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    10 THE . MOKXINtt OKEGOXIAX. FRHM T, MAY 4, 1900.




    (Concluded.)Br F. DUNDAS TODD.

    In dealing with the portrait of a lady wemuot consider another and most Importantpoint gracefulness. This Is attained bcombining with the pyramid a double-curve- d

    line, well named the "line of beau-ty." In figure 13 we have an example ofportraiture In which the figure la com-posed on the lines of a pyramid; there-fore the position Is "stable," but any onecan see that It Is not graceful. If we runa line from the forehead through themiddle of the composition we will findIt will be perfectly straight. Little won-der tha't the pose Is stiff. Let us redrawthe figure, keeping practically the eameboundary lines, but arrange the pose sothat the medial line will be a doublecurve, and at once we get the grace thatwas lacking.

    Did space permit I would go Into thisquestion more fully, but I have eaidenough to give a starting point, and willcontent myself with offering a few hintson posing' that deserve consideration. "Wedo not as a rule wish to aee gracefulnessIn a man, therefore the double curveshould not be used in male portraiture.Again, leaning a head away from the lenssuggests meekness; toward it, vivacity andgo. Now you can understand why comemen's portraits make them look so sub-missive. As a matter of fact, expressionis large dependent on the relative posi-tions of body, head and eyes to each oth-er and to the lene. The most Intelligentand alive expression is got by placing theBiter's chair at right angles to the lens,then turning the bodv a little toward thecamera, the head still more, and the eyeslooking right into the lens. See figure 1LTho mcot stupid expression '.s got by hav-ing body, head ard eyes square on thelens. I need not Illurtratc this, as it Is thepose that is perpetrated by every begin-ner.

    But I must hasten on to the problem oflighting, which Is even more importantthan that of posing and more difficult tolearn thoroughly. In this matter I Intendto follow the practice of all the greatpa'nters. believing that what was goodenough for thorn Is good enough fow me.In calling your attention to figure 15 I needhardly remind my readers that the charac-ter of paper on which it to printed pre-vents the use of but line draw-ings, which. It must be confessed, do notpermit the rendering of the nicrties oflight and shade In the original, and there-fore It Is more than likely that the readerwill be finable to poe in the illustrationsome of the points I drwcr'be. But if hoproceeds to put th teaching Into practicehe will hive no difficulty in finding themon tho stters fire. The portrait, by thwar, Is that of Mr. Jnmea Tnglls. who IsI tolleve. the greatest master of photo-g-nipV- e

    lighting today, and a whom I amIndrbted for all I know on the subject.

    On Inoiiing at the face we find It con-tal- rslights and shadows, and as we x

    prr'n It more closely wo find these lightsand shadows do not exirt In flat masses,'but that the one blende Into the other, sofnt w have every radatlon from purewh'te to den black. Thre 1 no dlfflcultvIn locating tb high and deep shad-ows but It take pd edwntM eye to notetlv snbtloriTr-- , the crndatjons conmon-J- v

    colled 'half-top- frci th one extremeto tfc ot"r. And ct aft"" ihv canbe detected In the finished print It Is still

    Fisr. . 13.

    difficut to appreciate them on the face, for"here they are complicated with the localcolor.

    Fuppose we make a start with the shad-ows. One Is very evident that on thositter's right cheek, and now we can seeanother to the right of the noe and underthe eyebrow. But a shadow tells the direc-tion of the source of light, for we knowllrrht travels always In a straight line; soIf the shadow Is on the sitter's right thenthe source of light must be on his left.But if it were decidedly on the left thenose would throw a shadow right acrossthe cheek, which It does not do. As amatter of fact, we se but a very narrowband of shadow cast by the nose, so wecan argue that the source of light musthave been well forward in fact, very closeto the lens.

    But let us take a shadow lying In anoth-er direction nd sc what it tells vs. "Wefind one under the richt ovebrcw-- r there-fore the source of light is above. But If itwere right overhead the eyebrow wouldcat a shadow completely over tho eye:but It doc not, and as the band of shadowis very narrow the light must come froma point well forward in fact, very close totho lens. Th!s Is further proved by thelnncth of the shadow east by the nose onthe upper lip. which It will be noticed isJust a little below the nostril.

    Having located th position of the sourcaof light we mav with advantage give a fewminutes' consideration to the high lights

    11V-f- -JJ

    Fisr. 14.

    and half-tone- s. Tho highest lights will befound on the left temple, the ridge of thenose, ppper lip and chin the two latterare not so noticeable here on account ofthe beard. The reader should now be ableto see for himself how these high lightsare connected with the shadows by meansof half-tone- s.

    Now for the practical application of allthis theorising. Select a window having aclear view of the sky that is. no over-hanging porch or treea In front of it andcover the lower half with some opaquefabric, such as a 60fa blanket pinned tothe middle bar. This is because welearned that the light came from the top.Then plant your camera on a table rightin front of the window and Just as closeas you can get It. leaving only enoughroom for focusing. Now measure along thewall from one edge of the window a dtatrrce of three feet, then straight out fromthat point a dletanco of five feet. Placea seat at this point and you are ready forwork.

