CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF ... Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF

Download CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION   WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF ... Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF

Post on 07-Mar-2018

213 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1

    CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF SOUTHERN HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRIES

    By

    DANIEL R. DOURTE

    A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

    OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    MASTER OF SCIENCE

    UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    2007

  • 2

    2007 Daniel R. Dourte

  • 3

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    page

    LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................5

    LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................6

    ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................8

    CHAPTER

    1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE ........................................................10

    Introduction .............................................................................................................................10 Review of Literature ...............................................................................................................12

    Irrigation ..........................................................................................................................12 Purposes of irrigation systems ..................................................................................12 Classifications of irrigation systems ........................................................................13 Irrigation efficiency ..................................................................................................14 Water use fractions ...................................................................................................15 Irrigation management .............................................................................................18

    Evapotranspiration ...........................................................................................................19 Measuring and Modeling ET ..........................................................................................21

    Water balance ...........................................................................................................21 Lysimetry .................................................................................................................22 Energy balance and microclimatology .....................................................................23 Modeling evapotranspiration ....................................................................................24 Crop coefficient ........................................................................................................27

    Soil Water Measurement ................................................................................................30 Blueberry Production .......................................................................................................32 Soil ...................................................................................................................................33

    2 WATER BALANCE EXPERIMENTS: THE MATERIALS AND METHODS OF MEASURING CROP ET .......................................................................................................37

    Experiment Design and Irrigation Systems Description ........................................................37 Experiment 1: Island Grove Ag Products ........................................................................37

    Irrigation uniformity testing .....................................................................................38 Measuring water balance flows ................................................................................38 Blueberry cultivation ................................................................................................40

    Experiment 2: University of Florida Plant Science Research and Education Unit .........40 Irrigation uniformity testing .....................................................................................42 Measuring water balance components .....................................................................42 Blueberry cultivation ................................................................................................43

    Lysimeter Design, Construction, Installation, and Operation ................................................44 Soil Moisture Sensor Calibration ............................................................................................46

  • 4

    Plant Growth and Yield ..........................................................................................................46

    3 RESULTS OF WATER BALANCE EXPERIMENTS .........................................................57

    Experiment 1: Island Grove Ag Products ...............................................................................57 Crop Coefficients and Crop and Reference ET ...............................................................57 Irrigation, Precipitation, and Deep Percolation ...............................................................58 Irrigation System Performance ........................................................................................61 Plant Growth and Yield ...................................................................................................61

    Experiment 2: University of Florida Plant Science Research and Education Unit ................62 Crop Coefficients and Crop and Reference ET ...............................................................62 Irrigation, Precipitation, and Deep Percolation ...............................................................64 Plant Growth and Yield ...................................................................................................64

    4 CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF WATER BALANCE RESULTS ..................79

    Discussion of Water Balance Experiment Results .................................................................79 Applications of Results ...........................................................................................................79 Recommendations for Project Continuation ...........................................................................80

    LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................82

    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................84

  • 5

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table page 1-1 Constants for use in ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation from

    EWRI of ASCE, 2002. .......................................................................................................34

    1-2 Irrigation water use categorization adapted from Allen et al., 2005 ......................................35

    2-1 Calibration coefficients for use with Campbell Scientific CS616 TDR soil moisture sensors in pine bark mulch and mulch/soil incorporation .................................................56

    3-1 Crop ET and Kc annual averages: June 2006 to May 2007 ...................................................65

    3-2 Annual depth totals (June 2006 to May 2007) of rainfall, irrigation, deep percolation, and crop ET ........................................................................................................................65

    3-3 Irrigation application rates and uniformity coefficients (CU) in UF plot and Growers field ....................................................................................................................................65

    3-4 Beneficial evaporation fraction (BEF) means and standard deviations in UF plot and Growers plot .....................................................................................................................65

    3-5 Effective precipitation, irrigation depths, and crop water requirement (ETc) ........................66

    3-6 Plant size means and summaries of analyses of variance for Grower and UF plots ..............67

    3-7 Mean yield and berry size of mature southern highbush blueberries: 2007 harvest ..............68

    3-8 Application rate and coefficient of uniformity of microsprinkler irrigation at UFPSREU ....68

    3-9 Summaries of plant sizes (m3) in June and October 2006 by treatment and analysis of variance between treatments for October 2006 sizes .........................................................69

    3-10 Yield of young southern highbush blueberries in response to soil type and irrigation treatment: 2007 harvest ......................................................................................................69

