theindependentnewspaperAlNabaaMamdouhMahranpublishedanonpoliticalexposeaboutaCopticmonkwhosoughtfavorsfromthewomenwho visitedhismonastery.ThereportwaswidelycriticizedbytheCopticestablishmentandwiththeurgingofCopticsupporters,includingsomeMuslims,theownerofthe newspaper,Mahran,andhissonHatemhadtheirmembershipinthepresssyndicaterevoked.Inapowerfulstatementaboutfreedomofthepress,theadministrative courtrescindedthesyndicatesdecisionthathadbeenbasedontheclaimthatMahranworkedinthenewspaperthatheownedinviolationoftherulesofthesyndicate. Mahranpresentedevidencethathesoldhissharestooneofhissons,andHatemsubmittedevidencethathiswifeactuallyownedhisshares. ThecaseagainsttheCopticmonkwasimportantinthatitstruckattheprotectionfromscrutinythatmanyclericsholddear.Whatsomefearedisthatthepresscould seektoexposethesexuallivesoftheIslamicaswellastheChristianclerics.Therefore,thecampaignagainstAlNabaaMamdouhMahranwasjoinedbymany groups.FailuretoclosedownthenewspaperortorevokethemembershipofthepublisherandeditormeantthatEgypthadadvancedpresslibertyonemorenotch. AlthoughEgyptianpapershaverespondedtoissuesofmoralturpitude,theyhavebeenmostlyembeddedindiscussionsofpolitics.Thishasbeentheareainwhich theyhavereceivedthemostpraiseaswellasthemostcriticism.ThisisespeciallytrueinregardtothecontinuingcrisisbetweenthePalestiniansandIsrael.Egypt, havingmadeitspeacewithIsraelduringtheregimesofAnwarSadatofEgyptandMenachemBeginofIsrael,hasasensitiverelationshipwithIsrael.Manyincidents andissuescomplicatethisrelationshipfromtimetotime. Liketelevisioninallcapitalistcountries,theroleofadvertisingisessential.Egypthasadiversemediathathasrespondedinatrulymodernwaytothemanythemesin contemporarylifefromAlQaedaandOsamabinLadentoMilanoorParisfashions,fromthePalestinianstatetotheroleofColinPowell(anAfricanAmerican)in internationalpolitics.Butthedifficultywiththemediainstitutionsisthatsomeofthemhavemoneyandsupportandothersdonot.Infact,itisclearthatthenewspaper giantsAlAhram,AlAkhbar,andAlGumhuriyyaarewellsupportedbythestateandadvertising,whilethesmallercompaniesarelosingadvertisingdollarsand beingmarginalized.Infact,theleadingoppositionnewspaperAlWafdhaslostsupportanditspoliticalteethtothepointwhereitconsistentlysupportsthe governmentsCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage125 positions.NowthemainoppositionnewspaperisAlShaab,abiweekly,however,thispaperwassuspendedbythegovernmentafteraclashbetweenreligious studentsandthepolicewhenthepaperranacampaignagainstanovel. WhiletheEgyptianpressisverydiverseandfreedomofthepressisgenerallypaidlipservice,therearesomeworrisometrendsforthegovernment.Oneofthemis thedevelopmentofprivatenewspapersthatseektocircumventallofthelegalregulationsplacedonpublications.Theyarelicensedabroadandareoftenprintedinthe NasrCitytaxfreezoneoutsideCairo. However,theredoesnotseemtobeanycrediblethreatfromtheseprivatelyownednewspapers.TheJournalismSyndicateisheadedbyIbrahimNafie,board chairmanoftheflagshipdailyAlAhram.Furthermore,thestateownednewspapersdominatetheranksofthesyndicateandhavemadeitdifficultformembersof privatelyownedcompaniestoshareinthesocialandfinancialbenefitsthatcomewithbeingapartofthesyndicate.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CINEMAEgyptisathoroughlymoderncountryintermsoftheavailabilityofcinema.OnecanseeverygoodEgyptianmoviesaswellasfilmsmadebyforeigncompanies.Most citieshavecinemahouses.AlexandriaandCairohavesomeofthehighestnumbersofcinemasinallofAfrica.AlexandriaalonehastheRio,Odiun,Strand,Ryiaito, Royal,Radio,Metro,andAmer,amongothersmallermoviehouses. CinemaispopularinEgyptandhascontinuedtogainpublicapprovalsincetheheydayofthefilm,19401960.Mostofthefilmsproducedduringthisperiod emphasizedEgyptsWesternorientationinasmuchasthefilmindustrywasmainlyaninnovationfromEurope.Filmsoftheperiodcelebratedtheurbaneliteandshowed CairoandAlexandriatobecitiesoftheworld.AmongthefilmsthatareregardedasclassicsinEgyptiancinemaareMaboudaalJamahir(Diva)andShayminal KhaufwhichisafilmaboutfearunderthereignofGamalAbdelNasser.Anotherfilm,althoughmorerecognizedasaplay,isRayawaSkinawhichisbasedonthe truestoryofthefirsttwowomenwhowereofficiallyexecutedinEgypt. ThecinemahousesshowmainlyArabicfilms,buttheyarealsoshowingincreasingnumbersofforeignfilms.Whatismoreunlikelyistolocatethebestplacestosee documentaryfilmsbysomeofEgyptsfinestfilmmakers,althoughtheyarefindingtheirwayintotheinternationalarena.Forexample,TahaniRacheds1997 documentary,FourWomenofEgypt,isapowerfulportrayalofreligious,social,andeducationalrelationshipsbetweendifferenttypesofwomen.ShahendaMakladis aMuslimwholostherhusbandtoaEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage126 politicalassassinationbeforeshedecidedtopursuepoliticalofficeherself.SheisjoinedinthemoviebyAminaRachid,whowasraisedinanonreligious,aristocratic householdbeforeembracingsocialismandseekingtoadvancesocialjusticeforwomenandthedowntrodden.WedadMitryisadevoutChristian,amilitantnationalist leaderandauthor,whoisamentortoShahendaMaklad.ThenthereisSafynazKazem,apoliticaljournalistandstrictMuslim.GiventhefactthatEgyptisalandof manyculturalandpoliticalstrands,theexplorationbyRachedofthesefourwomenslivesisimpressive.However,therearemanymorestoriestobetold.The documentarycouldhaveexamined,forinstance,thelivesoftheblackEgyptianwomenofAswanvisa`visthewomenofthenorth.Itgoeswithoutsayingthat Egyptiantheater,likeothersectorsofthesociety,hasmadetheblackEgyptiansalmostinvisible.YetthefilmFourWomenofEgyptrevealsalotaboutthereality behindtheWesternmythofEgypt.Rachedhasmadetwoimportantachievementswiththisfilm:ontheonehandthefilmhasexposedthecontradictoryelementsof Egyptianlifeandontheotherhandithasshownhowitispossibleforwomenfromdifferentwalksoflifetodiscovercoherenceandmeaning.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.CONCLUSIONThereisarobustinvolvementwiththemediainEgyptiansociety.Egyptianpeoplesincerelylovetheirnewspapersandtelevision.Alloftheartsofbroadcastingand mediadisseminationhavethousandsofdedicatedworkerswhoarecommittedtotheprinciplesofdemocraticmedia.WhilethemediahasalonghistoryinEgypt,that is,since1799whentheFrenchbroughttheprintingpress,italsohasacheckeredhistorybecausesomanyofthepastleadersofthecountryhavewantedtodictate whatthemediashouldprintorbroadcast.Manyjournalistshavebeenvictimizedbyoverzealouspoliticianswhohavetriedtokeepcriticalinformationfromreachingthe public.Nevertheless,Egyptcontinuestohavecourageouschampionsofthedemocraticpressandunquestionablytheyhavebecometheleadersofjournalismformany intheArabicspeakingworld.SpurredonbyAbuDhabiandAlJazeera,Egypt,withitsmorethanampleintellectualresourcesforademocraticmedia,willprobably takeupitsleadershipinthebroadcastingofhardnewsfromvariousspotsaroundtheworld.Thelackofastronginvestigativereportingcadreissomethingthathas beenlamentedbythemostastuteobserversoftheEgyptiansociety.NOTES1.Sowhenwespeakofpopularculture,wearedoingnothingmorethantalkingaboutamodeofrecognizingwhatiscurrentinthemasspublic.Thus,thepersonEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage127Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.whoisabletorefertosomethingthathasappearedontelevisionorinamovieissaidtobein,asininsidetheculture.Butthisisnottobemisunderstoodas popularcultureintheWesternorAmericansense,butasanawarenessofwhathasoccurredinthemedia. 2.ItshouldalsobenotedthatInformationMinisterSafwatalSherifsoughttomodernizeEgyptianvisualmediaintheearlypartof2000.Helaunchedtheconstructionof themassiveMediaProductionCity(MPC)outsideofCairoandalsoestablishedtwoEgyptiansatellitechannelsaswellasintroducedselectedforeignsatellite channels.ThecomplexhasbeendeclaredamediafreezonetoencourageclientstotakepartintheMPC.ActuallyAlJazeera,theQatarsatellitechannel,has takenupspaceforproducingandbroadcastingsomeprogramsfromtheMPC.ItisstilltooearlytotellifAlJazeerasnoholdsbarred,open,andfreeapproachto broadcastingcanexistforlongasapartoftheMPC.WatchedbymillionsofviewersacrosstheArabicspeakingworld,AlJazeerahasbecomeaforumfordebate onhumanrights,fundamentalism,andcorruption.IthasoffendedjustabouteveryArabnation. 3.ThismayverywellbeapartoftheArabculturethatdoesnothavetobowtoWesterntraditionsofthestructureofmedia.Nevertheless,thereareenoughpeoplein EgyptandperhapsnowinotherArabicspeakingnationsthatobjecttowhathasbeenseenasaritualtraditionintheArabiccultureforthispracticetobecalledinto question. 4.SeeArmbrust(1996,13).Nevertheless,howeveroneseesit,thecatchphrasebecamearecognizablesymboloutoftheculture. 5.SeeZieglerandAsante(1992,92).EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage128Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Thispageintentionallyleftblank.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage129Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.7 Literature,thePerformingArts,andMusicLITERATUREMODERNEGYPT,althoughontheAfricancontinent,isanationoverlaidwiththeArabiccultureandassuchithasbecometheheartofArabcivilization.Egypthas beenattheforefrontofArabicliteraturefromtheearlynineteenthcentury.InonesenseitispossibletospeakofthereignofMuhammadAliasthebeginningofthe moderntendencyinEgyptianliterature.Duringhisreign,EgyptianliteratureexpressedaselfconsciousawarenessofitsauthenticnationaldevelopmentandEgyptwas nolongermerelytheplaygroundofthemightyandthepowerfulnationsandmovementsthatseemedtoruleitwithoutreferencetothesubstanceofthecountrys history. ArabicistheofficiallanguageofthecountryalthoughaconsiderablenumberofpeoplespeakNubianlanguagesaswellasEnglishandFrench.Languagehistoryin Egyptisquitecomplex.TheancientlanguagewasMdwNtr,(theDivineLanguage),anditsscriptwasreferredtobytheGreeksashieroglyphics.TheGreeks,who arrivedinEgyptduringandaftertheninthcenturyB.C.E.andcontinuedasstudentsinEgyptuntiltheconquestbytheMacedoniankingAlexanderin333B.C.E.,hada pronouncedinfluenceonthelanguageoftheEgyptiansuntiltheconquestbytheRomanswhencertainLatinexpressionsbecamepartofthelanguage.Nonetheless,the GreekinfluencewasstillprevalentinthelanguageandeventuallytheCopticlanguageacombinationoftheGreekalphabetandnineancientEgyptianletterswas formed.Thus,Coptic,asspoken,istheclosestlanguagetoancientEgyptian,althoughitiswritteninessentiallyGreekcharacters.ArabiccameinEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage130 