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  • Critical applicationsin oil & gas

  • Gas supply & demand

    Gas supplies remote from demand: new pipelines and LNG plants needed

    Japan and Korea far away from gas pipelines relying on additional LNG supplies

    Gas consumption will reach 5 Trillion cubic meters in 2030 from 2.8 in 2006 (+100%)

    In 2030 the world generated power from natural gas will increase to 33% from current 27%

    750 774

    1%

    2%

    North America

    135 124

    4% 3%

    South America

    463 716

    -1%

    1%

    Europe

    162 71

    3% 3%

    Africa

    292 251

    3%3%

    Middle East

    Billion (cubic meters)

    North AmericaProduction

    Consumption

    AAGR 06-10 %

    360 406

    1%5%

    Asia Pacific

    162 142

    4%1%

    Caspian region

    598 405

    2%2%

    FSU

    Source: BP, EIA

  • Severe service applications in oil & gas

    Oil & gas production

    Gas processing plants

    LNG liquefaction plants

    Gas transportation & storage

    Petroleum transportation & storage

    Ethylene plants

    Refineries

    Ammonia plants

  • Focus on LNG Production

    Liquefied Natural Gas is the most economic way of transporting Natural Gas

    Gas is cooled to -161 C (-260 F) and remains liquid

    Liquefaction reduces gas volume by a factor of 610 for transportation by LNG tankers

    Average production (size) of an LNG liquefaction plant is 5 million metric tons per year (enough to supply power to the city of New York for 1 year)

    CAPEX of $120 bn in the next seven years for about 24 new LNG liquefaction plants

    IMI Severe Service valves installed on 110+ MTpA of LNG - 2/3rds of world capacity

  • The LNG liquefaction process

    Works exactly like a $2-$2.5 billion refrigerator

    The principle is exactly the same:

    Has a compressor (more than one, in reality, moved by gas turbines)

    A heat exchanger

    Has an expansion valve where the refrigerant produces the cold needed to liquefy the gas

  • Compressor anti-surge valve

    Reduced flow demand

    Reversal Flow at outlet

    Flows forward again

    Cycle repeats

    Disrupted operations ($$)

    Damage to compressors seals (> $50,000)

    Damage bearings, impellers, shaft (> $300,000)

    Loss of Production (~$1.5M per day)

    Repair, maintenance, personnel safety

    Catastrophic failure of compressor (~$2-3M)

    GasTurbine Compressor

    Anti-surgeValve

    A

    BWhy surge happens What are the consequences

  • Requirements for anti-surge service

    Requirement Impact

    Recycled gas velocity control AVOID NOISE and VIBRATION

    Prevent surge AVOID CASTROPHIC DAMAGE

    Recycle operation SAFETY; MAXIMIZE EFFICIENCY

    Continue operation AVOID LOSS OF PRODUCTION

  • Focus on wellhead chokes

    Wellhead chokes principle:

    Drilling a production well into an underground reservoir is like sticking a pin into a balloon

    To use the gas you have to control the energy of the explosion

    Gas pressure can be as high as 15,000 psia

    Reservoir pressure provides the force needed to drive the gas to the plant

  • Responding to market demands

    The new oil & gas field developments are mostly offshore deepwater, high pressure & high sand content

    Increasing awareness of safety issues Excessive noise

    Integrity of pressure boundary

    Resistance to impact of extraordinary force

    Severe mechanical vibration

    Emission of noxious fluids

    Increasing effort to extend well production Wider range of operating conditions

    Change over from oil - gas production

    Increasing need for reliable, automatic control Remote & un-manned sites

    Example of competitors damaged choke trim

  • Chokes: Cost of failure

    Initial investment for a conventional choke = $20,000

    5 replacements annually = $306,100

    Replacements = 5 x $20,000 = $100,000

    Lost production = 5 x 1.5 hours x 458 bph x $60/barrel = $206,100

    This is for one choke only!

  • Severe service choke solutions

    DRAG technology applied to wellhead chokes Ideally suited to velocity control requirements

    DRAG trim velocity

  • Case study: Provide stable and reliable operation

    Plant Offshore platform, North Sea

    Application Wellhead production choke

    ProblemsFrequent maintenance & repair required (changed every five days!)

    Symptoms1. Rapid erosion & failure of choke trim

    2. Loss of pressure control function

    Consequences Lost production & high maintenance costs

    Solution Replaced existing competitor chokes with CCI DRAG trim

  • In summary

    Buoyant end markets

    Strong demand

    Significant oil & gas investment

    Strong market position

    Targeting the most critical applications

    Critical applicationsin oil & gasGas supply & demandSevere service applications in oil & gasFocus on LNG ProductionThe LNG liquefaction processCompressor anti-surge valveRequirements for anti-surge serviceFocus on wellhead chokesResponding to market demandsChokes: Cost of failureSevere service choke solutionsCase study: Provide stable and reliable operationIn summary

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