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  • CSGJus(ceCenterMassachuse2sCriminalJus(ceReview

    WorkingGroupMee.ng2Keystatutoryframeworks,sentencingpolicies,andprac7cesthatimpact

    incarcera7onandcommunitysupervisioninMassachuse;s

    April12,2016

    TheCouncilofStateGovernmentsJus(ceCenterSteveAllen,SeniorPolicyAdvisor,BehavioralHealthKa

  • TheCouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • SenatePresidentRosenbergThroughcollabora7onbetweentheworking

    groupandCSG,wewilliden7fypoliciesfor

    Massachuse;stomakesmartreformsto

    reducerecidivismrates,lowercosts,andinvest

    inreentryprograms.

    Stateleadersaredemonstra

  • Thefirstworkinggroupmee

  • Glossaryoftermsusedinthispresenta

  • Defini

  • Presenta

  • 3,18510,713

    34,444

    26,399

    0

    10,000

    20,000

    30,000

    40,000

    50,000

    60,000

    1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014

    Between1980and2014,althoughviolentcrimefell26

    percent,theDOCpopula

  • AlthoughMassachusePssincarcera

  • Eachyearthestatespendsoveronebilliondollarson

    incarcera

  • Manyopportuni

  • In2013,39,049criminaldocketsconcludedinconvic

  • TherearenearlyasmanyCWOFdisposi

  • 458

    5,701

    476

    1,880

    1,0691,267

    855 407 302 227 226 253

    10,070

    3,949

    5,174

    99

    2,383

    78

    3,580

    287

    0

    2,000

    4,000

    6,000

    8,000

    10,000

    12,000

    SuperiorCourtsentencesareprimarilyforpersonsanddrugoffenseswhileDistrict

    Court/BMCsentencesareprimarilyformotorvehicleandpropertyoffenses

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • 36%ofDistrictCourt/BMCsentencesand82%ofSuperiorCourt

    sentencesaretoincarcera

  • 10%13% 13%

    42%

    21%

    35%

    22% 22%

    18-24 25-34 35-44 45andolder

    ResidentPopula

  • Convic

  • Anumberofstatutes,policies,andprac

  • Someanalysisisnotincludedinthispresenta

  • Presenta

  • KEYFINDING:Peoplewithpreviousjus

  • Recidivismdrivesmostnewconvic

  • ArevolvingdoorexistswithHOCsentencesandstateprison

    24CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • 179

    1,199

    259

    891

    3,111

    465266

    2,380

    179

    1,000

    1,055

    1,763

    889

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    4,000

    4,500

    5,000

    Violentsex

    offense

    Persons Weapons Drug Property Motorvehicle Other

    KEYFINDING:MotorvehicleandpropertyoffensesgeneratealargevolumeofshortsentencestoHOC

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • Morethan1,200peopleweresentencedtoHOC

    forlarcenyoffenses,atacostofupto$13million

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • NearlyhalfofHOCsentencesformisdemeanormotorvehicle

    offenseswereforOpera

  • MisdemeanorsentencestoHOCcostthestateanes

  • KEYFINDING:Sentencingprac

  • 620

    387

    233

    355

    245

    110

    536

    447

    89

    343

    172

    171

    Nearly20%ofstateprisonsentencesrestrictparoleandhave

    noguaranteedpost-releaseproba

  • Thelikelihoodofreceivingapost-releaseproba

  • Peoplewithmorethanthreeprioroffensesweremorelikelyto

    receivestraightHOCsentenceswithnopost-releaseproba

  • SUMMARY:Peoplewithpreviousjus

  • SUMMARY:MotorvehicleandpropertyoffensesaccountforalargevolumeofshortsentencestoHOC

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • SUMMARY:Sentencingprac

  • Keypolicyconsidera

  • Presenta

  • Con

  • Therearefewrestric

  • TherearenearlyasmanyCWOFdisposi

  • 0

    2,000

    4,000

    6,000

    8,000

    10,000

    12,000

    14,000

    CWOFsareusedinalloffensecategories,thoughthe

    propor

  • 1,744

    1,074

    4,139

    173

    5,517

    731

    4,174

    909

    4,842

    70

    2,166

    2,828

    4,457

    6,224

    1,333

    1,618

    3,282

    142

    4,528

    532

    3,251

    911

    4,024

    125

    2,157

    2,8533,054

    4,133

    0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    7,000

    Convic

  • Male

    Female

    Demographiccomposi

  • Two-thirdsofpeopleconvictedin2013hadahistoryofat

    leastonepriorCWOFasanadult

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • NearlyhalfofCWOFshaveaperiodofsupervisedproba

