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Counselors in the "real" worldCOUNSELORS IN THE "REAL" WORLD2COUNSELORS IN THE "REAL" WORLD68Counselors in the Real WorldSarah Emily Curtis, Elizabeth Duncan, Susan McKenzie, and Julie NewSalem CollegeRunning head: COUNSELORS IN THE "REAL" WORLD1Counselors in the "Real" WorldIn todays educational environment, counselors play an important role in student development. Understanding how to manage their counseling program from assessment to implementation can be the difference between success and failure. As we interviewed current school counselors in the school systems in our areas, we found that they all have a lot on their plates, and that they work hard to make sure their students have every opportunity to thrive. From classroom lessons to calendar management, these individuals teach the competencies they know their students will need to be successful. It is critical that a new counselor assess the current program and understand how to design and implement changes as necessary. Understanding state standards as well as knowing how to work within the American School Counselor Association [ASCA] guidelines will help us build comprehensive programs. DiscussionFor this project, each group member was tasked with interviewing school counselors at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. We were also to interview an administrator. Each of us went to area schools and interviewed counselors who are working now to encourage and motivate their students.The InterviewsInterviewed by Julie New. Julie New traveled to multiple schools in Randolph County NC, which tend to be in the rural setting. Julie first interviewed Becky Peele at Seagrove Elementary School. Ms. Peele is in her fourth year as a counselor, with the last two being at Seagrove. She attended UNC-Chapel Hill for both her undergraduate and graduate programs. Seagrove has approximately 428 students and just has one counselor. Next, Julie traveled to Southwest Randolph Middle School, which is where the Seagrove Elementary students will go for Middle School. The Middle school has two counselors and she was able to interview both of them. Brittany Roberti handles the 7th and 8th grade students. She has been a counselor for two years and graduated from UNC-G for both her undergrad and graduate program. Pam Harden handles 6th and 8th grade students. She has been a counselor for 15 years, but has been at SWRMS for just a year. Between the two of them, they handle over 1100 students. Julie then traveled to Wheatmore High School (still in Randolph County) to see high school counselor Shelia Dunphy-Atkins. There are two counselors at Wheatmore for their 700 students, and Ms. Dunphy-Atkins handles the juniors and seniors. She has been a counselor for 15 years, coming to Wheatmore High School when it opened in 2009. Mrs. Dunphy-Atkins got her undergraduate degree from Canisius College, where she also obtained her first Masters in School Administration. She got her second Masters in Counseling from St. Bonaventure University also in New York. She is also National Board Certified and her vast experience is a true asset to her students. Finally, Julie interviewed Drew Maerz who is the Director of Testing and Accountability for the Asheboro City Schools in Randolph County. Dr. Maerz is responsible for the testing and reporting for Asheboro City Schools that serve over 4800 students. He has a BS in Secondary Education Chemistry, from the College of Education in at Penn State. His Masters in School Administration is from UNC-G and his Doctorate in Education is from UNC-Charlotte. Dr. Maerz has been a teacher, an elementary and high school principal. He then became the Director of Educational Development for Moore County prior to his current position. Dr. Maerz has seen how comprehensive counselingprograms can be beneficial to the students. A transcript of Julies interviews can be found in Appendix B.Interviewed by Elizabeth Duncan.Elizabeth interviewed three counselors and one administrator in the Cabarrus County school system. The Cabarrus County school system has grown immensely in the past several years. Cabarrus County is suburban area. Elizabeth interviewed Julie Haas at Boger Elementary, Amy Hand at Northwest Middle, Christy Takach at Concord High, and Assistant Principal of Instruction at Beverly Hills Elementary.Julie Haas started her professional career in admissions at an Art Institute. After deciding to change career paths she attended University of North Carolina at Charlotte and graduated in 2009 with a Masters in Education-School Counseling. Originally Ms. Haas wanted to work at the high school level. After doing an internship in an elementary school Ms. Haas changed her mind and decided to stay at the elementary level. Ms. Haas works with the students in 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade. Ms. Haas splits the Kindergarten classrooms with her co-counselor.Ms. Hand worked for the Department of Social Services briefly before deciding to become a school counselor. Ms. Hand also attended University of North Carolina at Charlotte. This school year was Ms. Hands thirteenth year at a school counselor, all of which have been in middle school. Ms. Hand works with the 8th grade students at Northwest Middle.Ms. Takach attended Marshall University, in West Virginia, for both her undergraduate and graduate work. Ms. Takach worked at the elementary level for ten years before moving the high school level. Ms. Takach has been at Concord High for three years.Lastly, Ms. Scardina started teaching middle and high school Spanish and ESL back in 1995. In 1997 she began teaching just high school. Ms. Scardina earned a Master's Degree in Education in 2002 and then entered into the NC Principal Fellows program and earned a Master's in School Administration and Curriculum and Instruction in 