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Covalent Bonding

Covalent BondingVocabularycovalent bondsingle bonddouble bondtriple bondmoleculestructural formula

Dancer, Fernando Botero Columbian, 1982

ReviewWhat is an ionic bond?

What if? If an ionic bond requires one atom to lose electrons and one atom to gain electrons, how could two atoms bond if both atoms do not want to lose electrons but still must follow the octet rule?

What if? Lets look at an example: chlorine gas, Cl2

How many electrons does each chlorine atom need to gain to havea full octet?ClCl

What if? Because neither chlorine atom is willing to to give up an electron, they can not form an ionic bond. Instead each atom can SHARE one electron with the other atom to fulfill the octet rule for each.

ClCl

What if? Because neither chlorine atom is willing to to give up an electron, they can not form an ionic bond. Instead each atom can SHARE one electron with the other atom to fulfill the octet rule for each.

ClCl

What if? Because neither chlorine atom is willing to to give up an electron, they can not form an ionic bond. Instead each atom can SHARE one electron with the other atom to fulfill the octet rule for each.

ClCl

What if? Notice that by sharing, each atom now has 8 valence electrons around it and follows the octet rule: the 7 it originally had and 1 from the other atom.

ClCl

Covalent Bonding This sharing of electrons is called a covalent bond. Because only one electron is being shared from each atom in this example, it is called a single covalent bond.

ClClThis is the Lewis structure for the Cl2 molecule.When atoms bond covalently, they form molecules.

Covalent Bonding Lets look at another molecule, O2. Draw the Lewis structures for the two oxygen atoms separately.

OOHow do you think these two atoms can bond?How many electrons does each atom need to gain or share to achieve an octet?

Covalent Bonding Lets look at another molecule, O2. Draw the Lewis structures for the two oxygen atoms separately.

OOHow do you think these two atoms can bond?How many electrons does each atom need to achieve an octet?

Covalent Bonding Lets look at another molecule, O2. Draw the Lewis structures for the two oxygen atoms separately.

OOHow do you think these two atoms can bond?How many electrons does each atom need to achieve an octet?

Covalent Bonding Lets look at another molecule, O2. Draw the Lewis structures for the two oxygen atoms separately.

OOHow do you think these two atoms can bond?How many electrons does each atom need to achieve an octet?

Covalent Bonding Look at each atom now. Each atom is sharing two electrons with the other atom and now each has 8 valence electrons.

OOThis is the Lewis structure for the O2 molecule.Because each atom is sharing 2 valence electrons, this is called a double covalent bond.

Covalent Bonding Look at each atom now. Each atom is sharing two electrons with the other atom and now each has 8 valence electrons.

OOWe can also draw it this way. This is called the structural formula for O2. Each line represents two electrons.

Covalent Bonding Important covalent bonding notes:sharing of electrons to achieve an octet(hydrogen is a notable exception because it only needs two valance electrons)occur between non-metal atomscan be single, double, or triple bond

PracticeNaClH2OLi3PCO2

C6H12O6SrBr2Al2O3PCl5

Which of the following compounds will have covalent bonds?

PracticeDraw the Lewis structure for water. Are the bonds single, double, or triple covalent bonds.HHOSteps1) Draw each atoms Lewis structure.2) Pair up unpaired electrons.

PracticeDraw the Lewis structure for water. Are the bonds single, double, or triple covalent bonds.HHOSteps1) Draw each atoms Lewis structure.2) Pair up unpaired electrons.3) Rearrange atoms so that electron pairs are connected.

PracticeDraw the Lewis structure for water. Are the bonds single, double, or triple covalent bonds.Steps1) Draw each atoms Lewis structure.2) Pair up unpaired electrons.3) Rearrange atoms so that electron pairs are connected.HHO

PracticeDraw the Lewis structure for water. Are the bonds single, double, or triple covalent bonds.There are two single covalent bonds in a water molecule.HHO

PracticeDraw the Lewis structure for PCl3.Steps1) Draw each atoms Lewis structure.2) Pair up unpaired electrons.3) Rearrange atoms so that electron pairs are connected.PClClCl

PracticeDraw the Lewis structure for HCN.Steps1) Draw each atoms Lewis structure.2) Pair up unpaired electrons.3) Rearrange atoms so that electron pairs are connected.CHNSingle bondTriple bond

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