  • Judgesiden

  • CWOFsarebroadlyused,butliPleisknownabouttheirimpacton

    thecriminaljus

  • Addi

  • Presenta

  • 0

    2,000

    4,000

    6,000

    8,000

    10,000

    12,000

    Motorvehicle Property Persons Drug Other Weapons Violentsex

    offense

    2,122

    517 529 479

    Overhalfofconvic

  • Thestatespentupto$15milliononincarcera

  • NearlyhalfofHOCsentencesformisdemeanormotorvehicle

    offenseswereforOpera

  • Morethan1,200peopleweresentencedtoHOC

    forlarcenyoffenses,atacostofupto$13million

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • Thefelonylarcenythresholdhasnotbeenadjustedtokeep

    upwithinfla

  • 66%

    16% 15%

    3%

    72%

    16%11%

    2%

    72%

    11%14%

    4%

    White Black Hispanic Other

    Convic

  • Addi

  • Presenta

  • MassachusePsisoneof21stateswithsomeformof

    sentencingguidelines

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • Theguidelinesincludeagridthatsortscasesintozonesbased

    onoffenseseverityandcriminalhistory

    59CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • ThegridisaconsistenttoolusedbySuperiorCourtjudges,

    buttheguidelinesarenotapplicabletoDistrictCourtcases

    60CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • 3,837

    5,924

    10,255

    5,527

    207

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,00012,000

    Nogrid

    Level1

    Level2

    Level3

    Level4

    Level5

    Level6

    Level7

    Level8

    Level9

    999

    9

    767

    6,658

    2,811

    1,067

    575

    218

    118

    77

    0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,00012,000

    Nogrid

    Level1

    Level2

    Level3

    Level4

    Level5

    Level6

    Level7

    Level8

    Level9

    Amajorityofoffenses,especiallythoseprocessedinDistrictCourt,

    fallintooffenselevels1through4andareinthediscre

  • Sentencingoutcomescanvaryforindividualswiththesame

    offenseandsimilarcriminalhistory

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • 11.2

    15.614.0

    22.6 22.9

    25.5

    SuperiorCourtsentencesareconsistentlylongerthanDistrict

    Courtsentencesforsimilaroffenses

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • Addi

  • Presenta

  • DOCandcountyfacili

  • AnumberofoffensescanbesentencedtoeitherHOCor

    stateprison

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • Three-quartersofsentencestoHOCareforlessthanoneyear

    68

    6,401

    47%

    3,891

    29%

    8656%

    2,479

    18%

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • StateprisonandHOCsentencesaresimilarlydistributedacrossoffenses,

    butstateprisonsentencesareformoreseverecrimesthanHOCsentences

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • 26%

    34%

    21%18%

    23%

    39%

    21%

    17%

    18-24 25-34 35-44 45orolder

    HOC

    DOC

    Demographiccomposi

  • 2013SentencestoStatePrison

    One-thirdofsentencestostateprisonrequiremandatory

    incarcera

  • 7,996

    2,327

    1,999

    259

    711

    156 16226

    White Black Hispanic Other

    HOCNon-Mandatory

    HOCMandatory

    MandatorysentencestoHOCandDOCbyrace

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • Nearlythree-quartersofallsentenceswereimposedon

    peoplewithatleastsomecriminalhistory

    73

    16%

    21%

    26%

    18%

    19%

    21%

    38%

    34%

    33%

    28%

    26%

    20%

    HOC

    StatePrison

    AllSentences

    0priors 1to2priors 3to10priors 11ormorepriors

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • ArevolvingdoorexistswithHOCsentencesandDOC

    74CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • Addi

  • Presenta

  • Sentencingop

  • Theflexibilityofsentencingop

  • Ascriminalhistoryscoreincreases,thelikelihoodofreceiving

    apost-releaseproba

  • Peoplewithmorethanthreeprioroffensesweremorelikelyto

    receivestraightHOCsentenceswithnopost-releaseproba

  • Drugandpropertyoffensesweretheleastlikelytoreceivea

    sentenceofpost-releaseproba

  • 620

    387

    233

    355

    245

    110

    536

    447

    89

    343

    172

    171

    Nearly20%ofstateprisonsentencesrestrictparoleandhave

    noguaranteedpost-releaseproba

  • DrugoffenseswerethemostlikelytohaveanAndaDay

    sentencewithoutpost-releaseproba

  • Confidenceinproba

  • Addi

  • Presenta

  • KEYFINDING:Peoplewithpreviousjus

  • KEYFINDING:MotorvehicleandpropertyoffensesaccountforalargevolumeofshortsentencestoHOC

    CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus

  • KEYFINDING:Sentencingprac

  • Jus

  • CouncilofStateGovernmentsJus