forcetoEgyptinacampaignledbyGeneralElAsin639641C.E.,andbytheninthcenturyofthiseraArabichaddominatedthesocietyastheprincipallanguage. Thelastwrittenhieroglyphics,orMdwNtr,hadbeencarvedonthewallsoftheTempleofPhilaearound589C.E. SincetheArabizationofEgyptthelanguagehasbecomethelinguafrancaforotherEgyptianpeople,includingCoptsandNubians.AtvarioustimesGreek,Turkish, Russian,French,andEnglishhavecompetedwithArabicinthemarketsandadministrativebureausofthesociety.ButtheadvancemadebyEgyptianwriters particularlyRifaaRafiAlTahtawi,YusefIdris,TawfiqalHakim,TahaHussein(ablindacademicianofhumblebirth),andNaguibMahfouz(whowonthe1988 NobelPrizeforLiterature)hasbeenspectacular.TheyhaveexploredeveryaspectofthelifeofthepeopleofEgypt,bringingthemodernEgyptianintothearenaof contemporarypoetry,drama,andfiction.FewIslamicsocietieshavehadasrichatalentofwritersemergeasEgypthas.Theyhavebecomefamiliarwiththebest literatureoftheworldandassuchhaveaddedtotheinternationalbodyofliteraturethatcouldbecalledmodern. Perhapsnomodernsociety,withthepossibleexceptionofFrance,hassuchapreoccupationwiththepurityoflanguageastheEgyptiansocietydoes.Onefinds discussionsandarticlesinthenewspapersandmagazinesaboutthecorrectusageoftheArabiclanguagealmosteveryday.Itisassumedthattobeagoodcitizenone mustknowthedifferencebetweensacredandsecularlanguageandcertainlymustnotmixthetwo.Oneofthemostgrievouserrorsanauthorcanmakeistomisusethe ArabiclanguagethelanguageoftheQuraninpopulartheaterorliterature.Ahostofcommentariesattackingtheauthorwouldnormallyfollowsuchamisstep.This doesnotmeanthatthereisnosecularuseoflanguageinEgyptbecausethereisplentyitdoesmeanthattheusersoflanguagemustbecarefulortheywillbe questionedbythewordcriticswhoseresponsibilityitseemsistomakecertainthatnoonecrossestheboundaryoflanguage.Arabicassumes,forthem,thesacred placethatithasasthelanguageoftheQuranandbecomesbyvirtueofitspositioninthesocietytheonlylegitimateinstrumentofgoodexpression.Thishasnot preventedEgyptianwritersfromacquiringsecularthemesnorhasitpreventedthemfromexpressingthemselvesontheevolutionandtransformationoflanguageitself.A hostofhumoristsandcomicwritershaveappearedwithideasabouttraffic,crowdedness,housingconditions,thefellahs(poorfarmers)comingtothebigcities,and otheraspectsofurbanliving.Theyarethekeepersofthesanityofthemasses.ButEgyptisnotanisolatedcountry,anditswritershavenotbeenisolatedfromthe largerconcernsoftheworldtheyhaveexpressedtheirviewsthroughfictionaseloquentlyasanyotherwriters.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage131MAJOREGYPTIANWRITERSCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Egypthasproducednumerouswritersofnote.AmongthemoreimportantareAbdalRahmanalJabarti(17541825),RifaaRafialTahtawi(18011873),Jamalal DinalAfghani(18381897),MuhammadAbduh(18491905),QasimAmin(16631908),MuhammadHusaynHaykal(18881965),TahaHussein(18891973), AliAbdalRaziq(18881964),AbbasalAqqad(18891964),SalamaMusa(18871958),TawfiqalHakim(1898),MuhammadMandir(19071965),Louis Awad(1915),KhalidMuhammadKhalid(1920),andNaguibMahfouz(1912).Indeed,itisMahfouz,aNobelLaureateinLiterature(1988)andaprofound thinker,whohasbecomeEgyptsmostlucidtelleroftalesinthecontemporaryera.Heisknownbestforhisstrong,simple,direct,andpowerfulstyle.Usingallofthe mostprecisemethodsofArabic,occasionallystretchingandflexingthelanguage,Mahfouzisthemostpopularofthecontemporarywriters.Hehasmerelybuiltupon thecreativetraditionsofthegiantswhoprecededhim. MostofthewritersareespeciallycognizantoftheculturalimportanceoftheArabiclanguage.Theyacceptaculturalidentityinwhichtheproperlanguageis consideredextremelyimportant.Thenahda(renaissance)incultureisdependentonwritersrecognizingtheclassicalusesofArabic.InthisregardthemajorEgyptian writerssuchasTawfiqalHakimindrama,TahaHusseininautobiography,andNaguibMahfouzinfictionparticipatedinthenahdaasmodernistswhomaintainalink totheirtraditions.TheyhavenotgivenuptheirappreciationoftheirArabiclinguisticcontributionsandhavemaintainedthatknowledgeoftheWesternphilosophers doesnothavetodestroyonesownsenseofculturalintegrity. TogiveasenseoftheEgyptiancontributiontoworldliterature,afewofthemajorfiguresarehighlightedhere.Thesewritersrepresentprincipalinterpretationsof Egyptianexperiences.AbdalRahmanalJabarti(17541825)ThetraditionofthescholarandliterarypersonalityislonginEgypt,butthepresenceofthemodernwritershasthrustthecountryintotheliteraryleadershipofArabic speakingnations.NooneisanymoreresponsibleforstartingthistrendthanAbdalRahmanalJabarti.Heisoneofthethreeimportantpersonswhorecordedthe FrenchoccupationofEgypt(17981801).AlongwithSheikhHasanalAttarandSheikhIsmailalKhashab,alJabartimightbeconsideredoneoftheinitiatorsof modernityinEgyptianwriting.TheymaybeconsideredtheforerunnersofthegreatRifaaRafialTahtawi.WhilealAttarbecametheleaderoftheAlAzharUniversity andEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage132 alKhashabbecamesecretarygeneralofthefirstEgyptiancabinetformedbytheFrench,alJabartibecameacabinetministerinthegovernmentofAbdallaJacques Menouafterthe1800assassinationofJeanBaptisteKleber. AlJabartiwasdescendedfromanEthiopianSheikhZaynalDinalJabartiwhoemigratedtoEgyptfromtheEthiopiancityofJabartaround1600.Thefamily livedinthecloisterofJabartiyaintheAzharcompound.JabartisgreatgrandfatherbecametheMuftiofIslamduringhislifetime.JabartisfatherHasanalJabarti wasaclericandabusinessmanwhoownedseveralhouses,afarm,andhadthreewivesandfortychildren.In1776,AbdalRahmanalJabartigraduatedfromtheAl AzharUniversityattheageoftwentytwooneyearafterthedeathofhisfatherHasan. ThehistoryofalJabartiisthatofamanoftwoworlds.Hewascertainlyofthereligiouselite,amemberofafamilythatparticipatedintheleadershipofIslam,yethe waseducatedinthehighestinstitutionoflearningintheIslamicworldwithaccesstopoliticsandlaw.Hisworldwasfilledwiththereligiousulamaandtherulingbeys orMamluks,aswellastheTurkishrulersadministrationandruthlessness.NoneofthisseemedtohavedirectedhimtowritingtheChronicles.Hewasinfluenced ratherbyMuhammadMurtadaalZubeidi,consideredthegreatestArabicphilologistofthetime.AlZubeidihadwrittenthefamousdictionaryTajalarus.Hewasa YemenitescholarwhohadmovedtoCairoin1754,theyearalJabartiwasborn,toteachatAlAzhar.ItwastheinfluenceofalZubeidiontheyoungalJabartithat causedhimtoconsiderwritinghistory.AlZubeidihadaskedtheyoungmantoassisthiminwritingthebiographiesoffamousmenandalJabartidiligentlyapplied himselftothistask.WhenalZubeididied,alJabartidiscoveredthathehadbeencommissionedbytheMuftiofDamascustoprepareadictionaryofnational biography.Thedictionarywaspublishedbuthadlittleimpact(Awad1986,9). ItwasoutofthisexperiencethatalJabartibecameintenselyinterestedinchroniclesandhistory.Thus,whenNapoleonBonapartecapturedCairoonJuly21,1798, thefortyfouryearoldalJabartiwasreadytobeginthegreattaskofhislife.BecausehehadnoOttomanorMamlukaffinitiesorloyalties,heservedintheFrench administrationofEgyptasacabinetofficer,hopingtobringwhathebelievedweretheadvantagesofWesterncivilizationtohiscountry. AlJabartifoundtheFrenchlegalsystemsuperiortothatinheritedfromtheOttomans,andhewasimpressedbythetrialofSuleimanalHalabiaftertheassassination oftheFrenchleaderKleber.NotonlydidhefindtheFrenchsystemoftrialsdifferentfromtheTurkishsummaryexecutions,buthewasinfluencedbythewaythe FrenchdealtwiththeirownsoldierswhorapedEgyptianwomen.Ofcourse,becauseofhisdeeplyreligiousnature,alJabartiCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage133 couldnotunderstandoraccepttheFrenchliberationofwomenortherolethatwomenseemedtoplayintheFrenchcivilization.Withallofhisappreciationofthe Frenchlegalsystemanditsrationalism,hewasstillcaughtintheclutchesofhisearlytraining.Nevertheless,hedidnotcondemnEuropeancivilizationbutratherpraised theFrenchforbringingtoEgyptnationalismandademocraticgovernment(ibid.,10). AlJabartiwastofindhimselfinadifficultpositionwhentheFrenchwereexpelledbytheTreatyofAmiensin1801.Thechargewaslaidthatheparticipatedwiththe French,thathecollaboratedwiththeiradministrationinEgypt.HesooncameoutwithaselfservingdocumententitledMazharaltaqdisbidharhabdawlatal firansis(DivineManifestationintheEvacuationoftheFrench).MostwritersseethisasadiatribeagainsttheFrenchtoprotecthiscareer(ibid.).Afterfouryearsof politicalchaos,duringwhichtimetheBritishandMamluksjockeyedforpositionandpowerinthecountry,MuhammadAli,anAlbanian,finallyrosetopowerin1805. ItwasduringthistimethatalJabartistartedtowritetheChronicles. MuhammadAlipunishedtheulamaforresistinghisrule,curtailedtheirprivilegesinthesociety,andputsomeoftheminprison.ThisenragedalJabarti,whohad finishedhisworkontheFrenchoccupationinhisChronicles.HethentookupthepenagainsttheexcessesofMuhammadAli,callinghimausurperofpowerinEgypt andnotthelegitimateclaimanttothepositionofpower.HesooutragedtheEgyptianrulerthatalJabartislifewasthreatened.ItwasrumoredthatalJabartiwas murderedbyMuhammadAliin1822.However,mostauthoritiesbelievethatalJabartiwentblindin1822anddiedin1825,anditwashissonKhalilwhowas assassinatedin1822(ibid.,11).AlthoughalJabartiswritingsservedasclandestineliteratureduringthetimeofMuhammadAliandhissuccessorsitwasnotuntil KhediveTewfiqthatthebanonhisChronicleswaslifted.Thecompleteninevolumesofhisworkwerepublishedbetween1888and1896,withtheFrenchtranslation byShafiqMansurBey,AbdalAzizKhalilBey,NicolaKhalilBey,andIskandirAmmunEffendi.