2004. Since then she has been an Assistant Principal. Ms. Scardina did her undergraduate work at University of North Carolina at Greensboro and then all of her graduate work at University of North Carolina at Charlotte. This year Ms. Scardina will begin working on her doctorate in Curriculum and Instruction / Urban Education. This school year is her 20th year in education. A transcript of Lizs interviews can be found in Appendix C.Interviewed by Susan McKenzie. Susan interviewed three school counselors and one administrator, who was formerly a school counselor, in Henderson County. Henderson Countys makeup is both suburban and rural, depending upon which part of the county you are in. The counselors interviewed were Susan Garren at Fletcher Elementary School, Carolyn Blakely at Hendersonville Middle School, and Annabelle Hurd at Hendersonville High School. The administrator interviewed was Shannon Auten, Assistant Principal at West Henderson High School.Susan Garren, Fletcher Elementary, has a bachelors degree in elementary education. Ms. Garren taught middle school math for two years. She found that the kids had so many issues, and they would stay in her room and talk during lunch and breaks, so she decided to go into counseling. She went to school at night while she was teaching. She worked as a counselor at a high school for 4 years, but she didnt like the politics and paperwork of high school. She was at a middle school for 7 years and has been at Fletcher Elementary for 15 years.Carolyn Blakely, Hendersonville Middle School, has an undergraduate degree in psychology. When she couldnt find a job, she went to a career counselor and found that school counseling would be a good fit for her. She has a masters in counseling education from the University of South Florida. She has been a school counselor for 16 years. She was a counselor at Lees-McRae College for four years, and since then has worked in Buncombe County, Wilkes County, and Henderson County. This is her first year at Hendersonville Middle School.Annabelle Hurd, Hendersonville High School, has an undergraduate degree in English and a masters degree in Special Reading. She was an English teacher for 17 years, but she felt a need for change. So, she went back to school and got her specialist degree in school counseling. Ms. Hurd has been a school counselor for the last 17 years and has been at Hendersonville High School since 2002. A transcript of Susans interviews can be found in Appendix D.Interviewed by Emily Curtis. Lisa Wagoner began her educational career by obtaining a BA in Psychology from UNC- C and then obtained a M.Ed. in School Counseling from there, as well. She has been counseling since 1990 at the elementary and high school levels (K-8 school, K-6 school, 9-12 school), and an early college), which gives her great insight to all the areas of social and academic development of her students. Her current school, West Yadkin Elementary, is a rural K-6 school with 600+ students, which is a Title 1 school that has a 40% Hispanic population. Six to eight elementary schools in Yadkin County have to share counselors and resources (Curtis, New, & Stambaugh, 2014, p. 3).Bradley Shore has been a school counselor for over 15 years. He earned a bachelor of science in psychology from Appalachian State University. He began graduate school at ASU with plans to be a family and marriage counselor. During his studies, he decided to add school counseling to his M.A. in Community Counseling. Bradley has experience working in K-8 schools. During his time in K-8 schools, Bradley was responsible for working the sixth through eighth grade students. Once the schools in Yadkin County split, he began working in the K-6 schools. Bradley currently holds a split position of school counselor at Boonville Elementary School and Jonesville Elementary School. The two schools combined have a population of approximately 650 students. Bradley works two and a half days a week at each school.Dawn Huggins is currently the assistant principal at my base school, Starmount Middle School. Dawn received her degrees in education from Appalachian State University. Dawn earned her B.S. in Elementary Education, as an NC Teaching Fellow. This degree was followed by an M.A. in Middle Grades Education, English Language Arts, a certificate as a Curriculum Specialists, and an M.A. in Administration. Dawn has been working in education for 21 years at every level except high school. Starmount Middle School has approximately 350 students. A transcript of Emilys interviews can be found in Appendix E.Managing the comprehensive K-12 school counseling programThe ASCA notes that to effectively deliver the school counseling curriculum and address the developmental needs of every student, the school counseling program must be effectively and efficiently managed (2012, p. 41). In order to help in that pursuit, the ASCA provides a variety of assessments and tools for use in evaluating a school counseling program, such as a school counselor competencies assessment, a school counseling program assessment, an annual agreement, and curriculum, small-group, and closing-the-gap action plans (2012). Gysbers and Henderson offer further guidance regarding the management of a comprehensive school counseling program when they suggest using assessments and tools like those from the ASCA to refine how school counseling services are offered, the clarify the roles and duties of school counselors, and foster a more effective use of school counselor time (2012).School counseling program models employed. Whereas school counseling programs of the past were more responsive in nature, the ASCA National Model brought focus to school counseling programs and made the success of all students a priority (Wong, 2012). According to the ASCA, the National Model ...outlines the components of a comprehensive school counseling