CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF ... Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF

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  • 1

    CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT OF SOUTHERN HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRIES

    By

    DANIEL R. DOURTE

    A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

    OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    MASTER OF SCIENCE

    UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    2007

  • 2

    2007 Daniel R. Dourte

  • 3

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    page

    LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................5

    LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................6

    ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................8

    CHAPTER

    1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE ........................................................10

    Introduction .............................................................................................................................10 Review of Literature ...............................................................................................................12

    Irrigation ..........................................................................................................................12 Purposes of irrigation systems ..................................................................................12 Classifications of irrigation systems ........................................................................13 Irrigation efficiency ..................................................................................................14 Water use fractions ...................................................................................................15 Irrigation management .............................................................................................18

    Evapotranspiration ...........................................................................................................19 Measuring and Modeling ET ..........................................................................................21

    Water balance ...........................................................................................................21 Lysimetry .................................................................................................................22 Energy balance and microclimatology .....................................................................23 Modeling evapotranspiration ....................................................................................24 Crop coefficient ........................................................................................................27

    Soil Water Measurement ................................................................................................30 Blueberry Production .......................................................................................................32 Soil ...................................................................................................................................33

    2 WATER BALANCE EXPERIMENTS: THE MATERIALS AND METHODS OF MEASURING CROP ET .......................................................................................................37

    Experiment Design and Irrigation Systems Description ........................................................37 Experiment 1: Island Grove Ag Products ........................................................................37

    Irrigation uniformity testing .....................................................................................38 Measuring water balance flows ................................................................................38 Blueberry cultivation ................................................................................................40

    Experiment 2: University of Florida Plant Science Research and Education Unit .........40 Irrigation uniformity testing .....................................................................................42 Measuring water balance components .....................................................................42 Blueberry cultivation ................................................................................................43

    Lysimeter Design, Construction, Installation, and Operation ................................................44 Soil Moisture Sensor Calibration ............................................................................................46

  • 4

    Plant Growth and Yield ..........................................................................................................46

    3 RESULTS OF WATER BALANCE EXPERIMENTS .........................................................57

    Experiment 1: Island Grove Ag Products ...............................................................................57 Crop Coefficients and Crop and Reference ET ...............................................................57 Irrigation, Precipitation, and Deep Percolation ...............................................................58 Irrigation System Performance ........................................................................................61 Plant Growth and Yield ...................................................................................................61

    Experiment 2: University of Florida Plant Science Research and Education Unit ................62 Crop Coefficients and Crop and Reference ET ...............................................................62 Irrigation, Precipitation, and Deep Percolation ...............................................................64 Plant Growth and Yield ...................................................................................................64

    4 CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF WATER BALANCE RESULTS ..................79

    Discussion of Water Balance Experiment Results .................................................................79 Applications of Results ...........................................................................................................79 Recommendations for Project Continuation ...........................................................................80

    LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................82

    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................84

  • 5

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table page 1-1 Constants for use in ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation from

    EWRI of ASCE, 2002. .......................................................................................................34

    1-2 Irrigation water use categorization adapted from Allen et al., 2005 ......................................35

    2-1 Calibration coefficients for use with Campbell Scientific CS616 TDR soil moisture sensors in pine bark mulch and mulch/soil incorporation .................................................56

    3-1 Crop ET and Kc annual averages: June 2006 to May 2007 ...................................................65

    3-2 Annual depth totals (June 2006 to May 2007) of rainfall, irrigation, deep percolation, and crop ET ........................................................................................................................65

    3-3 Irrigation application rates and uniformity coefficients (CU) in UF plot and Growers field ....................................................................................................................................65

    3-4 Beneficial evaporation fraction (BEF) means and standard deviations in UF plot and Growers plot .....................................................................................................................65

    3-5 Effective precipitation, irrigation depths, and crop water requirement (ETc) ........................66

    3-6 Plant size means and summaries of analyses of variance for Grower and UF plots ..............67

    3-7 Mean yield and berry size of mature southern highbush blueberries: 2007 harvest ..............68

    3-8 Application rate and coefficient of uniformity of microsprinkler irrigation at UFPSREU ....68

    3-9 Summaries of plant sizes (m3) in June and October 2006 by treatment and analysis of variance between treatments for October 2006 sizes .........................................................69

    3-10 Yield of young southern highbush blueberries in response to soil type and irrigation treatment: 2007 harvest ......................................................................................................69

    3-11 Yield comparison (tons/ha) of young southern highbush blueberries considering soil system as the main effect: 2007 harvest ............................................................................70

    4-1 Annual irrigation volume, time, and energy comparisons using Kc of 1.00 and 0.84 for irrigation scheduling ..........................................................................................................81

  • 6

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure page 1-1 Water balance diagram ...........................................................................................................35

    1-2 Shallow root system (~12 cm) of mature (8 years) southern highbush blueberry plant removed for lysimeter installation .....................................................................................36

    2-1 Locat

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