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.RifaaRafialTahtawi(18011873)RifaaRafialTahtawiwasthegreatestsecularnationalistEgyptianwriterofhistime.UnlikealJabarti,Tahtawiwasnotsimplyachroniclerofeventshewasapolitical analyst,acritic,andaphilosopherofthetimes.HecamefromUpperEgypt,thetownofTahta,wherehewasbornonOctober15,1801.Afterstudyingasan adolescent,hewenttoAlAzharUniversitytocompletehiseducationattheageofsixteenandbecametheprotegeofthescholarandreformerHasanalAttar.Al AttarbecametheleaderoftheAlEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage134 AzharunderMuhammadAliandspentaconsiderableportionofhistimetryingtoreformthecurriculumtoincludemoresecularstudiestobroadentheknowledgeof thestudents. AlTahtawistudiedattheAlAzharuntilhewastwentyoneyearsold.Hethenwasaninstructortherefortwoyears.In1824,Aliappointedhimtoapostasan imamintheEgyptianarmy.WhenAlisentsomeEgyptianstoFrancetogainfurtherknowledgeinmilitary,scientific,andtechnologicalstudies,alTahtawiwassentas theimamtothisgroupofinternationalstudents.ThiswastogivealTahtawiamajoropportunitytoimprovehisFrenchlanguageskills,tostudyWesternliterature,and tolearnhistory,geography,andthehumanities. MuhammadAlisawthebrilliantalTahtawiasapossibletranslatorofdocumentsfromFrenchintoArabic.Theyoungimamstudiedphysics,chemistry,medicine, andmythologywhileinParis.Hiskeenmindrecordedthepoliticaleventsoftheday,includingthefermentthatledtotheoverthrowofthemonarchyoftheBourbonsin the1830revolutionthatbroughtaboutthereignofLouisPhilippeandtheconstitutionalmonarchyinFrance. WhenalTahtawireturnedtoEgyptin1831,hewasreceivedwithhonorinAlexandriaandgivenlandoutsideofCairobyIbrahimPashawhohadheardofhis brilliance.InCairo,MuhammadAlireceivedhimwithgreatjoyandcourtesy,appointinghimtoaninstructorspostattheSchoolofMedicine.Duringthistimethe lecturesweregiveninFrenchandthentranslatedandreadoutinArabicforthestudents.InalTahtawiscasehecouldgivelectureseitherinFrenchorinArabic.Soon hewasmadetheheadofthetranslationstaffbecausealthoughmanyofthetranslatorshadagoodgraspofFrench,theycouldnotpresentstrongArabictranslations. SincealTahtawihadafoundationinArabicstudiesattheAlAzharandwasaskilledimam,hecouldpresenttheArabicwithsharpnessandexcitement. AlTahtawiscareerasacivilservantfortheAliadministrationbroughthimmanyrewards.However,whenthecholeraepidemicof1834hitCairo,heretiredtohis UpperEgypthometownandspentthetimetranslatingaFrenchgeographybook.Whentheepidemichadrunitscourse,hereturnedtoCairoandpresented MuhammadAliacopyofthetranslation.HewasmadeamajorinthearmyandsoonbecamedirectoroftheSchoolofLanguages.Inthisschoolestablishedasthe MadrasaalAlsun(SchoolofTongues)in1835alTahtawihelpedtocreatethefoundationfortheintellectualnahdainEgypt. TheschoolhadacurriculumthatconsistedoftheteachingofArabic,French,Persian,Turkish,Italian,English,geography,history,literature,andIslamic jurisprudence.Theschooldevotedmuchtimetotranslatingtechnologicaldocumentsandlastedforfifteenyears.Itwasclosedin1849byCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage135 AbbasI,thesuccessortoMuhammadAli.ThefanaticalanderraticAbbasIcloseddownallindustriesstartedbyMuhammadAli,dismantledthearmyandthenavy, opposedthebuildingoftheSuezCanal,anddiscontinuedtheonlynewspaperinthecountry.HebanishedalTahtawiandhiscolleagueMuhammadBayumia mathematiciantotheSudan.Bayumicouldnotwithstandthestrainanddiedinexile.AlTahtawibecametheheadmasterofaschoolinKhartoumandspentthetime translatingFrenchnovels. WiththeassassinationofAbbasIin1854andtheascendancyofSaidPashatothethroneofEgypt,alTahtawiwasrecalledtoEgypt,promoted,andgivenhigh administrativeposts.HebecamethedirectoroftheEuropeansectionintheGovernorateofCairo,thendeputydirectorandlaterdirectoroftheMilitaryAcademyat theCitadel.YetthegreatestachievementsofhisprofessionalcareertheSchoolofLanguagesandthestatesponsorednewspaperAlwagaialMisriyawere neverreopened.HisstudentsandfollowerswererelegatedtominorpostsunderAbbasI,andhecouldneverregroupthemashehaddoneattheSchoolof Languages. Nevertheless,whenKhediveIsmailcametothethronein1863,alTahtawiwasmadethedirectoroftheTranslationAdministration.Hewasalsoplacedinchargeof developingaplantoorganizeeducationinEgypt,theseedfortheMinistryofEducation.KhediveIsmailworkedvigorouslytomodernizeEgyptseducationalandlegal systemsandcalledonthetalentsoftheablealTahtawitoleadinthestruggletobringthesetransformationsintoexistence.AlTahtawiwenttoworkrightaway,calling onmanyofhisformerstudentsandcolleaguesfromtheSchoolofLanguages.ThefirsttaskwastotranslatetheCodeNapoleontobeusedasthebasisofEgyptian law,whichlaidthefoundationforthemodernlegalsystem.Thus,alTahtawi,thegreatestwriterandscholarofthetimes,isresponsibleformuchoftheeducational system,thelegalsystem,andindeedthemodernpressinEgypt.LouisAwadmakesthisobservationabouttheoriginofthepressinEgypt: ThefirstnewspaperknowninEgyptwastheCourierdEgypte,whichwaspublishedinFrenchbyorderofBonapartetosupplytheFrenchtroops andthelocalforeignersinEgyptwiththeimportantinformationoftheday.ItsfirstissuecameoutonAugust28,1798,anditlastedforthreeyears,the durationoftheFrenchoccupationofEgypt.ThesecondperiodicalwasalsoFrench,LaDecadeegyptienne,whichappearedforthefirsttimeby orderofBonaparteonOctober1,1798,andwasintendedtopublishtheworkoftheInstitutdEgypte.Withtheevacuationthesetwopublications ceasedtoexist,andtheFrenchalsotookwiththemthefirstArabicprintingpress.Theyhadbroughtittoprinttheirproclamationsanddecreestothe EgyptianpeopleinCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage136 theformofposterspastedatstreetcornersandattheentrancetolanesandalleys.TheonlyArabicbookpublishedbytheFrenchwasthetranslation ofamedicalbook.(1986,2829).Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Egyptlivedwithoutaprintingpressfortwentymoreyearsuntil1824whenMuhammadAlifoundedtheBulaqPrintingPress.Thefirstnewspaperwasfoundedin1828 underthenameAlWaqaIalMisriva,andwasintendedtobeagovernmentgazettepublishingdecrees,reports,andachievements.Itwasbilingualbecausetheofficial languageofEgyptatthetimewasTurkish.Arabicbecametheofficiallanguageitwasalreadythepopularlanguagein1873underadecreeofKhediveIsmail. Turkishsoonrecededintothebackground,beingreplacedbyFrenchasthesecondlanguageuntiltheBritishoccupation. ThenewspaperhadopenedunderthedirectionofaTurkisheditorwhomaintainedapolicyofprintingthenewsinTurkishintherighthandcolumnsandtheArabic translationsintheleft.WhenalTahtawijoinedthenewspaperin1834,heworkedunderthedirectionoftheTurkisheditor.HewasnamededitorinchiefonJanuary 11,1842.Heimmediatelyreversedtheformersystem,placingthematerialwritteninArabicintherighthandcolumnandthetranslatedTurkishinthelefthandcolumn. NolongerweretheeditorialssimplypraisesongstothePashabutanalysisandinstructiveanecdotes.NewsofEgyptwaspushedtotheforefrontovernewsfrom foreignsources,andhesoonrelegatednewsfromtheOttomanstothesecondplaceinthenewspaper.AlTahtawiintroducedliteraryworksintothenewspapertogive Egyptianauthorsanoutletfortheircreativeworks.However,thechangesweretoorevolutionaryforthetime,andpressurewasputonhimbytheTurkisharistocracy thenrulingthecountry,withtheresultthatTahtawihadtoretreatafteroneyearandmostofhisbraveexperimentationandformalchangeswererescinded.What remainedwerethechangesinsubjectmatter(Awad1986,29).JamalalDinalAfghani(18381897)JamalalDinalAfghanishistoryisuncertain,buthisimpactontheliteraryandreligiouslifeofmodernEgyptisunquestioned.ItisbelievedthathewasborninIranasa ShiitebutemergedinAfghanistanasaSunniactivist.InAfghanistanhecalledhimselfJamalalDinalRumi(thatistheTurk),inBaghdadhecalledhimselfJamalalDin alIstanbuli,andinIstanbulandCairohewentbythenameJamalalDinalAfghani.Inaddition,heborethetitleofalSaid,atitleusedbythedescendantsofthefamily oftheProphetMuhammad.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage137 Untilhewastenyearsold,alAfghanistudiedArabicandtheQuraninhisnativevillageundertheinstructionofhisfatheralSaidSafdar,whowasafarmer.Hewas senttoQazwinduringafeudbetweenlocalclansandthenwhenacholeraepidemicbrokeoutin1850hewassenttoTehrantofinishhisstudiesandthenhesurfaced inNajaf,theShiitecenterinIraqwhereMuhammadAliisburied.Hislifetherewasanythingbutstablegiventhepoliticalinfightingandreligiousrivalriesoftheday.In fact,beforehewastwenty,sometimebetween1854and1857,hehadtofleeforhislife(toIndia)toescapeanassassinationattemptbytheirWamawhowere fiercelyjealousofhistoweringgenius(p.49). AlAfghaniemergedinAfghanistanafterspendingtimeinIndiaandRussia.Duringthe1860s,atimeofinstabilityinAfghanistan,themonarchDostMohammad KhanwassucceededtothethronebyhissonShirAliKhanin1863.HewassoonchallengedbyhishalfbrotherAzamKhan.AcivilwarensuedandAzamKhanwas defeated.However,becausehewasongoodtermswiththeBritishhewasabletofindasyluminIndia.AzamKhansoonarguedwiththeBritishandresumedhis militaryoperationsinAfghanistan,capturingthecapital,Kabul,in1866.PartofthecountryremainedinthehandsofShirAliKhan,andtheBritishrefusedtorecognize AzamKhanssovereignpower.HeturnedtotheRussiansforsupportandsoonthenameofJamalalDinalRumiappearedasacounselortothecourt.Hebecamea trustedadviserandanintermediarybetweentheRussiansandtheAfghansforarmsandsupplies.TheBritish,whohadsidedwithShirAliKhanandresuppliedhis armiesandstrengthenedhisdefenses,stoodtogaininfluenceifShirAliKhanwasabletoretakeKabul.In1868,hisarmies,withtheBritishassistance,stormedKabul andforcedAzamKhanintoexileinIran.JamalalDinalRumiwasdeportedtoIndiahewasbarelythirtyyearsold. ABritishspyreportin1858saidthatalAfghaniwassuspectedofbeingaRussianagentanddescribedhimaswearingthetraditionalclothesoftheNoghaipeople ofTurkestan,speakingfluentPersian,Arabic,andTurkish.ThereportpreparedbythegovernmentinKabulsaidthatalAfghanifollowedthelifestyleoftheEuropeans morethanthatoftheMuslims.AlAfghanisliberalconductcreatedcontroversybecauseherefusedtoobserveRamadanandotherMuslimrites.Heseemedtoenjoy cognacattheMatatia,whichwaslocatedbehindtheOperaHouseinCairo.In1879,hewasexpelledfromtheMasonicLodgeinCairobecausehepubliclydenied theexistenceofGod. Duringthisperiod,whentheEgyptianNationalistMovementhadreachedacrucialphasewheretherewasconstantagitationandcivilianstrife,alAfghanisidedwith thepeoplewhoproclaimedEgyptfortheEgyptians.Amasterfulmaneuvererinpoliticalsituations,alAfghanimanagedtoplaceCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage138 himselfonthesideofthemasses.HegavespeechesinCairoremindingEgyptiansoftheirpharaonicheritageandcallingonthemtoshaketheyokeofforeigntyranny andbondageandriseuptoassumeleadershipintheirowncountry.ThishedidwhileservingasanadviserandfriendtotheTunisianJewconverttoIslamTwetik Pasha,whobecameprimeministerandrulerofEgyptin1879.HisinflammatoryrhetoricagainstpoliticaltyrannydisturbedtheEnglishandTurkishpartnersintheir attempttokeeptheEgyptianpeoplesubordinated.AlAfghanisspeechespointedtothisAngloTurkishpolicyasantidemocratic.HesoonleftforPariswherehe wrotearticlesinsupportofpanIslamandagainstthebondageofIslambyChristendom.ItseemedthatalAfghaniwantedtoseeanIslamregeneratedby modernization.Thiswashisgreatobjectiveinlife,believingashedidthathecoulduseEgyptasamodelinthegreatpanIslamicexperiment.