program and ...brings school counselors together with one vision and one voice, which creates unity and focus toward improving student achievement (2012, p. xii). Today, many states have drafted their own comprehensive school counseling program models which are heavily based on the ASCA National Model, with additional allowances for the needs and requirements of the individual states.In our interviews the counselors were asked what program model was currently in use in their program and whether that program model was in place throughout the district. One of the counselors and the administrator interviewed said that the ASCA National Model was the program model in use in Henderson County(S. Garren, personal communication, April 15, 2015; S. Auten, personal communication, May 1, 2015). The other two counselors said that the ASCA National Model was the ideal, but that they didnt really follow it (A. Hurd, personal communication, April 2, 2015; C. Blakely, personal communication, April 14, 2015). The middle school counselor noted that her first year at Hendersonville Middle School had been challenging. This year has been a year of crisis. Its not proactive or preventative, just reactive (C. Blakely, personal communication, April 14, 2015). Annabelle Hurd, the counselor at Hendersonville High School shared that, while she thinks they embrace the spirit of the ASCA National Model, they actually follow more of an individual delivery of services model (personal communication, April 2, 2015).K-12 collaborative efforts. The ASCA notes that through school, family, and community collaboration, school counselors can access a vast array of support for student achievement and development that cannot be achieved by an individual, or school, alone (ASCA, 2012, p. 6). Collaboration can occur in a variety of ways such as the following: school/district committees, needs assessments, program goals, teaming and partnering, and systemic change. Woodward and Aielo suggest that an area of collaboration which tends to challenge school counselors is vertical collaboration elementary to middle school and middle to high school. They gave an example of a vertical articulation team, designed to increase collaboration between school counseling programs (2012).According to Woodward and Aielo:By creating this team, we were able to combine developmentally appropriate programs and resources across schools, increase the effectiveness of transition programs, better serve families who have children in multiple schools and enhance communication among colleagues, regardless of whether they worked at the middle or high school level(2012, para. 3).In our interviews, the counselors and administrators were asked how the K-12 counseling program collaborates. All three counselors interviewed in Henderson County mentioned transitions as an area in which the counselors collaborate, specifically at the end of the year when younger students are bridging up to the next school such as the transition from elementary school to middle school. Two of the counselors mentioned collaboration between schools with shared families or with those who have previous experience with a student. The high school counselor mentioned that she would like to receive more of a heads up from the middle school(S. Hurd, personal communication, April 2, 2015; C. Blakely, personal communication, April 14, 2015; S Garren, personal communication, April 15, 2015). The administrator who was interviewed, shared the following, I dont feel like they collaborate a whole lot. There are monthly counseling meetings, but they dont actually happen unless there is a program planned. Crisis response teams are a great example of the different levels working together. I wish there was more collaboration (S. Auten, personal communication, May 1, 2015). Program enhancement models. According to Gysbers and Henderson, program enhancement is essentially program redesign. This enhancing/redesign process isnt intended to change the foundation of the comprehensive school counseling program, just ensure that it is still serving the needs of its stakeholders (Gysbers and Henderson, 2012; McKenzie, 2015). Gysbers and Henderson note that while the program description will remain the same, what may change, however, will occur inside the framework of the program: the content (student standards), the descriptions and assumptions, the interventions, and the use of school counselor time and talent (2012, p. 381; McKenzie, 2015). Through the enhancement process, student and program needs are identified and addressed through the use of new activities or offerings. In our counselor interviews, the counselors and administrators were asked to identify program enhancement models or activities in which their schools were engaged. Ms. Garren at Fletcher Elementary mentioned that they have both morning lab and afternoon homework club which she runs for at risk kids and for those who might not get the help they need at home (S. Garren, personal communication, April 15, 2015). Both Ms. Auten and Ms. Blakely mentioned the use of peer mentors as positive enhancements to a school counseling program (C. Blakely, personal communication, April 14, 2015; S. Auten, personal communication, May 1, 2015). Ms. Hurd cited the challenges of trying to get new programs in place when the principal is not supportive of the idea (A. Hurd, personal communication, April 2, 2015).Counselor duties and responsibilities. The duties and responsibilities of a school counselor are many and varied. "Probably few jobs in education have evolved as much in terms of duties and responsibilities as that of the school counselor" (ASCA, 2012, p. 17). There are obvious duties and responsibilities that are included in the component of delivery, such as individual and group counseling. Also, it is common knowledge that school counselors will provide classroom