    3-11 Yield comparison (tons/ha) of young southern highbush blueberries considering soil system as the main effect: 2007 harvest ............................................................................70

    4-1 Annual irrigation volume, time, and energy comparisons using Kc of 1.00 and 0.84 for irrigation scheduling ..........................................................................................................81

  • 6

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure page 1-1 Water balance diagram ...........................................................................................................35

    1-2 Shallow root system (~12 cm) of mature (8 years) southern highbush blueberry plant removed for lysimeter installation .....................................................................................36

    2-1 Location of Island Grove Ag Products (green dot) ................................................................48

    2-2 Island Grove Ag products lower box corresponding to UF planting, upper box corresponding to location of lysimeters in Growers field ................................................48

    2-3 Plant varieties and lysimeter locations at Island Grove Agricultural Products ......................49

    2-4 Collectors positioned for irrigation uniformity testing ...........................................................50

    2-5 Location of UFPSREU (green arrow) ....................................................................................51

    2-6 Location of field experiment at UFPSREU ............................................................................51

    2-7 Lysimeters at UFPSREU ........................................................................................................52

    2-8 Lysimeter section view ...........................................................................................................53

    2-9 Mature blueberry plant removal for lysimeter installation A) Blueberry plant at Experiment 1 prepared for removal; B) Root system in pine bark mulch can be easily separated from the soil below the mulch; C) Transplanting tray positioned for plant removal ..............................................................................................................................54

    2-10 Lysimeter installation at UFPSREU .....................................................................................55

    2-11 Lysimeter water withdrawal at UFPSREU ...........................................................................56

    3-1 Daily averages of ETc and ETo for May through December 2006 ........................................70

    3-2 Daily averages of ETc and ETo for January through June 2007 ............................................71

    3-3 Monthly crop coefficients for June 2006 through May 2007 for mature southern highbush blueberry plants ..................................................................................................71

    3-4 Monthly depth totals of irrigation and rainfall from May through December of 2006 ..........72

    3-5 Monthly depth totals of irrigation and rainfall from January through June of 2007 ..............72

    3-6 Cumulative irrigation depths from May 2006 to June 2007 ...................................................73

    3-7 Deep percolation depths at each water balance from May 2006 to June 2007 ......................73

  • 7

    3-8 Soil moisture, volumetric water content (VWC, m3/m3), in UF plot and Growers field: A) dates from 7 April to 26 July 2007; B) dates from 21 April to May 5 2007 ................74

    3-9 Mean yield and berry size of mature southern highbush blueberries with 0.95 confidence intervals: 2007 harvest.....................................................................................75

    3-10 Daily averages of crop ET and reference ET for microsprinkler-irrigated young southern highbush blueberry plants: March to June 2007 .................................................76

    3-11 Crop coefficients and applied water (daily average of sum of irrigation and rainfall) for March to June 2007 ............................................................................................................77

    3-12 Total monthly ETc depth (March to June 2007) in response to total applied water ............77

    3-13 Total monthly rainfall depths and irrigation depths for each treatment ...............................78

    3-14 Yield and 0.95 confidence intervals of young southern highbush blueberries in response to soil type and irrigation treatment: 2007 harvest .............................................78

  • 8

    Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering

    CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF

    SOUTHERN HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRIES

    By

    Daniel R. Dourte

    December 2007 Chair: Dorota Z. Haman Major: Agricultural and Biological Engineering

    Climate-neutral measures of crop water use for mature blueberry plantings could offer

    improved irrigation management by growers, reducing irrigation diversions. In contribution to

    improved irrigation management practices for Florida blueberry growers, our research presents

    crop coefficients for mature southern highbush blueberry plants. Measures of crop water

    requirements were made using a water balance enabled by drainage lysimeters. Grower-

    controlled irrigation management was compared with a researcher-managed (UF), timer-

    controlled schedule. Growers event lengths and frequency were determined from experience

    and visual observations of field conditions; daily events in the UF plot were of length determined

    from the water balance results of the previous week. The UF plot on a commercial blueberry

    farm was irrigated independently of the growers fields, enabling comparison of crop

    evapotranspiration, fruit yield, and plant size between grower-controlled and researcher-

    controlled irrigation management. Four lysimeters in the quarter acre researcher-managed plot

    and four lysimeters in a six acre plot of the growers field were used to measure crop water use.

    Initiation of a second water balance experiment measuring crop water use of...

Recommended

View more >