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TahaHussein(18891973)TahaHusseinistothetwentiethcenturywhatRifaaalTahtawiwastothenineteenthcentury:thesinglemostimportantculturalandintellectualinfluenceonthe literatureofhistime.HewasbornintheprovinceofMinyaandbecameblindattheageoftwofromophthalmia.AsayoungboyhelearnedtheQuranandrecitedit forthebenefitofthelivingandthedead,givingrecitationsatweddingsandatfunerals.However,hewasmoreexcitedbyfairytalesthanbytheQuran,accordingto hisautobiographyAlAyyam(19291932).Thisisanimportantkeytohisfutureachievements. Althoughhewasblind,hisfathersenthimtoAlAzharUniversityinCairoin1902tocompletehisstudies.Helivedwithhisolderbrother,whowasalsoastudentat AlAzhar,andwentthroughtheusualcurriculumofIslamicstudies.However,hesoonturnedtoArabicliterature,whichhadbeenintroducedbythereformsofSheikh MuhammadAbduh(thereligiousreformer)andwastaughtbySheikhalMarsafi.Becauseofhisviews,consideredtobeheretical,theyoungscholarwasbannedfrom receivingtheAlimiya(thedegree)untilhesatagainforhisexamination.Nevertheless,hestudiedtheclassicalliteratureoftheArabiclanguagestillconsidereda profanesubjectinEgyptandmasteredthefield.Hethenshowedaninterestinthesecularsubjectsofmodernknowledgesuchastranslatedfiction,sociology, philosophy,history,andnaturalscience. AllofthisdemonstratedthatHusseindidnotreallybelongtotheAlAzhartradition,andin1910hetransferredtotheEgyptianNationalUniversity,thenucleusof CairoUniversity.Ithadbeenstartedin1908bytheEgyptianaristocracyforthepromotionoftheliberalarts.ItsfacultywaslargelyEuropeanscholarsandafew EuropeaneducatedEgyptians.By1914,EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage139 hehadreceivedhisPh.D.forthedissertationontheblindArabpoetandphilosopherAhmadAbdallahalMaarri(9731057).Thedissertationwassoprovocative thatmembersofthelegislaturewantedtowithdrawthesubsidyfromtheuniversityforproducinganatheistlikeTahaHussein. TheNationalUniversitysenthimofftoFranceforfurtherstudy.TherehelearnedFrenchandwasareaderattheSorbonne.HefollowedcoursesinGreek,Latin, history,andgeography,andreceivedtheDoctoratdUniversitefromtheSorbonnefortwodissertations:themajoroneontheArabphilosopher,historian,and sociologistIbnKhaldun(13321406)andthesupplementaryoneonthebasisfortheRomanpunishmentofcoloniesfordisgracingthehonorofRome.In1919,he wasappointedprofessorofArabicliteratureattheEgyptianNationalUniversity.ThiswasapositionhewouldmakegreatevenduringhisleastpopulartimesinEgypt. HavingestablishedhispositionasthegreatestfigureinArabiclettersduringthe1920saperiodwhenhewastheleastpopularasawriterhenevertheless maintainedhisliberalandprogressivepoliticalpositionsandloyalties.Heexploredthetraditionofcourtlylovepoetrytoprovetheapocryphalnatureofmuchofthe poetryandtodemonstratethatthecentralfigureQaysthemadmanofLaylawasamythicalcharacter.Thiswasperhapsthemostcontroversialandmostcreative workofcriticalscholarshipformanydecadesinthehistoryofmodernArabicliterature(Awad1996,132). ThemasterpieceFishShialJahili(PreIslamicLiterature),whichwaspublishedin1926,forwhichhewashoundedandharassedformanyyears,causedhim greatanguishbecauseheknewhehadmadeamajorcontributiontotheunderstandingofArabiclettersbuttheestablishedreligiousfiguresdidnottaketookindlyto thedebunkingofsomeoftheirmostcherishedmyths.Thetraditionalistsdemandedthathebeexpelledfromtheuniversityforteachingandwritingheresy.Histrial beforethecourtsandthesuppressionofhisbookconsideredblasphemousfordaringtoquestiontheauthenticityofpreIslamicArabicliteratureandhavingthe audacitytocallAbraham,Ismail,Hagar,andeventheconstructionoftheKaabainMeccawithinamythologicalframeworktookatollontheblindliterarygiant. Timesweredifficult.Indeed,ittooknolessthanAdliPashaandZaghlulPashatosavehim.Adli,thenPrimeMinister,threatenedtoresignifTahaHusseinwere removedortheindependenceoftheUniversityweretamperedwith.Zaghlul,thenPresidentoftheChamberofDeputies,scoldedAbdalHamidalBannan,whohad lodgedtheinterpellationagainstTahaHusseininParliament,forinterferinginmattersheknewnothingabout,andcausedhimtowithdrawhischarges(ibid.). Neverthelessthepublicprosecutor,inordertocalmthepublic,orderedthatTahaHusseinsbookbewithdrawnfromcirculation.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage140 Bytheendofthe1920s,HusseinsprotectorshadpassedfromthesceneandtheCrowngrewmorepowerful.Hewasdismissedfromtheuniversity,wherehehad becomeDeanoftheFacultyofArts.Between1931and1952heproducedlittleliteraryworkbutalotofpoliticalpolemicsandheldnumerouspositionsintheWafd PartyandwasreinstatedattheuniversityasprofessorandDeanoftheFacultyfrom1936to1938.ButwhentheWafdistfellfrompower,Husseinwasmobbedinhis officebyFasciststudents. In1938,hisfamousbookMustaquabalathThaqafahfiMisr(TheFutureofCultureinEgypt)waspublished.Itwasaculturalmanifestoinwhichhearguedthat EgyptwasaMediterraneancultureandshouldremainso.HerecommendedtheteachingofLatininsecondaryschoolsandthestudyofRomanhistory.TahaHussein wasonceagainremovedfromthepositionofDeanoftheFaculty. In1942,theWafdPartywasreturnedtopowerandHusseinwasagaininbusinesstocarryouthisreforms.AppointedanadvisertoMinisterofEducationNajibal HilaliPasha,Husseinlaunchedanintensecampaigntosecularizealltheschoolsandtoaddmoreuniversitiestothesystemofhighereducation.Hecalledforthe abolitionofQuranicschools,whichhesawaslessthanliberaleducationalinstitutionsmeanttogivetheimpressionthatthepoorwerebeingeducated.In1943,he foundedtheUniversityofAlexandriaandbecameasocialthorninthesideoftheestablishedreligiousfigures.By1944,hewasagainontheoutsideofgovernmentand tookseveralpositionsinliterarymagazines.HeworkedwiththeScribeEgyptien,anArabicpublishinghouseownedbyafamilyofEgyptianJews,theHarari brothers,whopublishedthemonthlyculturalmagazineAlKatibalMisr,probablythefinestculturalmagazineEgypthaseverknown(Awad1996,134).However whenwarbrokeoutinPalestineoverthecreationofthestateofIsrael,theEgyptiangovernmentclosedthemagazineaccusingtheownersofbeingZionist.Thesewere theworsttimesforTahaHussein,amanwhohadseengoodandbadtimesinhiscareer. WhentheWafdPartyagainwonpowerin1950untilthetimeoftherevolutionof1952,TahaHusseinwasMinisterofEducation.Heimmediatelystartedwherehe hadleftoffinthereconstructionofEgyptianeducation.Heabolishedtuitionforsecondaryschools,establishedAynShamsUniversity,andlaidthefoundationsfor AssiutUniversityandMansuraUniversity.Hedeclaredthateducation,likewaterandair,shouldbeadministeredfreeofchargetoallmankind,andhisenemiesseized onthistermtodescribehiseducationalpolicies.WhenGamalAbdelNassercametopower,Husseinwantedtocontinuetoservehowever,hewasgivenhonorary postswithnopower. WhileTahaHusseinremainsthemostimportantpersoninEgyptianlitCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage141 eratureofthetwentiethcenturywithhisdemandforfreedomofspeechandacademicresearchinterest,heis,nevertheless,foundinthethickofintellectualandpolitical controversies,someofwhichclearlyshowedhisbiastowardEuropeaneducationandawayfromAfricanorEasternideals.Husseinsgreatcontributionmaybethathe recognizedthetwinevilsofthetyrannyofrulersandtheignoranceofthemassesandtrieddesperatelytoeradicateboth.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TawfiqalHakim(1898)TawfiqalHakimwasbornin1898andiscloselyassociatedwiththeAzbakiyaarea.HewassenttoParistostudylawfrom1924to1928.Althoughhestudiedlaw, heneverobtainedadegreebecausehewasabsorbedindrama,novels,painting,music,andsculpture.Thus,whenhereturnedtoCairohewasemployedinthe governmentinalegalcapacitybutnotasalawyer.HeworkedintheofficeoflegalinvestigationsintheMinistryofEducationforatimeandthenwroteafamouswork calledDiaryofaCountryProsecutorwhichwaspublishedin1937ineightlanguages,includingGerman,French,Russian,Hebrew,andEnglishrecountinghis experienceworkinginthelegalfieldasaruralinvestigator.Between1939and1943heworkedintheMinistryofSocialAffairsfromwhichheretiredonasmall pensiontodevotehistimetohistruelove:literature.HejoinedtheweeklyAkhbaralYawmin1945andworkeduntil1951whenhewasappointedtheDirectorof theNationalLibrary.HespenttheconsiderablepartofhiscareerwiththeHigherCouncilforArtsandLettersandthedailynewspaperAlAhram. AlHakimproducedthreeclassicworksthatcreatedintellectualdiscussionandcontroversybutalsoshowedhisliteraryskillsasamajorforceinEgyptianletters:Al Yaood(TheReturnoftheSoul),1933Scheherazade,1934andtheplay,ShaabAlUlwa(ThePeopleoftheCave),1934.TahaHusseinwasdisturbedthatTawfiq alHakimhadusedthevernacularlanguageindialogueratherthanclassicalArabic.Asapurist,HusseinbelievedthatalHakimhadcreatedtheopportunityforother writerstoavoidusingthebestArabicintheirnovelsandplays.Yet,HusseinfoundinalHakimelementsofgeniusthatcameoutintheseriousnesswithwhichhe bridgedthegulfbetweenartandreligion.CriticswhowerepoliticallyconservativethoughtthatalHakimhadcommittedasacrilegebecausehedrewonreligiousand sacredtextsandsubjectstowritehisnovelsandplays.Inresponsetotheconservativecritics,alHakimwroteafundamentalistdramacalledMuhammadinwhichhe demonstratedthatonecouldbeanartistandnotdepartfromthereligiousdoctrine. OnehastoseethatalHakimsMuhammadisthecontextofthegrowthEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage142 ofFascismasrepresentedbytheYoungEgyptPartyandthedevelopmentoftheMuslimBrotherhood.Itwasnecessaryfortheartisttoatleastshowthathe understoodtheculturalmilieuoutofwhichthecriticismcame.ThiswasthemeaningofalHakimsreligiouswritings. In1957,PresidentNasserawardedalHakimthesecondhighestdecorationinthecountry:theGrandCollieroftheRepublic.Infact,onlyTawfiqalHakim,ofall theoldguardwriters,remainedingoodstandingwiththerevolutionaries.Moreinfluentialwriterswerebrushedasideorignored,butalHakimsurvivedandwas respectedintheregimesofbothNasserandAnwarSadat.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.TheNovelThefirstmodernEgyptiannovelappearedin1914.FromthattimeuntiltherevolutionthatbroughtGamalAbdelNasserintopower,novelswerewritten,butthereare perhapsnomorethantwentybooksworthmentioning.Nevertheless,thenovelhascaughtoninEgyptandtodaytherearemanyprominentEgyptiannovelists,including NaguibMahfouz(1912)whoisaNobelLaureateinLiterature(1988).TogainsomeappreciationoftheachievementofMahfouzonemustrememberthathewas borninoldCairo,twoyearsbeforethepublicationofthefirstEgyptiannovel.HestudiedphilosophyatCairoUniversityandbecameacivilservantworkingforthe governmentin1939.FromthispositionhecouldstudytheinsidesofthecolonialandmonarchicalbureaucraciesofEgypt.In1954,hejoinedtheMinistryofCulture, finallyfindingapositionthatwouldallowhimtomakealivingandcontinuewriting.Since1939,Mahfouzhaspublishedmorethanfortynovelsandmanyshortstoriesit mightbesaidofhimthatheisEgyptsmostprolificauthoranditsmostcharacteristicwriter.HeconfrontsthedepressingsituationintheslumsofCairoandpaintsa pictureofhopelessnessthatusuallyendswithdeath.Hiswriting,muchlikethatofthepoetswholivedagenerationlater,isgloomy.YetMahfouzgathersenoughofthe soulofEgyptintohisnovelstopresentapossibilityofvictoryoverdepression.SomeofhisnovelshavebeenmadeintopopularEgyptianfilms. AnothernovelistandwriterofnoteisYusufIdris(1927).Idrishasalsobeenaprolificwriter,penningmorethantwentyfivevolumesofdrama,shortstories,and novels.Hesetshisworksincontemporarysocietybuthasalwaysbeenmoreinterestedintheindividualsthanthesociety.HeisunlikeMahfouzinthisregard.While Mahfouzisweddedtothepolitical,Idrisissurethatthepersonismoreimportantthananypoliticalsystem.