    For your first subject I would advise a


    lady, or a gentleman with a clean-shave- n !lace, so that you can see the moaedngreadlly. Get a pose as close to the exam- -

    be in front of the lens. (If there b any- -thing I detect it Is to see f. man poppinghis head under the focusing cloth all thetune, for It clearly shows he does notknow what he wants. A camera !s onlya tool, and not until the pose and light-ing are arranged should the ground glassbe looked at.) Now look for the shadowsI described. If the nose costs one toobroad on the cheek turn the face a triflenearer the window; if too narrow, then alittle farther away. Now look at the eyes.Bo you eee the beautiful sparkling catchlights. If so where are they? The prcperposition Is Just on the edge of eyelids. Ifthey are lower the head Is tilted too highor tho sitter Is too far 'from the light. If


    not visible the head Is too low or the sit-ter too near the light. Last of all lookat the shadow cast by the note on the lip.It should not reach below the middle. Ifcut off square with the noetril there is toomuch bottom light, so raise the curtain a '

    S;h2fVnS bactVwhicr1lower It. Last of all. examine the brldgoor tne noso. for here is the proof of your jprouiem. ino onage is a mass or nau-ton- e,

    and this should blend beautifully Intothe shadow beyond . If It show w'th asharp line against tho shadow the pceitionof the sitter Is not correct and a movementof a few inches Is necessary. I am sorryI cannot tell you exactly in what direc-tion. you most find out by trial. It IsIn this last little point that the hand ofthe master Is shown, and it takes a longtime to become a master.

    Now look at the ground glass, focus andexpose.

    About backgrounds. This question both-ered mo for 10 years, and now I can tell allI know on the subject in a ssntence. Forchildren and young people let them twlight, for middle-age- d people use middle-tinte- d

    exounda, and for old people let thembe d?rk. Have thesn nlaln. I use a sheetor a blanket for foeuslnc. or anything thatcomes handv. but I will not use a groundthat has a design of any kind whatsoeveron It.


    Statement From Maltnomnli Driving: 'Asnoclatlon Also Comment.


    PORTLAND. May 3. (To the Editor.)In this morning's Oregonlan. under the ;head. "That Grab of $1100 Voted ny tne

    a report of the proceedings of the CityCouncil on Wednesday. Exception to jsome of the statements therein has beentaken by a number of resldcn's of theSeventh "Ward. In justice to Mr. Kerrl- -

    Fls 11.gan, permit me to say that the petitionfor the improvement or Kelly street wasalso signed by a number of other people.

    MIddleton. F. H, Lechler. J. F. Kerrigan!r. W wrwihlnr. Milton TV. Smith GeoreeRlbbcck. Roggo & Storp, L. Goldenberg.Josephine A. Crocker, R. L. Ray. ThomasConnell. Ney Churchman, Frank Hach-ene- y,

    Margaret Allen, V. iC Strode, KateStrode, Caroline Var.tlne. John Flnley,S. M. Smith, J. Plebuch, James Gammonsand Edith Gammons.

    So far as It being a graft out of the cityfund is concerned, the city Is only calledupon to pay Its proper proportion for theImprovement, through the propsrty whichbelongs to it, the other property along theimprovement to pay its proportion, in ameasure the Multnomah Driving Assocla- -tlon has been Instrumental in furtheringthis Improvement, in order to get anotherand better approach to the White Houseroad. It is difficult to keep the formerapproach out Macadam street in good repair, due to the street being low and dlfficult to drain. Aside from this theproperty on the east side of this streetowned by a railroad company, and It doesnot favor the improvement of the street.Kelly etreet being on a high ridge, com-mands a beautiful view of the river andsurrounding mountains. Signers to thepetition for the Improvement of this streetwere very much pleased that the DrivingAssociation took an Interest In the matter,and are willing to pay for the improve-ment, as a means of increasing the valueof their property, and to make the streeta thoroughfare. As the street now Is,It has no beginning or end. Therefore,the opening of this street will benefit oth-ers than Mr. Kerrigan.

    It is true that Mr. Richardson objectsto the street extending through his prop-erty, north and south, but he Is willinggive up a strip of land 30 feet wide. Tun-ning east and west, to widen Seymourstreet. This would malt- - a bend at theextreme end of Kelly street, before reach-ing the White House road.

    G. ROSENBLATT,Secretary Multnomah Driving Assn.

    It Is true that the signatures mentionedappear on the petition for the extensionof Kelly street, but it is a vsry easything to securo signatures to a petition

    asking for something which Is not to costthe petitioners anything. It will be foundthat most if not all of these signers haveno real interest In the opening of thsstreet, and that Mr. Kerrigan, who owns

    j n cheap lot In that vicinity. Is the prin- -iclpal one to be benefited by the extension.The city has no money which can be usedfor extending this street at present wlth- -out violating the charter. Mr. Lohm'.re,

    some offlce took an lntcrcst In thls matteriI Intimated that if the Council wculd

    grant the right of way through the park.tha Multnomah Driving Association wouldImprove the street, whlcn intimation wastaken for what It was wcrth. The Coun-cilme- n

    understand the situation very well,and the report of the City Engineer showsthe difficulty of extending the street, andthe Impracticability of making It anymore than half the width of an ordinarystreet. The chairman of the street com-mittee Is opposed to the scheme, the Au-ditor characterizes It as driving a roadthrough the general fund, and the Mayor

    13. ,

    says he will veto the measure if it Is everup to him. Officials who are out for re-election do not oppose It, or much of any-thing else these days.