lessons based on the guidance curriculum. However, management is often not recognized as a duty and responsibility of school counselors, yet it is necessary and crucial to a well-functioning comprehensive program. Gysbers and Henderson (2012) provide four main components of a school counseling program: guidance curriculum, individual student planning, responsive services, and system support (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, p. 63). Other elements of a program that school counselors are responsible for include student standards and the element of development, management, and accountability (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, p. 63). The development, management, and accountability element is an area of duty and responsibility of school counseling that may often be overlooked or swept under the rug. It is easy to become so overwhelmed, on a daily basis, by providing the four main components of a school counseling program and neglect other important elements.During the counselor interviews, each person was asked to describe the duties and responsibilities of a school counselor. Describing the responsive services of individual counseling, group counseling, and classroom guidance lessons were the immediate responses. Upon further reflection, calendars, communication, and collaboration were included in regular school counselor duties. One of the ways that communication and collaboration are carried out is through participation in committees such as PBIS (Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports), SWAT (School-Wide Assessment Team), SIT (School Improvement Team), faculty meetings, etc. By participating in these committees, school counselors are able to make connections within the school and provide support at multiple levels or areas, including academics and system supports.When asked about duties, everyone was quick to mention non-counselor duties and responsibilities, which would fall into the category of fair share duties. Lisa Wagoner specifically requested the "duty" of morning car line (B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015).She views this as an opportunity to make the initial contact of the day with the students. This is also a time when she can make connections with parents and guardians. She takes advantage of the morning car line duty as a chance to be proactive and informed in her school. School counselors may feel overwhelmed by the myriad duties and responsibilities that are inherent in a school counseling program, and also in a school. Including program management as part of the daily duties and responsibilities will assist with thorough and appropriate inclusion. When management and development are included, the process of balancing all of the components of a comprehensive program, including the guidance curriculum, individual student planning, responsive services, system supports, and accountability will be possible and lead to a more successful program.Implementation of NC Standards. Implementing the North Carolina Professional School Counseling Standards provide school counselors with guidelines for accountability and effective program development and management. The standards provide a new vision for school counseling (North Carolina State Board of Education, Department of Public Instruction [NCDPI], 2008). There are five standards that cover nearly every aspect of a comprehensive school guidance and counseling program. The NC Professional School Counseling Standards are intended by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction [NCDPI] to guide professional development, provide a focus for school counselor evaluation, and assist higher education programs in development of professional study programs (NCDPI, 2008). Standard 1 addresses school counselor leadership, advocacy, and collaboration (NCDPI, 2008). Standard 2 focuses on developing a respectful environment for all students, with a special consideration for diversity (NCDPI, 2008). Standard 3 directly addresses the implementation of a school counseling program (NCDPI, 2008). Standard 4 links to Standard 2 with a goal of providing access to the school counseling program for all students (NCDPI, 2008). Standard 5 links to professional development by encouraging school counselors to reflect on their professional practices (NCDPI, 2008).During the school counselor interviews, the NC Standards were addressed. The school counselors and administrator interviewed by Emily were all aware of the NC Standards. One counselor described the NC Standards as a set of broad guidelines (B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015). The other counselor and the administrator mentioned the standards as part of the former school counselor evaluation process (B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015). Based on these responses, it would seem that both school counselors and administrators need to have a better understanding of what the standards say and what they have to offer to a comprehensive school guidance and counseling program.Issues facing school counselors with regard to program management. Management is a major part of the school counselor role. In the ASCA National Model, management is one of the four major components. The ASCA says, to effectively deliver the school counseling curriculum and address the developmental needs of every student, the school counseling program must be effectively and efficiently managed (2012, p. 41). Gysbers and Henderson discuss five aspects of the school counseling program that fall under the management umbrella. Planning, Design, Implementation, Evaluation, and Enhancement are all pieces of management that school counselors have to consider when creating and overseeing a comprehensive program.Partnership between school counselors and administrators Establishing a partnership between school