csos in the rouge river and detroit river in rouge and detroit 2015.pdf · csos in the rouge...

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  • CSOs in the Rouge River and Detroit

    River Watersheds

    Detroit River Lighthouse,

    photo courtesy of the Friends

    of the Detroit River

    Phil Argiroff, DEQ-WRD

    January 12, 2015 1

  • Acronyms CSO: Combined Sewer Overflow

    SSO: Sanitary Sewer Overflow

    WQS: Water Quality Standards

    RTB: Retention Treatment Basin

    DO: Dissolved Oxygen

    TRC: Total Residual Chlorine

    NPDES: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

    RAP: Remedial Action Plan

    WWTP: Wastewater Treatment Plant

    MDD: Million Gallons per Day

    GI: Green Infrastructure

    ACO: Administrative Consent Order

    O&M: Operations and Maintenance

    TSS: Total Suspended Solids

    TP: Total Phosphorus

    CBOD5: Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    CAFO: Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    MAEAP: Michigan Agriculture Environmental Assurance Program

    S/D: Screening/Disinfection Treatment Facility

    LTCP: Long-Term CSO Control Plan


  • Water Resources

    Protect and Monitor

    4 Great Lakes

    3,288 miles of Great

    Lakes shoreline

    11,000 inland lakes

    36,000 river miles

    5.5 million acres of wetlands

    70,000 acres of critical dunes

    For swimming, fishing, drinking water and aquatic ecosystems.


  • Major Impact of CSOs on Water Quality

    Impact public health because CSO contain raw


    Impact fisheries and aquatic organisms by

    depressing dissolved oxygen

    Impact from nutrients

    Impact aesthetics due to sanitary trash


  • 5

    Wet Weather Uncontrolled CSOs

    Typical Uncontrolled CSO


    Storm Sewer

    Sanitary Sewer

    Combined Sewer

  • Michigans CSO Control Program

    Refocused in 1988; based on revised WQS in

    1986 to protect all waters for total body contact

    CSO Control Manual (1994) documented a

    phased program; revised WQS led to all

    discharges with sewage needing disinfection

    Municipalities must either:

    eliminate the CSO through sewer separation, or

    provide adequate treatment to meet all water quality

    standards (WQS) at times of discharge


  • Adequate Treatment

    Presumptive definition complete capture of the 1 yr1 hr event

    30 min of detention of the 10 yr1 hr event, for

    screening, settling, skimming, and disinfection

    Demonstration approach allows evaluation that treated discharges, across a

    range of events, meet WQS at times of discharge

    Typical treatment is a Retention Treatment

    Basin (RTB)


  • Demonstration Criteria

    Refined in 1998 for Rouge River; Criteria

    for Success in CSO Treatment

    Eliminate raw sewage

    Protect public health

    Meet the DO standard

    Control TRC

    Ensure health of biological communities

    Now used statewide


  • Some Historical Notes

    1985 Rouge RAP called for CSO correction by

    2005 to protect public health and eliminate raw

    sewage, and meet all WQS sometime after.

    Contested 1988 NPDES CSO permits were

    resolved in Federal Court (Judge Feikens).

    Resulted in Bulkley Agreement which was a

    demonstration approach.

    Led to Rouge River National Wet Weather

    Demonstration Project.

    The 2007-8 recession led to extended correction



  • Rouge Watershed


  • Oakland County CSO Control

    3 demonstration RTBs constructed to treat

    wastewater from 38 CSOs; Acacia Park RTB,

    Birmingham RTB, Bloomfield Village RTB

    No remaining CSOs. Main Branch free of CSO

    impact into Detroit (Pembroke Ave).