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage143PoetryCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.ArabicpoetryinEgyptharkensbacktothedayswhentheBedouinssangodestotheirwarheroes.ModernEgyptianpoetryhasbeenexpressedasromanticism, mysticism,neoclassicism,socialrealism,symbolism,surrealism,andsocialrevolution.ThepoetsofEgypthaveadvancedArabicpoetryintandemwiththoseofthe Arabicspeakingworld.FindinginspirationintheworkoftheSyrianpoetAdunis(AhmadSaid),manyArabicspeakingpoetsinEgyptandotherplaceshavefound theirvoiceinsearchofanewsociety.Aduniswascommittedtoarevolutionaryvision,andwhilemanyEgyptianpoetshavenotbeenabletocommittorevolution,they havecommittedthemselvestonationalism.AdunisreputationismassiveintheArabspeakingworldandhasinfluencedmanyofthemostfamousEgyptianpoets. SincepoetryisthetraditionalformofArabliterature,itwasnotlongbeforeEgyptexpresseditselfuniquelyinthisarea.Amongthepoetswhohaveencouragedthe emergenceofanewEgyptianvoiceinpoetryhavebeenAhmedShawki,commonlyreferredtoinEgyptastheprinceamongpoetsSalahAbdelSabur(1931 1981),thewiseoneMuhammadAlFaituri(1930)andAhmadHijazi(1935).AllmadeafundamentalimpactonpoetryinEgypthowever,thelatterthree, consideredEgyptsgreatestpoets,directlyinfluencedthestyleofthepoetswhofollowedcameafterthem. SaburwaseducatedatCairoUniversity,wherehebegantowritepoetrythatexpressedsocialrealism.By1954,hewasdeeplydevotedtoquestioningthefateof Egypt.InhispoemPeopleinMyCountry,helamentedthatthepeopleinmycountryarehawklike,rapacious.InSabursmind,theEgyptianskill,steal,belch, buttheyarehuman,andgoodheartedwhentheypossessahandfulofcoinsandbelieveinFate.Hisearliestpoetrywastroubledbyhispessimismhowever,inhis laterworks,hemovedtowardamorespiritualandmysticallanguage,seeking,perhaps,awayoutofthequagmireofhopelessnessandfate.ThedeathofGamalAbdel Nasserin1970struckSaburasparticularlyharsh.Hewantedtoknow,Canhewhogavetolifedie,reallydie?Ofcourse,Nassersdeathwasabigblowtothe Egyptianswhohadfoundinhimamessiahlikefigure.Saburspoetrymustbereadwithinthecontextofhistime.HewasdevotedtothetransformationofEgyptand hewantedtoseeitmovevigorouslyintothemodernworld. ThepoetMuhammadAlFaituriwasofthesamegenerationasSabur,buthehadamuchbroadervisionofEgyptianlife.AlFaiturisawEgyptasAfricanandArab, asblackandwhite,asancientandnew,andheincorporatedinhispoetrytheimageofanEgyptiansocietyinwhichAfricansandArabswouldlivesidebysideas brothers.HewasablackEgyptian,oneofthefewEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage144 nonArabswhorosetoprominenceinpoetryduringtheperiodofNassersgoldenyears.MuchlikethepanAfricanismthatNasserpreachedalongsidehiscompatriot KwameNkrumahofGhana,AlFaituriwroteofEgyptwithintheranksofAfrica.HiscollectionofpoetryborethetitlesRememberme,Africa,SongsofAfrica,and ALoverfromAfrica.HeremainedavisionarywhosawthelivesoftheblackpeopleinEgyptconnectedtothelivesofblacksinothercountries. AnotherpoetwhohashadamajorinfluenceonEgyptianwritingisAhmadHijaziwhowasborninavillageinLowerEgyptandmovedtoCairoforhigher education.Hewaslonelyandalienatedinthehugecity,andhisearlypoetryreflectshisdislocationintheurbanarea.HisfirstcollectionwascalledCitywithoutHeart inreferencetothecoldnesshefoundinthemetropolis.HijazispoetrybecameincreasinglytiedtotheideologyofSocialismduringthetimeofNasserhecouldnot breakhimselfawayfromArabism,towhichhewasemotionallytied.However,hefoundhisowncommunitytheonehelackedwhenhearrivedinCairoamonghis politicalaffiliatesandbecameoneoftheleadingpoetsofSocialistEgypt.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.PERFORMINGARTSDramaWesternstyledramawasintroducedintomodernEgyptbecauseofEuropeaninfluences.Althoughtheshortstorywasthepredominantmodeofexpressioninthe 1950s(duringthetimeoftheNasseriteRevolution),thedramaticplaycameintoitsownasthemostdominantliteraryform.Itwasimmediate,dramatic,andpolitical. Theatercrowdscametoexpectthattherewouldbesolutionstotheirproblemsfromthedramaticresolutions. TheEgyptiangovernmenthassupportedtheopeningofsmalltheatersandhasalsoencouragedthepublishingofdramatictexts.Thishasincreasedthenumberof theatergoersandhascontributedgreatlytoamuchmoreconscioustheateraudience.Ofcourse,thequalityofplaysalsohashelpedtolegitimizetheartform. Inaddition,oneofthegreatwritersofmodernEgypt,TawfiqalHakim(1898),hasdominatedthestagewithhisprolificpublicationofplays,shortstories,and novels.HeisEgyptsgrandoldmanofletters.AlHakimwroteoverthirtylongplaysandmanymoreshortplays,whichcoverawiderangeofthemes,fromphilosophy tocriticism.Hehaswrittenonsocialissuesandhasevenexploredthetheateroftheabsurd.In1959,hewrotetheplayAlSultanalhair(ThePerplexedSultan), translatedinEnglishasTheSultansDilemma.ThethemeisrelevanttocontemporaryEgyptbutissetseveralEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage145 centuriesearlier.Intheplay,asultandiscoversbychancethatheisstillaslave.Inordertobefreed,hemustbeputupforauction,sold,andthenfreed.Awidow agreestopurchasehim,agreeingtofreehimifhewouldspendanightwithher.Theprimeministersuspectsthewidowofevilintentionsandasksthemuezzinto unlawfullycallthedawnprayeratmidnight.Thesultanseesthetrickeryandchastisestheprimeminister.Thesultandesirestocarryoutthebargainwithhispurchaser. Sheagreestoreleasehimandherewardsher.Theplaywasviewedbymanyasapoliticalplayattemptingtodealwiththequestionofrightingtheworldbyforceorby upholdingprinciples.Thosewhohavethepowerareoftenchallengedbynotknowingwhattodoingivensituations.Theylosesightofthemoralnatureoflaw. Anotherplaywright,MikhailRoman,wasunlikeTawfiqalHakiminmanyways.Forone,hewasascientistwhotaughtattheInstituteofIndustry.Healsodiedat fiftyyearsofage.Heturnedtodramaneartheendofhisyounglifebutisstillconsideredoneofthegreatplaywrightsofhisgenerationbecauseofthestrongreactions tohiswork.Hewasanangryplaywright,andhisworksevokedstrongsentimentsfororagainsthispositions.SomebelievethatRomansplaysproducedverbal fightingwhentheywereproduced.Severalofhisplayswerebanned,andtheatersexpectingabanfromthecensorsoftendidnottakehistexts.(Hopwood1982, 199). Hewrotetwelveplays,butonlyafewofthemwereproduced.Alwafid(TheNewArrival),aoneactplay,wasproducedin1965afterthecensors,duringGamal AbdelNassersreign,hadpermittedittobeseenbyaspecialaudienceforonenight.Thenewarrivalcomestoalargehotelintheurbanarea.Thehotelhaslotsof buttonsandbuttonpushersandthroughvariousencountersthenewarrivalloseshissenseofsecurityandbeginstofeellikeheisfacingasoullesstechnological institution.Hisinsecurityisgreatlyincreasedwhenheisinterrogated,whenfoodispromisedandwithheld,andwhentheauthoritiesfailtorecognizehimunlesshe producesatrainticket.Withoutittheywillnotrecognizehim.FinallyhereachesthepointofinsanityandbeginstoshoutIdoexist.Icanteverbecomenonexistent. Itsimpossible.Iexist,Ido,Imhere!(ibid.,150). YusefIdris(1927),ashortstorywriter,alsowritesplays.HearguedforanEgyptiantheaterthatwouldgrowfromtheorganicsoilofEgyptratherthanfromthe Europeantheater.HedidnotwanttoseeEgyptianwriterstryingtoimitateEuropeans.Alfarafir,hismajorplay,wasproducedin1964.Itisatourdeforcewrittento dealwiththeproblemsofmodernman.Hetriestodemonstratethatthemodernmanisacomplexmixofpersonalityandcharacter.Thereisnoplottotheplay,only encounters.ThecharacterswhomeetrepresentdifferentviewpointsandmustdiscussanddealwithCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage146 variousissues.Heisbrilliantinthedialoguebetweencharacters.Thus,MikhailRomanwriteshisnameintheEgyptianhistorybookasoneofthemostsignificant dramatistsofthesociety. InthesametraditionastheeminentTawfiqalHakim,numerousotherwriters,suchasNomaanAshour(19181987)haveattemptedtopresentEgyptianlifeina realisticmanner.AshourwasborninDakahlia,Egypt.Hisgrandfathershomehadathreeroomlibraryofbooksonallsubjects,andtheyoungNomaanspenthisearly yearsreadinghistory,literature,andclassicalArabicbooks.HisfatherwasanavidloveroftheaterandtheyoungNomaanoftenaccompaniedhimtothetheaterin Cairo. AshourstudiedEnglishattheKingFouadUniversitynowUniversityofCairo.Hegraduatedin1942withhisfirstdegree.Hehadbeenanenthusiasticmemberof thedramaclubandhadparticipatedintheannualShakespeareanplayfestival.BecausetheuniversityhadastrongWesternorientationintermsofliterature,Ashour wasinfluencedbyChekhov,Ibsen,andBernardShaw.Hebelievedthatthefunctionofart,particularlydrama,wastodealwiththeproblemsofthesociety. OneofthebestdramatistsinmodernEgyptshistory,Ashourcametohispositionofeminencebywritingaboutreallifeconditionsconfrontedbyordinarypeople. Hewaseagertoshowhowfamilyrelationshipsandgenerationalconflictswereimpactedbythesocialandpoliticalstrugglesandideasinthecountry.Hisplaysare oftenseenastragicomediesbecauseheshowedthesatiricalandironicalsituationsthatwerepossibleinanysocietywhereyouhadtheinteractionoftheoldandthe new.In1950,hewrotehisfirstplay:Almagnet(TheMagnet).Init,hedealtwiththeobstaclesfacedbypeoplewhohadtoovercomeclassdistinctions.By1956, whenhewrotetheplayShaabTaabeqAwal(ThePeopleDownstairs),hehadperfectedthediscussionandhighlightingofmodernrealism.Inthisplay,he concentratedmoreontheconditionofthelowerclass,presentingtheEgyptianhomeasametaphorofthesociety.Thenin1958,hewroteShaabTaabeqAttani(The PeopleUpstairs)inwhichheshowedpeoplewhocouldnotdealwiththerealityoftheirsituationbutstillwantedtolookdownonothers.AshourthenwroteFilmzaai (FakeCinema)in1958andAlAadelalWaded(TheFairSex)in1960.Theydidnotreceivethesameacclaimashisearlierplays.In1963,hewrotehismostfamous playAlHoushalDughry(TheHouseofAlDughry)whichportrayeddiscordandconfusionintheAlDughryfamilybecauseofselfishness,greed,andmaterialism.It becameatelevisionserialinthe1980s. AmongtheyoungerdramatistsistheprolificLeninAlRamli(1945),whowasborninCairo.HewasnotasmuchatragicomedianasAshour,Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage147 butratheracomedianofsorts.Helookedatthedailylivesofpeopleandtriedtowriteaboutthehumorhesawintheirsituations.Insomeinstancesthisborderedon anexaminationoftheabsurdityofcertainexperiences. AlRamliworkedfortheMinistryofCultureafterhegraduatedfromtheHighInstituteforTheatricalArtsin1970.In1983,heresignedfromtheministrytodevote hisfullattentiontowritingplaysforthetheater.Hisfirstplay,publishedin1972,wasTheWordNowisfortheDefense.Thiswasthebeginningofaveryproductive career.Sincetheearly1970s,AlRamlihaswrittenmorethantwentyplays,allofwhichhavebeenproduced,eitherbypublicorprivatetheaters.Amonghismost