counselors and administrators is crucial to an effective comprehensive school guidance and counseling program. Collaboration is one of the themes of the ASCA National Model (2012). "Although the school principal may serve as the head of the school and ultimately be responsible for student services, the school counselor plays a critical role in making student success a reality. Principals need school counselors' perspective and leadership in working together on behalf of students in the school" (ASCA, 2012, p. 17).Through the interviews conducted, the partnership between school counselors and administrators was an important point. All three of the interviews conducted by Emily presented positive perceptions of the existing relationship among the school counselors and administration. Both the school counselors interviewed stated that they feel they are part of a team with their administrators (B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015). There is a collaborative atmosphere. The school counselors feel trusted to manage their school counseling programs with the support of their administrators (B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015).The administrative interview provided a reversed yet similar view of this relationship from the administrative perspective. The administrator considers school counselors as part of the administrative team. Decisions may need to be made together, with input from both administrators and school counselors. The principal from Emily's interview felt that one role of the school counselor is to function as a buffer before disciplinary action is necessary. She stated that "school counselors can diffuse situations before discipline is necessary(B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015). In the current situation at Starmount Middle School, the administration stated that they are satisfied with the current relationship and partnership between the school counselor and the administrative team (B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015).When school counselors enter into a new position, it is important that the desired relationship is communicated. School counselors and administrators should have a clear understanding of the role and job description of each position. School counselors should be able to discuss the expectations of the working relationship with their administrators. Administrators should also be able to share expectations of this working relationship. When administrators and school counselors are able to work as a collaborative team, the comprehensive school guidance and counseling program has a higher probability of success.Challenges to managing a school counseling programPlanning and design. Planning and design are the parts of the process where much of the initial set up work is conducted. It is important to understand what needs to be accomplished for the school and or district. At these points it is important to establish steering committees and school-community advisory committees. School counselors need to be proactive about getting the plans out to stakeholders. Assessment is a major part of these first two aspects. None of the counselors interviewed by Elizabeth Duncan could speak to specific assessments conducted. Ms. Takach mentioned the hopes to conduct an assessment of her high school program in the next year or so. Ms. Takach is working with a fairly new team at Concord High School and she mentioned that working with a new team was a good time to take a deeper look at the current program and make major changes based on assessments(C. Takach, personal communication, April 7, 2015; J. Haas, personal communication, April 16, 2015; T. Scardina, personal communication, April 17, 2015; A. Hand, personal communication, April 21, 2015).After an assessment is completed it is necessary to begin the actual design portion of a comprehensive program. Many portions of a design are important. For example, this is the point in the process where the program definition, rationale, and content standards are revamped or created. Each of the counselors interviewed in Cabarrus County made points about the difficulties of meeting student needs versus county expectations(C. Takach, personal communication, April 7, 2015; J. Haas, personal communication, April 16, 2015; T. Scardina, personal communication, April 17, 2015; A. Hand, personal communication, April 21, 2015). The planning and design portion of the management process is a good time to truly measure what a specific school needs and how the county expectations can be met without neglecting the specific student needs.Implementation. Gysbers and Henderson tell us that the implementation phase is one of the most critical of the entire program improvement process (2012, p. 223). All the prior work done in the planning and design phases are put into action during the implementation phase. In this phase resources are a major component. The administrator interviewed by Elizabeth Duncan specifically mentioned the importance and sometimes lack of resources needed when it comes to program management(T. Scardina, personal communication, April 17, 2015).Evaluation and enhancement. After planning, designing, and implementing school counselors must begin evaluating and enhancing the program. The evaluation phase is conducted by gathering the data that has been assessed throughout time and analyzing it to make judgments on what to do next, what has not been working in the past and should be changed, or conversely what is working and should be continued moving forward.As Ms. Takach mentioned performing an assessment now that the counseling program has some new counselors, the enhancement phases suggests that after all the aforementioned phases are conducted, a redesign may be necessary(C. Takach, personal communication, April 7, 2015).By the time all the previous phases have