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- 1. A Muslim, also spelled Moslem,]is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religionbased on the Quranwhich Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed toprophet Muhammadand, with lesser authority than the Quran, the teachings and practicesof Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts, called hadith. "Muslim" is an Arabic wordmeaning "one who submits to God".Muslims believe that God is eternal, transcendent, absolutely one (the doctrine of tawhid, orstrict or simple monotheism), and incomparable; that he is self-sustaining, who begets not norwas begotten. Muslim beliefs regarding God are summed up in chapter 112 of the Quran, al-Ikhlas, "the chapter of purity". Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universalversion of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, includingthrough the prophets Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Muslims maintain that previous messagesand revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time, but consider the Quranto be both unaltered and the final revelation from GodFinal Testament.
- 2. Hinduism is the predominant religion of India and Nepal. Hinduism includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism and rautaamong numerous other traditions. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrumof laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism is aconglomeration of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid common set of beliefs.Hinduism is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder. Among its direct roots is the historical Vedicreligion of Iron Age India and, as such, Hinduism is often called the "oldest living religion" or the "oldest livingmajor religion" in the world.One orthodox classification of Hindu texts is to divide into ruti ("revealed") and Smriti ("remembered") texts.These texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, rituals and temple building among other topics. Majorscriptures include the Vedas, Upanishads, Puras, Mahbhrata, Rmyaa, Bhagavad Gt and gamas.Hinduism, with about one billion followers (950 million estimated in India),is the worlds third largest religion,after Christianity and Islam.
- 3. A cultural Christian is a secular or nonreligious individual who still significantly identifies withChristian culture. Christian deists of the 18th and early 19th centuries, such as Napoleon andvarious Founding Fathers of the United States, similarly considered themselves part of Christianculture, despite their doubts about the divinity of Jesus.Contrasting terms are "biblical Christian", "committed Christian, converted Christian", or "believingChristian".
- 4. Chinese culture is one of the worlds oldest cultures. The area in which the culture isdominant covers a large geographical region in eastern Asia with customs and traditionsvarying greatly between provinces, cities, and even towns. Important components of Chineseculture include literature, music, visual arts, martial arts, cuisine, etc.
- 5. The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the countrys prehistoricJmon period, to its contemporary hybrid culture, which combines influences from Asia,Europe, and North America. The inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relativeisolation from the outside world during the Tokugawa shogun ate, until the arrival of "TheBlack Ships" and the Meiji period
- 6. The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt wasamong the earliest civilizations. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly complex andstable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Afterthe Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a timeChristianity, and later, Islamic culture. Today, many aspects of Egypts ancient cultureexist in interaction with newer elements, including the influence of modern Westernculture
- 7. The culture of Africa encompasses and includes all cultures within the continent of Africa.There is a political or racial split between North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa, which is inturn divided into a great number of ethnic cultures. African cultures are diverse and variedand not static, and like most of the world have been impacted upon by both internal andexternal forces.
- 8. South Indian culture refers to the culture of the South Indian states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu,Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. South Indian culture though with its visible differences forms animportant part of the Indian culture. The South Indian Culture is essentially the celebration ofthe eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body and motherhood. It isexemplified through its dance, clothing, and sculptures
- 9. The culture of Asia is human civilization in Asia. It features different kinds of cultural heritageof many nationalities, societies, and ethnic groups in the region, traditionally called acontinent from a Western-centric perspective, of Asia. The region or "continent" is morecommonly divided into more natural geographic and cultural subregions, including the CentralAsia, East Asia, North Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and West Asia. Geographically, Asiais not a distinct continent; culturally, there has been little unity or common history for many ofthe cultures and peoples of Asia.Asian art, music, and cuisine, as well as literature, are important parts of Asian culture.Eastern philosophy and religion also plays a major role, with Hinduism, Taoism,Confucianism, Buddhism, Judaism and Islam all playing major roles. One of the mostcomplex parts of Asian culture is the relationship between traditional cultures and theWestern world.
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