crumb rubber life cycle cost assessment (lcca) project
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Crumb Rubber LCCA ProjectMichael R. Barr, Jesus M. Garza,& Duy L. Nguyen National UniversitySEM 604 Life Cycle and Risk Assessment
1IntroductionDemonstrating LCCA approach of AR application to highway surfacesDetermine total economic worthInitial and discounted future costsLCCA methodology for successful dialogueDifferential costs of investment optionsDemonstrating sustainable commitment
2IntroductionDefine the subject of the projectDemonstrating a Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) approach of the Application of Asphalt Rubber to Highway Surfaces
State the purpose of the projectConduct a Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) on the application of asphalt rubber to existing road and highway surfaces to determine total economic worth by examining and analyzing initial costs and discounted future costs, such as resurfacing and maintenance costs.
Main Point (Conclusion)It is anticipated that LCCAs structured methodology in this team project will provide necessary data, information and documentation for successful dialogue regarding differential costs of investment options for design alternatives, as well as demonstrating a sustainable commitment to road and highway preservation through the application of asphalt rubber.2BackgroundScrap Tire Management a major economic, environmental and social issueAsphalt Rubber a proven technology and superior performance product in highway preservationSignificanceUseful, sustainable reclaimed productsReduction, management and/or elimination of EH&S problems3Background Information With the disposal of an estimated 300 million vehicle tires each year in the United States, scrap tire management has become a major economic, environmental and social (equity) issue. Although responsible means for disposal, such as recycling, reuse and energy recovery have become more common, rubber vehicle tires that have reached the end of their life cycle have accumulated in landfills and scrap yards, creating a large pollution stream, a public safety and health issue, and a visual eye sore. The tire dumps of the last forty years continue to present environmental, safety and health hazards and issues that will last into the foreseeable future.
Reclaimed rubber crumbs can be added to hot asphalt mixtures to create an asphalt rubber (AR) material. Asphalt rubber has been proven through years of research and testing to be a superior performance product in highway preservation. It can extend the lifetime of roads and highways, reduce ambient noise and hydroplaning for highway traffic, and provide a consistent medium for efficient vehicle transportation which reduces tire wear and saves gas.
Significance Reclaimed products have been shown to save money and resources and allow for reduced production costs compared to virgin products. Ambient and cryogenic technologies have been developed to process vehicle tires that have been discarded and reached the end of their useful life, resulting in the reclaiming of steel, polymer, and rubber crumb products in a sustainable supply chain. If just 5% of the nations 2.76 million miles of paved road could be resurfaced with alternative AR materials (i.e. National Highway System) using reclaimed rubber crumbs, the environmental, health and safety problems and issues with accumulated tires in landfills and scrap yards would be significantly reduced, managed and/or eliminated.
Forecast Organization Briefly describe the remainder of the report.
3AssumptionsLocation:Central California, San Joaquin Valley, Visalia, Interstate 5 (I-5)Project Type:Day Project, Application/Overlay of Rubberized Asphalt Concrete (RAC) to Highway SurfaceComparison:Application/Overlay of Asphalt Concrete (AC) to Highway SurfaceWork Zone:5-mile stretch, 2-Lanes, Northbound and Southbound (4 Lanes total) = 20 Lane MilesMaterial Type:Rubberized Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete (RAC), 2 overlay to existing highway surfaceComparison:Conventional hot mix asphalt (AC), 4 overlay to existing highway surface[Note: 2:1 (AC:RAC) Equivalency Factor for resurfacing projects per Caltrans testing]Options:Application of a Stress Absorbing Membrane (SAM):Application of a Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI)Starting Capital:$10 million4Design AlternativesAC Asphat ConcreteRAC Rubberized Asphalt ConcreteHMA overlayHMA mill-and-overlay20 year pavement design lives