been conducted there is probably a need for new information. The school counselors and administrator interviewed by Elizabeth Duncan discussed several challenges they face when working under the management component. When asked, they all agreed that no matter how many times an assessment was performed or a redesign took place, time and scheduling would stay the number one challenge(C. Takach, personal communication, April 7, 2015; J. Haas, personal communication, April 16, 2015; T. Scardina, personal communication, April 17, 2015; A. Hand, personal communication, April 21, 2015). School counselors relationship with human service agenciesHuman service agencies can play an important role in the school counseling program. It is important for school counselors to have healthy, productive comprehensive program. Having a positive relationship with community organizations makes a school counselors effectiveness even higher. Ms. Takach made the point that sometimes there are liabilities that make it harder for school counselors to reach students at the level they need, whereas an outside organization may have the ability to help(C. Takach, personal communication, April 7, 2015). Families may feel more comfortable working with an outside organization, therefore it is important for school counselors to make connections with such places so they are able to pass along valuable information to families who may need it.Process for working together. When interviewing the Cabarrus County School counselors, when asked about working with human service organizations all gave Elizabeth the same answer. Each counselor said that the school social worker makes the connections between the school and human service organizations(C. Takach, personal communication, April 7, 2015; J. Haas, personal communication, April 16, 2015; T. Scardina, personal communication, April 17, 2015; A. Hand, personal communication, April 21, 2015). The social worker has the ability to work with families who may have students in different schools, whereas school counselors may be limited to working with students in one school. For that reason, Ms. Haas commented that she usually defers to the school social worker for that reason(J. Haas, personal communication, April 16, 2015). Also, the Cabarrus County school system tends to prefer specific organizations and Ms. Hand mentioned that she can easily defer to the school social worker for the organizations on that list, if need be(A. Hand, personal communication, April 21, 2015).Collaborations between counselors and members of the educational community Counselors who work on building a relationship within our educational community can help the students by giving them resources they may not have had previously. Counselors in Randolph County at the area middle schools reached out to community members this year by doing a career day for 8th graders. Julie New went and presented for Randolph Community College to help the students understand what was involved in starting college, and getting enrolled in the medical field. Workshops like this give the students more real world experience and let them know what is available to them for the future. Wheatmore High School has community leaders come in at the beginning of the school year and present to the staff (S. Dunphy-Atkins, personal communication, April 24, 2015). They offer programs that can help the students with college and financial planning (S. Dunphy-Atkins, personal communication, April 24, 2015). Once the staff has been exposed, they can call upon those leaders to present to their students throughout the year. Seagrove Elementary School also did a career day and had parents come in to speak to the students. This gave the students an idea what was available for future jobs at a young age, and it also got the local parents involved. Having as much stakeholder involvement in the programs at local schools is important when building a comprehensive counseling program. Crisis management modelsA crisis can arise at any time. A crisis can be large or small, impacting one student or the entire school. During a crisis situation, the school counselor should be a central figure, providing support and necessary services to students, parents, faculty and staff, and other stakeholders. School counselors are specifically trained to manage crisis situations and provide the support needed by those impacted during the crisis situation.Preparing for a crisis requires a plan and should be part of a comprehensive school guidance and counseling program. Preparing and maintaining the school crisis plan should be included in overall program management. The importance of school counselor involvement is supported by the ASCA Competency IV-B-3d, which states that a school counselor understands what defines a crisis, the appropriate response and a variety of intervention strategies to meet the needs of the individual, group, or school community before, during, and after crisis response (ASCA, 2012, p.157).When interviewed by Emily, the counselors responded that much of the crisis management plan in place at their schools is based on the county-wide plan that includes a recently updated flipchart of procedures and protocols (B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015). The counselors stated that each of their respective schools have a crisis plan and crisis team, however they were a bit unclear on the specific plan and members of the crisis teams (B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015). The administrator interviewed was very thorough on the school crisis plan. She immediately got the crisis management plan for the school. She reviewed where the plan was kept, who is involved in the plan development and maintenance. She was clear on the applicability of the county crisis flipchart, along with the school-specific crisis plan. At the administrators