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FE6 26

JAN 19

H13c Haefelei-t

62-196O8and innovation

kansas cityBooks

public library

will be issued only on presentation of library card. sase report lost cards and

D'r

change of residence promptly. Card holders are responsibie for Hi books, records, films, picti other library materials

CREATIVITY

AND INNOVATION

REINHOLD MANAGEMENT REFERENCE SERIESCarl Heyel, Editor

In PreparationContract Research,

by Archie M. Palmer and Murray Berdick

Guide

to the Use of

Management

Consulting Services,

by Philip W. Shay

Handbook

of Corporate Public Relations,

by Paul Burton

Published

Dynamic Work

Simplification,

by W. Clements ZinckClifford J. Craft,

Management Games, by Joel M. Kibbee,

and Burt Nanus

CREATIVITY

ANDINNOVATIONJOHN W. HAEFELEResearch Chemist, Procter and Gamble

Company

NewChapman &

York

REINHOLD PUBLISHING CORPORATIONHall, Ltd.,

London

To

MY MOTHER

AND FATHER

Copyright

1962 by

RMNHOLD PUBLISHING

CORPORATION

All rights reserved

Library of Congress Catalog Card

Number:

62-17267

Printed in the United States of America

FOREWORDin all ages, man has made discovbut that it has been reserved for this age to discover the process of discovery. Recently Walter Mitchell, Jr., Executive Director of the Society for Advancement of Management, in inaugurating the Society's Advanced Management Course, stated that "tomorrow's top manager must be almost instinctively keyed to innovation. More specifically, he must appreciate the need of innovation, its proper timing, and its multiplier effect, and be able to manage innovation, encourage it, inspire it, and, where possible, author it." We need only place these two comments one by a leading figure in education, the other an official pronouncement of the leading professional society devoted to scientific mangement in the perspective of the current research and development "explosion/' to have ample justification for the inclusion of Dr. Haefele's study of creativity and innovation in the Reinhold Management Reference Series.eries,

John Dewey has remarked that

Reinhold's recently published "Handbook of Industrial Research Management" is an example of the authoritative information now available on the organization, staffing, direction, and accounting control of this vital function. However, there is need for an orderly examination into, and prescription for, the very essence the creative process itself. Is creativity of research and innovation something that "just happens" or is it something that can bestimulated, strengthened, and guided? This book brings to management and to the creative worker the fruits of research that has been done on research, and on creative work in general what the creative process is and how it works practical information on individual and group aids to creativity, with case experience in applying "brainstorming" and other widely used techniques early identification of creativity in an individual establishment of the most productive creative climate. Like all the books in this series, this volume has been organized to provide a broad view of the field for those with a general interest, followed by detailed supporting chapters of interest to those with specialized responsibility. For the generalist, Part I, "The Anatomy:

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

v

j

FOREWORD

and Part II, "Putting Creativity to immediate practical application ideas. For the Work/' provides and opportunispecialist in research, and for all whose inclinationsof Creativity/' sets the stage,

a more detailed pursuit of the subject, Part III provides further comments in depth, and the Appendices give documentationties invite

and additional insights. While the "applied" aspects of the book dwell on creativity and innovation in business and industry and in the natural sciences, the author takes the position that creativity and the creative process are the same in all fields of endeavor. "The physicist studying the nature of gravity in the university laboratory, and the industrial chemist formulating a new floor polish, may both create new combinations of social worth, and in so doing, use the same creative The painter's picture, methods, from the same basic motivation the inventor's machine, the novelist's book, and the engineer's bridge, are the men's responses to problems which they faced and solved." Examples are freely drawn from the fields of music, literature, and art to supplement those from the fields of business and the natural sciences. Spreading the subject before us from such a. . .

variegated palette on such a broad canvasSociety for

keeping with the Management's concept of true management development, which "calls for pushing through to a depth of knowledge and conceptual understanding which will provide [the manager] with a systematic and effective way of thinking aboutis

in

Advancement

of

his environment, his work, his responsibilities, and himself." With the foregoing as a statement of intent, we invite to this type of conceptual understanding the following classes of readers;

Top managementcreativity

people,

who

will

wish to explore the opportunities for greater

and innovation

in their organizations.

Directors of Research, who are faced with the problem of securing maximum return from the high-priced professional talent at their disposal. Executives in other areas of management advertising, merchandising, etc. where creativity is at a premium. People with top functional responsibility in training and executive development, who, in addition to the broader view, will be interested in the more detaileddiscussion

-

and examples.will

Educators interested in ways to develop creativity. Scientists and others in the creative areas of their companies who of their guidance for self -improvement.

make use

CARL HEYEL, Editor, Reinhold Management Reference Series

PREFACE

In an age when not only commercial life, but the very life of our nation depends upon keeping a lead in scientific development; the values to be gained from a greater understanding of creativity needhardly be dwelt upon. Yet the study of creativity has suffered comparative neglect even to the most recent times, and it is this neglectto

which

this

book

is

directed.

and the theories about it are here discussed with continuous attempts to relate this knowledge to the importance of creativity in business, especially in the expandingof creativityfield of industrial

The nature

sider "frontier thinking"

research and development. Here the need to conis especially apropos, since despite the

spectacular exponential rise in research and development; the fact remains that only a small fraction of total funds expended in thisactivityis

on fundamental research.

for a good climate for creativity must be understood by the "practical businessman," and he must appreciate the reasons why an organization must make certain concessions to the creative

The need

man. The research manager and

scientist will in addition

be inter-

ested in enhancing their understanding of creativity, as will, indeed, many general readers whose principal outlet for creativity may be

outside the boundaries of their bread-winning activities. This book is intended to accomplish three specific things:cial effort to

(1) Provide a fairly complete review of the literature, with speshow the development of principles rather than to give

a mere statement of them. With this in mind, considerable specific material in the form of tables and diagrams has been included although much of this supporting documentation has been de-

veloped as an Appendix, in order not to impede continuity in the coverage of the subject as a whole. This material is drawn or condensed from the original sources, to show the type of work that hasvii

viii

PREFACE

been done and to emphasize the gaps in our knowledge of to be closed. important and fascinating subject which are still

this

The

literature of creativity is important.is

The

creator should be

as conversant with this literature as hesubject.

How inefficient itto!

and thenpotential(2)

work

at

its

with that of his special in mastering a specialty, is to spend years frontiers with an undeveloped creative

material which the author has developed during a study extending over more than ten years. Among the new ideas the resurgence offered, the most important are: the CNB method;

Present

new

of creativity at great age; the importance of verb responses to the Kent-Rosanoff type tests; possibilities in creativity rankings oftests in conjunction

with "inverse factor analysis"

of

Spearman's fundaments and relations to(3)

and the relation creativity and to the;

basic nature of creative aids.

Pinpoint the ways in which managements of business enterand prises can enhance creativity, and discuss the various group individual aids to creativity which have thus far been developed, and which may be applied more effectively in the light of the gen-

These include "brainstorming," the so-called Gordon method, and programs developed by leadin