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  • Slide 1
  • Creative and Critical Thinking A Cognitive Process for Problem Solving Originally offered in Fall 2006 Cora Dzubak Jim Valkenburg Penn State York Delta College Modified - Winter 2008
  • Slide 2
  • Agenda Definitions Definitions Creative thinking Creative thinking Critical thinking Critical thinking Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Meta-Cognition Meta-Cognition Two sides of the same coin Two sides of the same coin Seeing the Problem Seeing the Problem Solving the Problem Solving the Problem The role of memory The role of memory Transfer and learning Transfer and learning Discerning credibility Discerning credibility How to teach Creative Thinking How to teach Creative Thinking
  • Slide 3
  • Creative/Critical Thinking Creative thinking is defined as the use of divergent thinking, resulting in the generation of original ideas or solutions. Creative thinking is defined as the use of divergent thinking, resulting in the generation of original ideas or solutions.
  • Slide 4
  • Creative/Critical Thinking Critical Thinking may be defined as the cognitive process of actively questioning assumptions, and analyzing, synthesizing and/or evaluating data, evidence or points of view to solve a problem. Critical Thinking may be defined as the cognitive process of actively questioning assumptions, and analyzing, synthesizing and/or evaluating data, evidence or points of view to solve a problem.
  • Slide 5
  • Critical Thinking Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. http://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutCT/definingCT.shtml
  • Slide 6
  • Cognitive Dissonance When things just dont seem to jibe with what one knows When things just dont seem to jibe with what one knows Possible responses Possible responses
  • Slide 7
  • Meta-Cognition Thinking about thinking Thinking about thinking
  • Slide 8
  • Meta-cognitive Problem Resolved What color is the bear? What color is the bear?
  • Slide 9
  • Two sides/Same Coin Julian Jaynes Julian Jaynes The ancient view of creativity The ancient view of creativity Plato Plato Aristotle Aristotle Greek literature Greek literature Shakespeare Shakespeare The jump to cyber space The jump to cyber space
  • Slide 10
  • Two Sides/Same Coin Critique as creativity and vice versa Critique as creativity and vice versa The Systematic Approach The Systematic Approach
  • Slide 11
  • Systematic Approach Communications Theory Communications Theory
  • Slide 12
  • Seeing the Problem The simple and the complex The simple and the complex Occams Razor Occams Razor Outside the box? Outside the box?
  • Slide 13
  • Solving the Problem Define the problem Define the problem Dissect the problem Dissect the problem Plan a solution Plan a solution External representation External representation Internal representations: using whats inside your head as a mental model Internal representations: using whats inside your head as a mental model Evaluating your solution Evaluating your solution
  • Slide 14
  • The Role of Memory in Creativity and Problem Solving Effective problem solvers are efficient users of memory Effective problem solvers are efficient users of memory Use of Cues: when an individual creates his/her own memory cues, recall is enhanced Use of Cues: when an individual creates his/her own memory cues, recall is enhanced Use of visual Imagery Use of visual Imagery
  • Slide 15
  • Transfer and Learning Previous learning enhances later learning Previous learning enhances later learning The more one learns and the more one practices, the more information that is transferred to a new situation The more one learns and the more one practices, the more information that is transferred to a new situation Overlearning enhances transfer Overlearning enhances transfer When tasks are similar transfer is increased When tasks are similar transfer is increased
  • Slide 16
  • Synthesis Theorists Theorists Piaget Bloom Gardner Putting seemingly dissimilar things together Putting seemingly dissimilar things together
  • Slide 17
  • Discerning Credibility Information Literacy Information Literacy Need for info Need for info Ability to access info Ability to access info Evaluate info Evaluate info Synthesize info Synthesize info Communicate info Communicate info
  • Slide 18
  • Teaching Critical Thinking Setting up problems Setting up problems Using assessment techniques Using assessment techniques Allowing the student to struggle Allowing the student to struggle
  • Slide 19
  • Discussion Board Thank you for completing this module. Thank you for completing this module. Please go to the Discussion Board and respond to the prompt. Please go to the Discussion Board and respond to the prompt.