famousworksare:TheyKillDonkeys,DontThey?TheLessonisOver,StupidAliBevMazharCongratulationsWeakPointTrytoUnderstandStupidLockUp YourDaughtersYoureFreeTheScandalTheUncivilizedInsanityAGhostforEveryCitizenAhlanYaBakawatAPointofViewandBilArabielFasih. Bytheturnofthecentury,thereweremanyyoungwritersanddirectorstryingtomoveEgyptiandramaforward.WhenNomaanAshourtriedtoEgyptianizeforeign textsinthe1960shiseffortsweremetwithsomeresistance.Bythe1990s,theyoungcomicdirectorNaderSalahElDinhadbeguntoshowhisflairfortheaterwith the1995FoulanKamanwiKaman(SoandSoAgainandAgain),afunnyspoofofYusefChahinesmovies.HesoonturnedhisattentiontoShakespeares Othello,aplaythathasreceivedacclaimaroundtheworld.ElDinsoughttomakeOthelloaNubiandoorman,asortofbumbling,naivestereotype.Theaudiences founditfunnywhentheactorplayingtheleadrole,KhaledSaleh,refrainsentaelhabeenyaDaydamoona(youaremydarlingDesdemona)inastereotypical accent.Therearecertainlysomefunnyscenesinthiscomedicrendering,butitisdifficulttogetpastthefactthatKhaledSalehplaystheleadinblackfacewhenthere aresomanypossibilitiesofblackactors,thatis,Nubianactors,inEgypt.ItbordersondistastemuchliketheoldblackfaceperformancesinU.S.dramaticproductions duringthe1930s. Throughoutthe1990sandintothetwentyfirstcentury,theactorKarimAbdulAziz,thesonofthefamousdirectorMohamedAbudulAzizandthenephewofthe veteranfilmmakerOmarAbdulAziz,becameoneofEgyptsnewactingstars.HemadehisfilmdebutattheageoffiveinthemovieAlMashbouh(TheSuspect), oppositesuperstarcomedianAdelImamandversatileactressSouadHosni.Theyoungactorputonanimpressiveperformance.HeworkedwiththelegendaryAhmed Zaki,LaylaOlwi,andSanaaGameel.KarimhasbecomepopularforhisroleinthetelevisionsmashhitMaraAmeralJameel(AWomanfromtheAgeofLove) withactressSamiraAhmed.EveryindicationisthatKarimwillcontinuetobeanactorofgreatCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage148 versatility.LikeotheractorsinEgypt,Karimhasgainedmuchnationalandinternationalnotorietyforhisskills.EgyptianactorsarethebestknownintheArabic speakingworld.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.DanceDanceinEgypt,asinotherpartsofAfrica,playsanimportantsocialroleinthelivesofthepeopletheydancewheneverthereisanoccasionforcelebration.Thus,one wouldnormallyfinddanceperformancesinthehome,athotels,andatcommunitycenterswheneverthereisabirthday,wedding,orpartytocommemoratethe promotionofapersontoahigherofficeorjob.Egyptianslovetodance,andtheyareexpertsatdeterminingwhenapersonorgroupofperformersisconsideredgood. TherearenumerousdancesinacountrylikeEgypt,butoneofthemostvisibleisthebellydance,whichprobablycameintoEgyptwiththeTurks.ItsnameinArabic israqssharqi(danceoftheEast)inTurkishthenameisOryantal(easterndance). InEgypttheroleofthefemalesingeranddancerhasbeenanintricatepartofthefabricofthesocietysincethenineteenthcentury.Infact,thealjeelstyleofbelly dancemusicispopularmusicwiththeyouthinEgyptiancities.Thisstylefirstemergedinthe1980swhentheyoungEgyptianspushedtohavemusictheycoulddance to.Mostofthelyricsareaboutpatriotism.AmongthevocalistswhosinginthisstyleareMohammedMoneer,Khedr,AdelElMusree,Ehab,AmrDiab,andHanan. Thebellydancerisnotmerelyadancerbutasymbolofstyle.Thereareseveralstylesofclothesusedbythebellydancer,butthemostcommonisthebedleh,asuit ofcabaretstyle.Ithasbeads,abra,belts,askirt,andabodystockingandisusedformostperformances.Afterperformingraqssharqi,thedancergoesbackstage andchangescostumes.Shethencomesoutinabeledidresstodoafolkloricdance.Thefloorlengthbeledidressismadeofnaturalfibersuchascottonandis coveredwithpaillettesattachedtoshortfringesofrocaillebeads.Thebellydancerwillalsohaveacane,anappropriateproptousewhenwearingthebeledidressand dancingtheraqsalassaya(thecanedance).Thecanedance,whichisnotjustabellydanceact,isenjoyedbypeopleallacrossEgypt.Itmayhavederivedfrom NubiandancesinsouthernEgypt. Bellydancingisusuallyaccompaniedbyseveralinstruments,includingthedumbekdrums.Theyarenormallyceramicwiththeheadofthedrummadefromeither goatskinorfishskin.ManydumbeksnowhavesyntheticheadsandthedrumbodymaybemadeofmetalincontemporaryEgypt.Anotherinstrumentusedinthebelly danceperformanceistheKawaiaatypeofEgyptianflutemadefromareedthatresemblesthesouthernEgyptianNeyEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage149Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Traditionaldancerssometimescalledashalabeya.Infact,thistypeoffluteisveryolditappearsindrawingsonthewallsofthetemples.Therababa(astringedinstrument),oftenusedin thedancemusicoftheSaidi(southernEgyptians),isalsousedinmostEgyptianbellydancingperformances.Otherinstruments,thatmayalsobeusedaresagat (cymbals),riqq(tambourine),tar(alargetambourine),andzurna(anoboetypeinstrument). ThereareseveralotherdancestylesandtypesthatsuggesthowimportantdanceistotheEgyptian.Onedanceiscalledtheraqsalnasharar.Thisisawomans dancethatwasimportedfromtheGulfStates.TherhythmforthemusiciscalledSaudi,becausesomanyofthesongscomefromSaudiArabia.Examplesofthismusic maybefoundinthemodernhotelclubsinCairofrequentedbymanyPersianGulfvisitors.Thefootworkinthedancebeginswhenthedancerstepsforwardonone foot,bringstheballofthebackfootforward,thenstepsforwardagainonthesamefoot.Thedancerpausesverybrieflyandthenrepeatsthewholemovementwiththe otherfoot.Thefundamentalmovementsofthisdancearehandmovementsholdingthethobealnashaarandheadtosses.Thethobe(Arabicwordfordress)isa typeofcostumingworntocoverthepartyclothesunderneath. Amansdance,theTahtiyb,isdoneinsouthernEgypt.Itisamartialartsdanceinwhichthemenenactfightingwithlongsticksasweapons.Itisbelievedthatthe raqsalassayaaroseasanimitationofthisancienttraditionaldanceofNubia.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage150 Thereisalsotheraqsalshamadan(theweddingdance),adancethatisperformedwiththedancerwearingalarge,ornatecandelabrumonherhead.Theword shamadanmeanscandelabruminArabic. WhetherthetraditionaldancesoftheSaidiorthemoderndancesoftheurbancommunitiessuchasCairo,Alexandria,orHurghada,danceinEgyptremainsclosely connectedtotheaspirationsofthepeople.Insomeareastherearecleardistinctionsbetweendancesformenandthoseforwomen.Inthemoderncities,menand womencandancetogetherinsocialdances,butthetraditionaldancesarealwaysonesinwhichmenandwomendanceingroups.Eachtraditionaldancehassome historyinplace,action,orhistoricalevent. ProfessionalmusiciansanddancersarefoundthroughoutEgyptandanyonecanhirethemforweddingsorparties.Manydancersmaketheirlivingonthetourist trade.Theyarecontractedtocertaintourcompaniesorshippinglinesforperformanceswhenthelargetouristboatsareindock.Manymusiciansanddancersare undercontracttoperformfourandfivetimespernight,goingfromboattoboat. Intheend,thebestperformanceisalsocollective.Whenadanceperformancehasbeenjudgedoutstandingbytheaudience,itisusuallybecausethedancers,who mayalsobethemusicians,havesucceededingettingtheaudiencetoparticipateinsometrainofdancersmovingaroundinacircle.ThestepsoftheEgyptiandances arefairlyeasytolearnand,thus,promoteaudienceparticipation. ThereisnosocietyinwhichdanceisappreciatedanymorethanEgypt.Thepeoplehaveanespritdecorpsthatisgroundedintheirloveofhappinessandjoy.Loud shrills,normallymadebywomen,areheardwhenthemusicisparticularlygoodandthedancingisveryenjoyable.Thistypeofululationisoftenassociatedwithhighly skilleddancerswhoaremastersofthestyleandpatternsofthemostpopularmusicanddance.Thus,Egyptshouldbeseenasarichculturalenvironmentfortraditional andmoderndance.Newavenuesofdancearebeingdiscoveredandcreatedeverydaybythehighlymobileandsophisticatedyouthofthemajorcities.Itiscertainly truethatmostofthevitalityinthedanceisbecauseofitsrichroots,butitisequallyafactthatthecontemporarycustomsandculturearebuiltonnewdimensionsof creativityandpower.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.MUSICTheMusicalGeniusofAbdalWahhabEgypthasproducedmanymusiciansbutonlyoneoftheinfluenceandstatureofAbdalWahhab.HewasconsideredageniusasayoungmanandEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage151 asanoldmanwasveneratedbytheyoungergenerationforhisartisticleadership.ButalWahhabmustbeviewednotasafolkartist,thoughthefolklovedhim,butas oneoftherarefiedmakersofcultureintheEgyptiansociety.Therefore,hetakeshisplaceintheartisticpanoplyalongsideTahaHussein,NaguibMahfouz,Tawfiqal Hakim,andthepoetoftheelite,AhmadShauqi.Theseare,byanystandards,thegiantsoftheartisticworldinEgypt. AbdalWahhabwasbornaroundtheturnofthetwentiethcentury.Therehasbeenmuchspeculationastowhetherhewasbornin1901or1910.Whatiscertainis thathediedonMay3,1991,andhisdeathmeantthatEgypthadlostoneofitsgreatestperformers. ThemediareactedtoAbdalWahhabsdeathwithcommemorativeprogramsandbiographies.Theyeulogizedthegreatartistasagiant,asonewritersaid,with onelegintheEastandoneintheWest,agreattreewithitsrootssunkdeeplyintotheArabicmusicalculture,itsbranchesreachingintothecultureofWestern music(Armbrust1996,64).Whilethemedialaudedpraiseuponhim,theopinionoftheregularfolkwasmixed:somesawhimasthekeeperofthehighcultureof Arabicmusicandotherssawhimasapanderertobourgeoistastes.AlWahhabsufferedfromthesplitvernacularthedoublepersonalityofsomanyartistsin Egypt.HehadtomaintainArabicauthenticitywhilesimultaneouslytryingtoprojectmodernity.Thesetwotendenciesdidnothavetobecontradictoryor confrontational,buttheyoftenbecamesointhemindsandhandsoflesserpeople. AbdalWahhablovedmusicfromthetimehewasayoungboy.Whenhewasateenagerthestoryistoldthatapopularmusicianpassedbyinacar.Youngal WahhabranafterthecarandleapedontherunningboardtogetaglimpseofthegreatsingerSalihAbdalHayy.Hewasconsideredthepopularsingerofhisday. WhenalHayysawtheboyhecalledforthedrivertousethewhiponhim,whereuponalWahhabwasknockedoffoftherunningboard.Heneverexpressed bitternessabouttheincidentandvowedthathewouldseehisloveofmusicbecomerecognizeduniversally. PriortotherevoltagainsttheBritishatthebeginningofthetwentiethcentury,Egyptianculture,particularlyintermsofmusicaltalent,wasconsideredcrude.Itwould beAbdalWahhabwhowouldrescuetheartandbecomeknownasthesingerofkingsandprinces.Butallofthiswouldoccurafter1920whenAhmadShauqi introducedhimtohighEgyptiansociety.ThisdidnotbringalWahhabimmediatelyintotheconsciousnessoftheEgyptiansittooksometime.Heheldnumerous concertsinnumerousvenuesinordertoestablishhisreputationasasinger.ThiswasmadeeasybythemanyweddingsandfestivalsthattookplaceinCairo. SomewritershavecontendedthatalWahhabtookEgyptiansingingfromtheleveloflewdsongsperformedbeforedrunkenmenintentstothemosteleganthallsin Cairo.ButtheauthorsarecarefultocrafttheriseofthestarCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage152 