5Maintenance OptionsStress Absorbing Membrane (SAM)Consists of a sprayed-on application of heated straight-run binder, followed by a layer of aggregate chips that are precoated with asphalt rubber binder and seated with a rubber-tired roller
Utilizes asphalt rubber binder with 20% rubber
Greatly reduces the incidence of reflective crackingStress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI)Consists of a SAM with a surface course of either rubberized or conventional hot mix asphalt
Also utilizes asphalt rubber binder with 20% rubber
Is used instead of SAM on high-traffic roads or when extra structural pavement capacity is needed
BenefitsResists CrackingReduces Road NoiseEnvironmental BenefitsExtends of road SurfaceReduces HydroplaningCost Effective $ $ $ $ $7
ResultsACInitial Investment = $281,572.00Cost (O&M)Maintenance = $847,616.5Energy = $689.500.67Savings (and or Revenue)Recycle = $56,508.36NPV = $16,683,921.30Sustainability detailsCO2 Emissions = 773.04 tonnesEnergy = 6.41E+12JRACInitial Investment = $176,000.00Cost (O&M)Maintenance = $387,695.62Energy = $344,747.62Savings (and or Revenue)Recycle = $31,017.65NPV = $14,350,494.38Sustainability detailsCO2 Emissions = 375.88 tonnesEnergy = 3.12E+12J10ResultsACInitial Investment = $281,572.00Cost (O&M)Maintenance = $847,616.5Savings (and or Revenue)Recycle = $56,508.36NPV = $16,683,921.30RACInitial Investment = $176,000.00Cost (O&M)Maintenance = $387,695.61Savings (and or Revenue)Recycle = $31,017.65NPV = $14,350,494.38
11ConclusionsEconomicEnvironmentEquityCost EffectiveGHG ReductionReduce Insect Breeding GroundsReduces Raw Material UsageResource ConservationReduce Fire HazardsSpeeds ConstructionReduce Surface and Ground Water PollutionEnvironmental JusticeReduces Road MaintenanceRenewable Resource UtilizationPerformance Issues (Noise, Vibration, Hydroplaning, Vehicle Splash, Skid Resist.)Reduces Liability12Asphalt Rubber: The Sustainability EffectEconomicCost Effective Dramatically reduces road maintenance and repairs; saves as much as $50,000 per lane mile over the highways lifetime [2 AR overlay vs. 4 conventional asphalt overlay]
Reduces Raw Material Usage Uses less aggregate stone and asphalt oil (20% displacement)
Speeds Construction AZ Study (I-40): Conventional Asphalt Reconstruction Project; 5 miles; $25/sq yd ($45/sq yd); 2 yrs to build vs. AR Reconstruction Project; 10 miles; $10.sq yd; 4 months
Reduces Road Maintenance AR road surfaces have 2X the lifespan of conventional asphalt surfaces.
Reduces Liability Safer Highways and reducing health, safety, and source effects at tire landfills and storage areas.
EnvironmentGHG Reduction CO2, Methane
Resource Conservation Uses less asphalt oil; aggregate stone in AR Surfaces as opposed to conventional asphalt surfaces.
Reduce Surface and Ground Water Pollution Reduction of source tires at landfills and storage areas has net effect of reducing surface and ground water pollution at the site.
Renewal Resource Utilization Rubber chips, crumbs, steel belts, and polymer belts, and carbon black from tire recycling.
Equity (Social)Reduce Insect Breeding Grounds Mosquito infestation; wellbeing, disease, and health issues
Reduce Fire Hazards Tire create special hazard fires, emit toxic fumes; wellbeing, health, and safety issues
Environmental Justice Lower income populations tend to live near areas affording convenient employment opportunities; wellbeing, environmental, health, and safety issues
Performance Issues Safety, nuisance, and consumer issues 12RecommendationsWhen life cycle cost effective, AR overlays for highway resurfacing typically yield 10-25% cost savingsProjects limited scope: consider design alternatives for optimization.13ReferencesCooper, S. J. (2011, October). Asphalt pavement recycling withreclaimed asphalt pavement (rap). Nwpma, 18th annual fall pavementconference, Portland, OR.Entech asphalt rubber. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.4entechasphaltrubber.com/about_asphalt_rubber.htmlKeches, C., & LeBlanc, A. (2007). Reducing greenhouse gas emissionsfrom asphalt materials. Unpublished manuscript, Science, WorcesterPolytechnic Institute ,Roschen, T. (n.d.). Asphalt rubber. Informally published manuscript, ,Available from CalRecylce. Retrieved from www.calrecycle.ca.gov/rubberized asphalt concrete (rac) benefits. (2011, August 25).Retrieved from http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/tires/rac/Benefits.htmShatnawi, S. (2012). Life-cycle cost analysis of flexible pavementsystems rehabilitated with the use of asphalt rubber interlayers.Informally published manuscript,14