    Eliminate raw sewage, protect public health,

    meet DO standard, provide for heathy biological


    Currently drafting NPDES permits that will

    resolve last demonstration criterion, TRC


  • Redford Twp. CSO Control

    One demonstration RTB constructed to correct

    several CSOs

    8 remaining CSOs to Upper Branch. Upper

    Branch is free of CSO impact into Redford

    Currently drafting NPDES permits that will

    require correction of remaining CSOs by 2025

    Considers the Townships finances (medium

    burden), and will continue the option to correct

    CSOs regionally


  • Dearborn Heights CSO Control

    One presumptive RTB constructed to correct

    several CSOs, with additional CSOs added

    7 remaining CSOs; one to Middle Branch, 2 to

    Upper Branch, 4 to Lower Branch (3 shared with

    Inkster). Middle Branch is free of CSO impact

    into Dearborn Heights

    Currently drafting NPDES permits that will

    require correction of remaining CSOs from


    Considers the Citys finances (medium burden),

    and will continue the option to correct regionally 13

  • Dearborn CSO Control

    3 treatment/storage shafts and one storage shaft

    constructed, and some separation projects

    completed to address several outfalls

    8 remaining CSOs; 5 to Lower Branch, 3 to Main


    Recently issued NPDES permit will require

    correction of remaining CSOs from 2020-25

    (high burden).

    Projects will be a combination of treatment

    shafts, and sewer separations


  • Inkster CSO Control

    2 demonstration RTBs constructed to correct

    several CSOs

    7 remaining CSOs; all to Lower Branch (3

    shared with Dearborn Heights). Lower Branch is

    free of CSO impact into Inkster

    Currently drafting NPDES permits that will

    require correction of remaining CSOs. Schedule

    being discussed.

    Considers the Citys finances (high burden)


  • Detroit WWTP and CSO Control

    The current Detroit WWTP permit was

    effective on May 1, 2013

    Largest single site WWTP in the US

    Treats dry weather flow and significant wet

    weather flow through secondary treatment up to

    930 million gallons per day (MGD)

    Treats wet weather flow through primary

    treatment up to 1700 MGD


  • 3 Key Issues Addressed in


    Sustained compliance with permit requirements

    Reductions in authorized total phosphorus loads

    to help address Lake Erie algae

    Adaptive Management CSO Control program;

    includes Green Infrastructure, considers Detroit

    residents finances


  • Detroit WWTP


  • WWTP - View of Pump Station 2 and gravity



  • WWTP view of secondary clarifiers


  • Issue 1: Sustained Compliance

    Periods of non-compliance over the last 35


    Was under Federal Court Order, until 2013.

    Under an administrative consent order

    (ACO) with the DEQ for violations from


    Permit specifies a Facility Improvement



  • Facility Improvement Program

    Includes ACO conditions that control the

    solids inventories at the WWTP

    Requires construction of new solids

    dewatering equipment by 2016

    Requires a Long-term Solids Disposal


    Requires Asset Management to address

    operation and maintenance issues


  • Adjustment of Effluent Limits

    based on good O&M Monitoring periods at wet weather outfalls

    changed to more quickly reflect good WWTP

    operation and maintenance

    Effluent limits at wet weather outfalls adjusted to

    require well operated WWTP

    Pollutant Previous Limit (30 discharge


    Final Limit

    (monthly average)

    TSS 100 mg/l 70 mg/l

    CBOD5 100 mg/l 40 mg/l



    2.5 mg/l 1.5 mg/l


  • Issue 2: Total Phosphorus

    Algal Blooms in Lake Erie

    Toledo Blade, 2012


  • Michigan actions to address

    Phosphorus into Lake Erie

    Controlled WWTP discharges to Great Lakes and tributaries to 1.0 mg/l or less

    Instituted statewide ban on phosphates in laundry detergent, dishwasher detergent and residential lawn fertilizer

    Permitted all Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) which includes comprehensive nutrient management plans

    Encourages voluntary Michigan Agriculture Environmental Assurance Program (MAEAP) certifications for farms

    Actively required comprehensive Sanitary Sewer Overflow and Combined Sewer Overflow correction programs for over 2 decades


  • Detroit WWTP TP load sources

    2011 % Total 2012 % Total

    Secondary Treated 756590 70 751110 94

    Primary Treated (WWTP/CSO facilities) 275780 26 48250 6

    Untreated CSO 42090 4 2240 0

    Total 1074460 100 801600 100


  • Detroit Total Phosphorus Loads

    Secondary treated outfall 049B

    to Detroit River 80% of P load

    Wet weather





  • Reduction in Permitted

    Phosphorus Levels Beginning 2015

    WWTP secondary treated outfall reduced from 1.0

    mg/l to 0.7 mg/l as a monthly average

    Growing season average of 0.6 mg/l (from April


    WWTP currently meeting 0.2 0.4 mg/l as monthly


    Based on levels the current WWTP can

    achieve optimizing existing