alongtraditionallines.Thus,whenalWahhabreachedthehighestlevelsoftheartandthewidestrecognitionasanartist,hisbiographerswereeagertoshowhowhe simplyextendedthevaluedtraditionsofthesociety. ThereweretwotraditionsthatappearedtomergeinalWahhabsart,thatofthefolktraditionarticulatedbythesingerSayyidDarwishandtheclassicaltradition foundintheworkofthepoetAhmadShauqi.Becauseofthiscombinationofthefolkandtheclassical,alWahhabwasabletomaintainasolidaudiencewho understoodhimasthebestinEgyptiansinging.Hehadclassicalvoicetraining,andhisassociationwithShauqigavehimtheauthenticityheneededtodeclarehimself abovethecolloquialexpressionsofthemostnaivesingers,yethebasedhismusicallineageinthefolkcultureofthepeople.Thiswasatoughfeat,butitmadehimthe majorsingerofthetwentiethcentury.ItmaybetruethatalWahhabrescuedEgyptiansingingfromthedecadenceofseedybackroomswheredrinkingandsmokingof hashishwasplentiful,butthisisnothismostimportantcontributiontothehistoryofEgyptianculture. EgyptianmusichadfoundinalWahhabapersonwhocould,byhistrainingandexperience,reconcilethecivilizationandheritageoftheArabworldwiththe civilizationoftheWestthisishismostimportantcontribution.AlWahhabisbestseenastheEgyptiansingerwhotranscendedthelimitationsofhistimeandplace.In fact,hetranscendedbywrappinghimselfinhiscultureandrespectingthecommonperson. AnInnovativeComposer RifaatGaranaisoneofthemostinnovativecomposersinEgyptbecauseheexploredtheuseoftheqanoon(aninstrumentusedmainlytoaccompanybellydancing)as amajorconcertinstrument.HespentalifetimetryingtosituateEgyptianmusicasworldclass.Ifanyonehasdoneanythingtoensurethatthemusiccriticsappreciate contemporaryEgyptianmusic,itisthebrilliantGarana. Hewasbornaround1925,educatedinEgyptbyseveralprominentcomposerswholivedinEgyptduringthe1940s,andspenthiscareeradvancingEgyptianmusic. Hewonthe1966NationalEncouragementaward,andoneyearlaterwasgiventheFirstClassOrderofArtsandSciences.Hechosetheconcertoformtoexperiment withtheqanoonandtorepresentIslamthroughtheinstrument.HeplayedthefirstmovementwiththeEidprayersthesecondwiththesongTalaaElBadro Alaina(TheMoonRoseonUs),suggestingalinkwiththeprophetsflightfromMeccatoMedinaandthethirdmovementwasstartedwiththeazaan(theIslamic calltoprayer).Inthisway,Garanafollowedhistory,muchlikeTchaikovskysymphonicallyCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage153Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.MusiciansplayingancientEgyptianinstrumentsdocumentedNapoleonBonapartesadventuresinRussia.Hiscompositionsinclude23rdofJulySymphony,ArabicSymphony,SymphonicOdetoPortSaid, SymphonicOdetothe1956War,andSymphonicOdetotheSixthofOctober.MusicfortheTwentyfirstCenturyEgyptianmusichasreachedinternationalstaturebyvirtueofthecountryhavingsomeofthemostaccomplishedcontemporarymusiciansandtheabilityoftheEgyptian peopletoimprovisegroupsthatenjoythenewmusic.AgroupofprofessionalwomenmusicianscallingthemselvesBanatelNil(DaughtersoftheNile)heldtheirfirst concertin1998.Theymadeanimmediateimpressiononthepublicbecauseoftheirtalentandprofessionalism.Thegroupwasfoundedbythreewomen:Dr.Mirvat Garana,Dr.HanaaTanious,andMayyadaSalahEddin.GaranaandTanioushadknowneachotherfromthetimetheywerefouryearsold.TheyattendedtheHigher MusicInstitute,earnedtheirdoctorates,andstartedteachingthefluteandviolintheirfavoriteinstrumentsattheinstitute. Thetwoprofessorswouldoftenaskotherwomentojointhemateventstoperformfortheaudiences.Whentheeventswereover,thewomenwouldgotheir separateways.ButsoonGaranaandTaniousdecidedtoputtogetherEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage154Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Youngmusicianagroup.Theyselectedthenameandchosefourmoremusicianstocompletethegroup.TheyincludebothArabicandpopularmusicintheirrepertoire.Theyplayedat theWomensConferenceandwereaskedtoplayattheclosingceremonyfortheInternationalSquashTournamentinHurghada.Thegroupconcentratesonthework ofFaridElAtrash,AbdalWahhab,andMohammedElMougi.ANewDivaIsBornMohammedAliSolimanwasasingerofsomerepute,andhestartedhisdaughterAnghamsinstructioninclassicalArabicmusicatagefive.Shewasbornin1975.She didnotwanttolearnscienceormathsheonlywantedtosing.Shebecamelikearecorderforherfatherwhowouldcalluponherifheforgotapartofaclassical piece.AttendingtheHigherInstituteforArabicMusic,sheexcelled,graduatingin1993. Attheageofseventeen,AnghambecameaprofessionalsingerwiththeendorsementoftheEgyptianRadioCommittee,anendorsementthatmeantshehadpassed thetesttobecomeanofficialsingerofclassicalmusic.ThesongsheperformedfortheRadioCommitteewastheclassicElGaannaThatAadaamik(HeavenIs BeneathYourFeet).Thisisasongdedicatedtomotherhood.ShewassoeffectivethattheCommitteeimmediatelyaskedEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage155 hertorecordthesongandcommissionedaliveperformancebyherfortheMothersDaycelebrations. SinceAnghamcamefromafamilyofmusicians,itmightseemthatshewasdestinedtobeagreatmusician,butshedemonstratedunusualcommitmenttopractice anddiscipline.Thus,hertalentmighthavecomefromheredity,buthersuccesswasduetohardworkandstudy.Herfather,uncle,mother,andmaternalauntwereall singers.Indeedherpaternalgrandfatherwasalsoafamousmusician.AnghamisnowseenasoneofEgyptsgreatestdivas. Inadditiontothewomeninpopularmusic,therearewomenwhoareclaimingterritoryintheclassicalArabicmusicalvernacular.Nonehasexperiencedthedramatic evolutionofhercareerashasAngham.ShesangtheclassicAshwaq(Longing)whenshewasfiveyearsoldwithoutmakingamistake.Thosewhoheardtheyoung Anghamknewthattheyhadwitnessedthebuddingofamusicalgenius.Itissaidthatasachildshewaseithersingingorlisteningtomusiceveryminuteofherday.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage156Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage157Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.GlossaryAhwacoffee Albahrgatewaytothesea Alimiyauniversitydegree Ansarhelper Ashaadinner AzaanIslamiccalltoprayer Baklavalayeredpastryfilledwithnutsandhoneylemonsyrup Bedlediclothingwornbybellydancer BismillahInthenameofAllah CaliphasuccessoroftheProphetMuhammad Chaitea Dajaajachicken Deenreligion DhikrsSufimeetings Ejjeomelette Falafeldeepfriedpattyfilledwithspicedgroundchickpeas Farahwedding Fataamixtureofmeat,bread,rice,andvinegar Fatwaopinion(authoritativeverdict)byacanonlawyer Fellahpeasantfarmer FeluccasailboatEBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage158 Foulslowcookedmashofbrownfarabeansandredlentils Fulmedamesbakedbeans Futoorbreakfast Galabealongsleevedonepiecedressformen Gebnabeidasoftwhitecheese HadithspecificstoriesoractivitiesoftheProphetMuhammadandhisfollowers Hajjpilgrimage Halawasweetsesamecake HegiramigrationoftheprophettoMedinain622 Hijabheadcoveringforwomen Hummusdipmadefrompureedchickpeas Iftarlargemealeatenaftersunset Imammosqueleader Infitahopendooreconomicpolicy JihadHolyWar,spiritualquestormilitaryconquest Karkadaypopulardrinkmadefromthehibiscusplant Kebabskeweredmeatcookedovercharcoal Khamsinhot,fierce,drywindstorm Khazaandam KhediveviceroytitleofrulerofEgyptundertheOttomanSultan,18671914 Mahdiinfallibleruler Majallamagazine MamlukamemberoftheEgyptianmilitaryclassthatoccupiedthesultanacefrom1250to1517 Mastabarectangularlyshapedbox MawlidbirthdayofaSufisaint Milabbissugarcoatedalmonds MisrArabicforEgypt Molokhiyaspinachlikevegetable MuezzinaMuslimcrieronewhocallsMuslimstoprayer Muhajirunemigrant Nahdarenaissance Pastoramicuredbeef Pitaflat,unleavenedbread QanooninstrumentusedtoaccompanybellydancingCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage159 QuransacredtextofIslam QurayshNorthArabianethnicgroup,ProphetMuhammadspeople Raqssharqibellydance RukkabordinaryU.S.equivalentislocaltrain Sabaahmorning Saharadesert Sajaadacarpet Sakiawaterwheel SalatelgomaaFridaynoonprayer Sayedalady Shaabpeople Shadufcounterpoiselift ShahadaIslamicpillar,proclaimingthatAllahistheonlyGod Shammyflat,unleavedbread Sharbatdrinkmadefromdilutedsyrup ShariaMuslimlaw ShiaPartisansofAli ShiiteMuslimbelieverinAlissuccessiontoMuhammad SufiIslamicmystic Sunnaliterally,habitsagroupofreligiousteachings SunniMuslimbelieverincustomarysuccession SurachapteroftheQuran Tagenclaypot Tahinalemonandgarlicservedwithadip Tariqaspathsanothernameforsufiorders UlamaIslamicscholar UmaldunyaMotheroftheWorld UmmaMuslimcommunityofbelievers Usrafamily WafdPartypoliticalpartythatgrewfroma1918delegationtoEngland Zaghrutacelebratorywailingsofwomenatawedding Zakatcharityorthegivingofalms ZibiblocalalcoholicbeverageCopyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage160Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.Thispageintentionallyleftblank.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage161Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.BibliographyAbuLughod,Ibrahim.ArabRediscoveryofEurope.Princeton,NJ:PrincetonUniversityPress,1963. AbuLughod,Janet.Cairo:1001YearsoftheCityVictorious.Princeton,NJ:PrincetonUniversityPress,1971. Abdelkhalek,Gouda,andRobertTignor.ThePoliticalEconomyofIncomeDistributioninEgypt.NewYork:HolmesandMeier,1982. Ahmed,Leila.WomenandGenderinIslam:HistoricalRootsofaModernDebate.NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1992. Amin,Galal.WhateverHappenedtotheEgyptians?Cairo:AmericanUniversityofCairo,1995. Amin,Qasim.TheLiberationofWomenandTheNewWoman:TwoDocumentsintheHistoryofEgyptianFeminism.Cairo:AmericanUniversityPress,2000. Ammar,H.GrowingUpinanEgyptianVillage.NewYork:GrovePress,1954. Armbrust,Walter.MassCultureandModernisminEgypt.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1996. Atiya,Nayra.KhulKhaal:FiveEgyptianWomenTellTheirStories.Cairo:AmericanUniversityinCairoPress,1984. Awad,Louis.Maulahazatalaalnaywaalgamin.AlAhram,19December1969,p.6. Awad,Louis.TheLiteratureofIdeasofEgypt.Atlanta,GA:ScholarsPress,1986. Ayubi,N.N.BureaucracyandPoliticsinContemporaryEgypt.London:IthacaPress,1980. Baker,R.W.EgyptsUncertainRevolutionunderNasserandSadat.Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,1978. Barton,Frank.ThePressinAfrica.London:Macmillan,1979.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage162Brooks,Geraldine.NinePartsofDesire:TheHiddenWorldofIslamicWomen.NewYork:AnchorBooks,1995. Brown,Nathan.PeasantPoliticsinEgypt.NewHaven,CT:YaleUniversityPress,1990. Burns,W.J.EconomicAidandAmericanPolicytowardEgypt.Albany:StateUniversityofNewYorkPress,1985. Butler,Alfred.TheArabInvasionofEgyptandtheLast30YearsoftheRomanDominion.