    MONTHLY WEATHER REPORT. .. . .. .. .Apr" """, a nerved by the

    Portland Forecast Man.The following report on the weather

    conditions for the past month Is fur-nished by the weather bureau official atPortland:

    oTemperature, -- g

    2 n3-- 3v t f JTn;rDATE. as-s E 1 lis C31P O

    c lie3 3 : :CS 50 J9 Cloudv55 47 51 .05 Cloudy5S 43 50 Pt cloudy57 45 51 CloudyG3 4S 57 Cloudy59 46 52 .23 uioudy4G 37 42 .03 Pt cloudy49 34 42 .01 Pt cloudy

    9.... 5S 3C 47 Pt cloudy10.... C6 45 55 .. Pt cloudy11.... 61 48 54 .04 Cloudy12.... 54 4G 50 .44 Cloudy13.... 52 44 4S .16 uioudy14.... 5G 45 50 .07 Pt cloudy15.... 64 S5 50 Clear1C... 75 47 61 Clear17.... 77 49 63 ClearIS.... 62 44 53 .. Clear19.... 54 43 48 .01 Cloudv20.... CO 42 51 Clearg. 51 43 48 Cloudy

    55 42 48 .OS Pt cloudy23. 63 35 49 Clear

    59 43 51 .03 Pt cloudy5 4S 39 44 .04 Pt cloudy

    26 51 3S 44 Cloudy27 6 40 52 Pt cloudy2S 76 46 61 Clear29 84 54 69 Clear30 77 53 65 Clear

    Mean.... C0.9 43.6 I 52.2

    Indicates trace of precipitation.Summary.

    Mean atmospheric pressure, 30.02: high-est pressure. 30.32, on the 15th; lowest.29.C9, on the 19th.

    Mean temperature. 32 deg.: highest tem-perature. 84 deg., on the 29th; lowest, 34,on the Sth; greatest daily range. 30 deg..on the 2Sth; least dally range, S deg., onthe 2d.

    The following table shows the meantemperature for the month of April, Inthe years given:1S71 53 1S79 52 1SS7 51 1SS5 521S72 47 1SS0 50 1SS8 65 1SS6.....471S73 52 1SS1 55 1SS3 54 1897 551S74 54 1SS2 49 1SS0 52 1898 521S75 55 18S3 51 1S91 52 1899 491S76 50 1SS4 55 1S92 49 1900 521S77 52 1SS5 55 1893 461S7S 51 1S6 51 1S94 50

    Mean temperature for April for 30 years,deg.; average excess of dally mean

    temperature during the month, 0; accumulated excess of dally mean temperatur 8ln January J, 310 deg.; averageui" K.Klib -- uiiuuiy a, ue&Prevailing direction of wind, northwest.Total movement of wind. 5S4G miles; max-imum velocity of wind, 36 miles, west, onthe 25th.

    Total precipitation, 1.30 Inches; numberof days with .01 Inch or more of precipi-tation. 12.

    The following table shows the totalprecipitation (In Inches) )for the month ofApril, In the years given:1S71...3.64 ! 1S79...2.19 I 1KS7...5.06 1S95...1.911S72...2.P9 1SS0...2.92I 18S8...2.06 1893.. .4.091S73...2.35 1ES1...3.51 ) 18S9...2.72 1897...1.761K74...3.7S 18S2...4.60 I 1890.. .1.41 1S9S...2.12iK75.--5.i- n ism ?ss ini...i.m 1SS9...3.731S76...5.31 1884. ..5.57 1S92...4.R2 f 1900 1.C0ii. .::. io...i.jz issB...4.sa1S7S...1.85 j 1SS5...3.16 1894... 2.57 J

    Average precipitation for April for 30years. 3.26 inches; total deficiency in pre- -

    I cipltation during month. L95 inches: totalprecipitation, from September 1. 1899, todate. 32.6S inches; average precipitationfrom September 1 to date, 36.74 Inches;total deficiency from September 1, 1SD9,to date. 4.05 Inches; average precipitationfor .24 wet seasons, 46.S3 Inches.

    Number of clear days. 9; partly cloudydays. 10; cloudy days, 1L

    Dates of frost, Sth. 10th, 15th and 23d.Greatest precipitation, .47 of an

    Inch, on the 11th and 12th. Total snow-fall, trace.

    EDWARD A. BEALS.Local Forecast Official.


    No. 135 Third Street,

    And see the wonderful moving pictures,and gaze at the grand scenery., on theline of. and the flight of "The OverlandLimited" over, the Union Pacific railroad,which will be shown free.

    "1 was weak an...