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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IGES)

Economic Analysis of Composting, Through Surabayas case:Application in Bangkok

Bangkok Palace Hotel6 November 2008Toshizo MaedaResearcher, IGES Kitakyushu Office

Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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Contents:

1. Introduction of IGES

2. Introduction of Kitakyushu City

3. Introduction of Kitakyushu Initiative (KI) Programme

4. Surabayas community-based waste management

5. Application in Bangkok

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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1. Introduction of IGES

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies

Since 1998 (10 year anniversary)

Offices: HQ (Kanagawa), Kansai, Kitakyushu, Tokyo, Bangkok, Beijing

Staff: Total 140 researchers and supporting staff: 80

Objective: International environmental policy development

Geographical area: Asia and the Pacific

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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2.IntroductionofKitakyushuCity

Population:1million

Industrialcity Heavypollutioninthe60s

Recoveryin70s90s:Cleanerproduction,recyclingpark

Costforrecovery:USD8billion(Bht280billion)(19721991)

Internationalenvironmentalcooperation:

KITA (KitakyushuInternatl TechnocooperativeAssociation)

Morethan5,000traineessince1980

EnvironmentalModelCityinJapan

150%ofcitysGHGemissionreductioninAsiancities

No.1inEnvironmentalCapitalContestinJapan(2007,2008)

PhotocourtesyofKitakyushuCity

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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3.IntroductionofKitakyushuInitiative(KI)Programme

AdoptedattheMinisterialConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopmentinAsiaandthePacific(MCED)in2000

UnderUNESCAP

Intercityenvironmentalcooperationnetwork

Objective:urbanenvironmentalimprovement,throughcapacitybuildingoflocalgovernments

Collectionandreplicationofgoodpractices

Scope:Urbanenvironment

Area:AsiaPacific

Membercities:Over60citiesfrom18countries

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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3.IntroductionofKitakyushuInitiativeProgramme2

Targetedthemes:

Communitybasedwastemanagement(composting)

Improvementoffinaldisposalsite Banningopendumping(Philippines,Indonesia)

Demandforlowcostmethods

Decentralised wastewatertreatment Seweragesystemrequireshugecapitalcost

Manygoodpractices(BORDAIndonesia,USAIDPhilippines,EcoSan,Jokaso,biofertiliser plantinNonthaburi)

LinkingCSRactivitieswithenvironmentalmanagement Easytoreplicate

Publicparks,riverbankprotection,wastereductioncampaign,biodieselfromusedcookingoil,etc.

Criteria:

Lowcost,lowtech

Communitybased

Easytoreplicate

Highdemand

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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4.Surabayascommunitybasedwastemanagement

(1) IntroductionofSurabayaCity(2) Achievements(3) Mainstakeholders(4) Background(5) WastemanagementsysteminSurabaya(6) Compostingmethods(7) Economicanalysis(8) Socialandenvironmentalimpacts(9) Remainingchallenges(10) Replicationinothercities(11) Nationalpolicy

Basicinfo.ofSurabaya

Analysis

Howtoexpandmore?

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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(1)Introduction

SurabayaCitySurabayaCity

MaincitieswhereSurabayascompostingpracticeswerecopied

MaincitieswhereSurabayascompostingpracticeswerecopied

TarakanTarakan

JombangJombang

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/indonesia_pol_2002.pdfFigure1LocationofSurabayaCityandreplicationofSurabayaspracticesinothercities

Population:3million

2nd largestinIndonesia

CentreofEastIndonesia

Replicationin39cities

Leadingenvironmentalcity

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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(2)Achievements

2

68

13

1

17,000

6,800

3,6001,40010

14,000

10,000

90

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Jun-04

Oct-04

Feb-05

Jun-05

Oct-05

Feb-06

Jun-06

Oct-06

Feb-07

Jun-07

Oct-07

Feb-08

Jun-08

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

Numberofdistributedhouseholdcompostbaskets

Numberofcompostingcentres

CooperationbetweenSurabayaandKITAstarted

TraininginKitakyushuCityfor2trainees

Developmentofanewcompostmethod

PUSDAKOTA'scompostcentre

Marketwastecompostcentre

Figure5Numberofhouseholdcompostbasketsandcompostingcentresin SurabayaSource:InterviewswithPUSDAKOTAonthenumberofhouseholdcompostbasketandCleansingDepartment,Surabayaonthenumberofcompostcentres.

Numberofhousehold

compostbaskets

Numberof

compostingcentres

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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(2)Achievements2 *MapcopiedfromElSena,Surabaya,IndonesiaFigure7LocationofcompostingcentresinSurabaya

Locationof

compostingcentres

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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(2)Achievements3

1,300t/d

1,500-1,600t/d

2007

Figure6AveragedailyamountofwastetransportedtoBenowo Landfill,20032007Sourece:Datain2007fromweighbridgedataatBenowo Landfill;20032005frominterviewswithCleansingDepartmentstaff

10%wastereductionin3years

(1,500t/day 1,300t/day)

1,500t/day(2005)1,500t/day(2005)

1,300t/day(2007)1,300t/day(2007)200t/day200t/day

IDR22.8billion(USD2.3million)IDR22.8billion(USD2.3million)

Costsaved:IDR3.5billion(USD350,000)

Costsaved:IDR3.5billion(USD350,000)

Solidwastemanagementcost(2007):Collection/transport:IDR16.2billion(USD1.6million)Landfillmanagement:IDR6.6billion(USD0.7million)

Solidwastemanagementcost(2007):Collection/transport:IDR16.2billion(USD1.6million)Landfillmanagement:IDR6.6billion(USD0.7million)

Figure12Economicimpactof200tadayofwastereductionFigure12Economicimpactof200tadayofwastereduction

200t/daywastereduction

=USD350,000/yearcostsaving

(Bht12million/year)

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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(2)Achievements4

120t/day120t/day

40t/day40t/day

40t/day40t/day

Total200t/dayTotal200t/day

Compostingateachhousehold:17,000unitssoldbyPUSDAKOTA20,000unitscopiedbycommunities(assumption)600unitsofacommunaltypedistributedbyCleansingDepartment,

whichcatersforabout5householdseach(=3,000households)40,000householdsx1kg/day/household 40t/day

Compostingateachhousehold:17,000unitssoldbyPUSDAKOTA20,000unitscopiedbycommunities(assumption)600unitsofacommunaltypedistributedbyCleansingDepartment,

whichcatersforabout5householdseach(=3,000households)40,000householdsx1kg/day/household 40t/day

RecyclingofotherdrywasteRecyclingofotherdrywaste

Compostingat13compostingcentres:CleansingDepartment:12compostingcentres,39t/d(=78m3/d)PUSDAKOTA:1compostingcentre,1.4t/d

Compostingat13compostingcentres:CleansingDepartment:12compostingcentres,39t/d(=78m3/d)PUSDAKOTA:1compostingcentre,1.4t/d

Figure11Amountofwastereducedbyeachmeasure

40t/dreductionbyhouseholdcomposting,

40t/dreductionatcompostingcentres,

80t/dwastereduction

Remaining120t/dcomesfrom

ReuseandRecycling.

1tonofcompostingreduces

wasteby2.5tons.

IGES | http://www.iges.or.jp Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment http://kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/

Economic analyses of composting, through Surabayas case: Application in Bangkok

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(3)Mainstakeholders

SurabayaCityCleansingDept.

Unilever(Uli Peduli)&JavaPost

OtherNGOsCadres Pusdakota

KitakyushuCityKITA

LocalGovernmentExternalagency

Citytoci

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