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1902. .TheArabInvasionofEgypt.Brooklyn,NY:AandBBooks,1922. Chennels,E.AnEgyptianPrincessbyHerEnglishGoverness.London:1893. Cooper,MarkN.TheTransformationofEgypt.London:CroomHelm,1982. Crecelius,Daniel.TheRootsofModernEgypt:AStudyoftheRegimesofAliBeyalKabirandMuhammadBeyAbualDhahab,17601775.Minneapolis,MN: BibliothecaIslamica,1981. Creswell,K.A.C.EarlyMuslimArchitecture.2Vols.London:Penguin,1958. Dessouki,AliHillal,ed.DemocracyinEgypt.Cairo:AmericanUniversityinCairoPress,1978. Diop,CheikhAnta.CivilizationorBarbarism:AnAuthenticAnthropology.Trans.YaaLengiMecmiNgemi.NewYork:LawrenceHill,1991. ElDakhakhni,Mamdouh.Egypt(August2001). ElHakim.NubianArchitecture:TheEgyptianVernacularExperience.CairoPalmPress,1999. Fahmi,Ismail.NegotiatingforPeaceintheMiddleEast.London:CroomHelm,1983. Faksh,Mahmud.TheConsequencesoftheIntroductionandSpreadofModernEducation:EducationandNationalIntegrationinEgypt.InModernEgypt:Studiesin PoliticsandSociety,editedbyElieKedourieandSylviaG.Haim.London:FrankCass,1980. Ferneat,ElizabethWarnock.InSearchofIslamicFeminism:OneWomansGlobalJourney.NewYork:Doubleday,1998. Gardiner,A.H.EgyptofthePharaohs.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1974. Gharib,Samir.AHundredYearsofFineArtsinEgypt.Cairo:Prism,1998. Gibb,SirH.A.R.StudiesontheCivilizationofIslam.London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1962. Gilsenan,Michael.RecognizingIslam:ReligionandSocietyintheModernArabWorld.NewYork:Pantheon,1982. Gole,Nilufer.TheForbiddenModern:CivilizationandVeiling.AnnArbor:UniversityofMichiganPress,1994. Gran,Peter.IslamicRootsofCapitalism,17691840.Austin:UniversityofTexasPress,1979. vonGrunebaum,Gustave.MedievalIslam.Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1946. Hansen,Bent,andSamirRadwan.EmploymentOpportunitiesandEquityinEgypt.Geneva:InternationalLabourOffice,1982.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage163Harris,LillianCraig,ed.Egypt:InternalChallengesandRegionalStability.London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1988. Heikal,Mohamed.AutumnofFury:TheAssassinationofSadat.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1985. HeyworthDunne,James.AnIntroductiontotheHistoryofEducationinModernEgypt.London:Luzac,1939. Hopwood,Derk.Egypt:PoliticsandSociety,19451981.London:AllenandUnwin,1982. Hourani,Albert.ArabicThoughtintheLiberalAge,17981939.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1983. Hussein,Taha.TheFutureofCultureinEgypt.Washington,DC:AmericanCouncilofLearnedSocieties,1954. alJabarti,AbdalRahman.AlJabartisChronicleoftheFirstSevenMonthsoftheFrenchOccupationofEgypt,MuharramRajab1213(15JuneDecember1798). Leiden:Brill,1975. Kamel,MohammedIbrahim.TheCampDavidAccords:ATestimony.London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1986. Kedourie,Elie,andSylviaG.Haim.ModernEgypt:StudiesinPoliticsandSociety.London:FrankCass,1980. Kelley,AllenC.,AtepM.Khalifa,andM.NabilElKhorazaty.PopulationandDevelopmentinRuralEgypt.Durham,NC:DukeUniversityPress,1982. Kepel,Gilles.TheProphetandPharaoh:MuslimExtremisminEgypt.London:AlSaqi,1985. Khalidi,Tarif.ArabicHistoricalThoughtintheClassicalPeriod.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1994. Landau,Jacob.StudiesintheArabTheatreandCinema.Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,1958. Lane,Edward.AnAccountoftheMannersandCustomsoftheModernEgyptians.London:CharlesKnight,1835. LeoAfricanus(alHassanibnMuhammadalWazzanalFasi).HistoryandDescriptionofAfrica.London:HakluytSociety,1896. Mabro,Robert.TheEgyptianEconomy,19521972.Oxford:ClarendonPress,1974. McDermott,Anthony.EgyptafterNasser.London:CroomHelm,1987. Mitchell,Timothy.ColonizingEgypt.BerkeleyandLosAngeles:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1991. Nelson,Kristina.TheArtofRecitingtheQuran.Austin:UniversityofTexasPress,1985. Nyrop,RichardF.,ed.Egypt:ACountryStudy.Washington,DC:AmericanUniversityandU.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice,1983. Pedersen,Johannes.TheArabicBook.Princeton,NJ:PrincetonUniversityPress,1984. Rugh,AndreasB.FamilyinContemporaryEgypt.Cairo:AmericanUniversityinCairoPress,1985.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage164Said,Edward.Orientalism.NewYork:Pantheon,1978. Scholch,Alexander.EgyptfortheEgyptians:TheSocioPoliticalCrisisinEgypt18781882.London:Ithaca,1981. Stewart,Desmond.GreatCairo:MotheroftheWorld.Cairo:AmericanUniversityinCairoPress,1996. Tucker,JudithE.WomeninNineteenthCenturyEgypt.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1985. Vatikiotis,P.J.TheModernHistoryofEgypt.NewYork:Praeger,1969. .TheHistoryofEgypt.3rded.Baltimore,MD:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1986. Waterbury,John.TheEgyptofNasserandSadat:ThePoliticalEconomyofTwoRegimes.Princeton,NJ:PrincetonUniversityPress,1983. Ziegler,Dhyana,andMolefiKeteAsante.ThunderandSilence:TheMassMediainAfrica.Trenton,NJ:AfricaWorldPress,1992.Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 12:28 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage165Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.IndexAaykai,MuhammadHusayn,131 AbbasI,133 Adunis,143 Aflaton,Injy,88 AlAfghani,JamalalDin,131,136138 AlAyyubi,SalahadDin(Saladin),18 AlAzharUniveristy,21,133 AlAziz,15,1618 AlFaituri,Muhammad,143 AlHakim,Tawfiq,130,131,141,142 AlHakim,Caliph(thedemented),16 AlHalabi,Suleiman,20 AlIkhwan,28 AlJabarti,AbdalRahman(theEthiopian),21,131,132 AlJawahiri,Ayman,37 AlJazeera,117 AlMalikBaybarsI(Mamlukconqueror),18 AlNashar,AbdulRahman,89 AlShia,14 AlMoizz,14 Almuhalib,AbdelAllahibaAbdel,12 AlRanna,Hasan,28 AlTahtawi,Aifaarafi,130,131 AlWahhab,Abd,150 AlexanderofMacedonia,10,44 Alexandria,47 Ali,Muhammad,133,134. SeealsoMuhammadAliPasha AllianceforArabWomen,102 Amin,Ahmad,25,26 Amin,Qasim,100,131 liberationofwomen,100 newwoman,100, supportofwomen,100102 ArabWomenandValueSystem,102 ArabWomensSolidarityAssociation,102 ArabicLanguage,129,130 Architecture,7781 Artists,86 painters,86,87 women87 Ashour,Nomaan,146 AswanHighDam,9,42,43,44,99 Aswan,50 Awad,Louis,131 Ayyad,Ragheb,83 Ayyubidrule,18 AzRamli,Lenin,146,147 AzZahra,Fatima,13 Aziz,KarimAbdul,147 Bakr,Abu,13 Begin,Menachem,33EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 1:26 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage166BellyDancing,148 Bey,AbdalAzizKhalil,133 Bey,NicolaKhalil,133 BinLaden,Osama,3738 Birthdays,114 Bonaparte,Napoleon,20,21,48,153 BritishoccupationofEgypt,24 CairoMuseum,84 Cairo,13 cityof,13,44 culturalcenter,46 MotheroftheWorld,44,45 Cinema,125,126 Civilgovernment,39 Clothing,116 Copts,11,53,7274 Dance,148150 deLesseps,Ferdinand,52 deMenou,JacquesFrancois,20 deVolney,Comte,21 Denon,DominiqueVivant,91 Dinocrates,47 Economy,41 Education,5254 newsystem,52 religious,52 Effendi,IskandirAmmun,133 Egyptianfood,106112 Egyptiannationality,7 EgyptianOrganizationforHumanRights,102 EgyptianWomenAssociation,102 ElAtrash,Farid,154 ElMougi,Mohammed,154 ElSegeini,Gamal,89 ElTeimissani,Kamel,88 Europeanconquest,20 Familystructure,112 Farming,97 FatimidPeriod,1318 FineArts,82 FouadI,24 FreeOfficerCommittee,28 Galabea,116 GeneralBernardMontgomery,27 GeneralElAs,130 GeneralFieldMarshalErvinRommel,27 GeneralNaguib,29 GrandArmy,20,52 Graphicarts,91 Greeks,10 GreenShirts,the,28 GroupofFiveArtists,89 Halim,Taheyya,88 Hijab,102,103 Homer,10 Husain,Ahmad,28 Hussein,Taha,130,131,138,141 Idris,Yusef,130,131,145 Infitah(OpenDoor),32,118 Islam,28, Egyptianreligiouspractices,6570 FivePillars,6970 origins,65 QuranandIslam68, IslamandWomen,107 Jihad,28 Kamal,Youssef,82 Kanaan,Monir,89 Khafre,59 Khalid,MuhammadKhalid,131 KhanelKhalili,79 KhediveIsmail,24,25,133 Khufu,58,59 KingFarouk,29 LakeNasser,9 ALoverfromAfrica,144 Luxor,49 Mahdi,13 Mahfouz,Naguib,130,142 Majorholidays,7576 EidelAdha,75,Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 1:26 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage167EidelFetr,75, MulidelNabawy,76 Mamluks,18,19,20,22,23 Mandir,Muhammad,131 Mariette,AugusteFerdinandFranois,46,47 Massouda,Ibrahim,89 MdwNtr,129 Menes,11 Menkaure,59 MinistryofSpecialAffairs,102 MisralFatah,28 Mosques:constructionof,80,81 Mubarak,HosniMuhammad,34,35,36,37,38 Muhajirn,13 Mukhtar,AbdulQader,90 Museums,85,86 Music,150 MuslimBrotherhood,29 MyHomeland(NationalAnthem),40 Nadu,Hawed,89 Nahda,131 Naming,114 Nasser,GamalAbdel,5,30,31,32,43,143 Nehru,Jawaharlal,31 Nelson,Horatio,20 Newspaper,122125 NileRiver,5,41,42 Nkrumah,Kwame,5,31,85 NobelPeacePrize,33 NonalignedMovement,31 Nubians,710,43 Obaidallah,14 OttomanTurks,19 Orabi,Ahmed,48 OrganizationofAfricanUnity,30 OrganizationofArabUnity,30 Pasha,Ibrahim,133 Pasha,MuhammadAli,22,23,24 Pasha,Mustafa,AnNahhasPasha,27 Poetry,143 Polygamy,103 Property,9697 ProphetMuhammed,1113,6568 Qulawun,18,19 Quraysh,11,12 Raef,Maher,89 Religion,63 RememberMe,Africa,144 RevolutionaryCommandCouncil,29 Rizk,AbdulQader,84 RomanArmy,64 Roman,Mikhail,145 Sabur,SalahAbdel,143 Sadat,Anwar,31,32,33,85 Saleh,Khaled,147 Selassie,Haile,5 Selim,AhmadFouad,89 Shaduf,98 Sharia,72 Shawki,Ahmed,143 Shia,14 Sirri,Gazibiyya,88 SiwaOasis,20 SixDayWar(1967),31 SocialBehavior,114,115 Soliman,MohammedAli,154 SongsofAfrica,144 SuezCanal,51 construction,51,52 history,51 Sufi,71 Sunnitradition,15 Tawy(TwoLands),2 TagammuParty,40 Talib,Abu,12,13 Television,119,120,121 TempleofPhilae,130 TempleofRamsesII,69 Textiles,92Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 1:26 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage168Tourism,5461 ancientmonuments,57 Christiansites,61 Islamicsites,61 nightlife,56 pyramids,57 vacationresorts,54 ValleyoftheKings,57 Travel,9596 TreatyofAmiens(1801),133 TripartiteAggression,89 Ulama,21,133 WafdParty,26,27,28,30,33 Wassef,RamsesWissa(architect),85 Weddings(farah),104 Women,100104 divorce,l03,l04 liberation,102, positionofwomen,100 WorldTradeCenter,37 WorldWarII,27 Zaghlul,Saad,25Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 1:26 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupuiPage169Copyright 2002. Greenwood Publishing Group. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.AbouttheAuthorMOLEFIKETEASANTEisaProfessorintheDepartmentofAfricanAmericanStudiesatTempleUniversity.Heistheauthorofmorethan50books,includingThe EgyptianPhilosophers(2000).EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 1/14/2012 1:30 PM via INDIANA UNIV - PURDUE UNIV AT INDIANAPOLIS 9780313050480 ; Asante, Molefi K..; Culture and Customs of Egypt Account: iupui

Recommended

View more >