school, the school counselor, which is Emily, is an intricate part of the crisis management team and plan. Dawn, the administrator, believes in strong central counselor involvement, as often as possible, especially during a crisis situation, even if the crisis only involves one student(B. Shore & L. Wagoner, personal communication, April 13, 2015; D. Huggins, personal communication, April 23, 2015).Understanding and preparing for a crisis is unfortunately a necessary part of a school counseling program. Professional school counselors must be aware of the district and school crisis management plan and any tools that are part of that plan, such as flipcharts or emergency action binders. School counselors must stay up to date on crisis management delivery and responsive services, in order to be prepared for any situation that may arise.ASCA Competencies on Program Management As we work to build a comprehensive counseling program for our students, it is important that we understand our program and how to management it effectively. The ASCA offers us competencies to help us implement this process. When a counselor is getting started with their program management model, she (III-B-4a.) creates a system support planning document addressing school counselors responsibilities for professional development, consultation and collaboration and program management (ASCA, 2014, p. 5). Doing so will help define the counselor role for the administration, and help set appropriate boundaries within the school. During Julies interview with Ms. Peele, she determined that in Randolph County, there is no comprehensive counseling plan that everyone uses. Instead, most counselors have developed their own process and in quite a few cases there is no specific plan (B. Peele, personal communication, April 10, 2015). This sentiment was echoed during Julies visit with Southwest Randolph Middle School as well as Wheatmore High School which are all in the same county system. In working with the school, counselors (IV-B-1) should negotiate(s) with the administrator to define the management system for the comprehensive school counseling program (ASCA, 2014, p. 6) and then (IV-B-1a.) discuss (es) and develop(s) the components of the school counselor management system with the other members of the counseling staff (ASCA, 2014, p. 6). When meeting with the administration, it is important to discuss job descriptions so that it is clear to all parties what the counselors program will cover. When speaking with Ms. Harden at the Southwest Randolph Middle School [SWRMS], it became clear very quickly that this may not always happen (P. Harden, & B. Roberti, personal communication, April 10, 2015). There had been quite a bit of turnover in the last few years at SWRMS so while Ms. Harden had over 15 years of counseling experience, she was building a new relationship with administrators from scratch (P. Harden, & B. Roberti, personal communication, April 10, 2015). Ms. Roberti had only been in counseling for a short time and was learning to build her program model and working on building a relationship with her new administrators as well. The ASCA competency list also directs us to make sure that we use (IV-A-4.) time management, including long- and short-term management using tools such as schedules and calendars (ASCA, 2014, p. 6). Being organized will show our administrations that we are managing our programs well, and that we take our profession very seriously. Ms. Dunphy-Atkins from Wheatmore High School, uses the school website to list calendar activities for her students and staff (S. Dunphy-Atkins, personal communication, April 24, 2015). She has a calendar she uses for herself but did state she has quite a bit of difficulty using long range planning at the high school level because she ends up putting out fires daily that were not on the original agenda (S. Dunphy-Atkins, personal communication, April 24, 2015). (IV-A-6.) Current and emerging technologies such as use of the Internet, Web-based resources and management information systems (ASCA, 2014, p. 6) give counselors a way to instantly advocate for themselves. Ms. Peele at Seagrove Elementary School has created a fantastic plan for tracking her activity. She created a google doc form which has basic information on her student (confidentially) that allows her to track interventions. She uses a series of issues such as study skills, or anxiety to categorize her student interactions. The form then feeds into a PowerPoint presentation that is updated immediately upon entry of one of these forms. She can instantly graph and show her administration where she is spending her time, what issues her students are facing the most often, and can create lesson plans to help. Gysbers & Henderson Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program Model When reviewing the ASCA National Model along with the plan given to us by Gysbers & Henderson, we see that there are many overlaps in the processes. We can also compare the program to Lewis, Packard and Lewis (2012) for their human service model components. The table in Appendix A will give us a comparison of these areas. CONCLUSIONSManagement is a vital part of how school counseling programs operate. Management encompasses so much of the responsibilities that school counselors have. Whether it is following state standards, the ASCA National Model and competencies, assessing the program at hand, or collaborating with other counselors the role of a school counselor is busy and ever evolving.As pre-service counselors we have learned much about what it takes to be successful in creating and implementing comprehensive school counseling programs. Through the process of interviewing current school counselors in the real world we have been able to get a glimpse of some of what we have learned being put into action. With collaboration between grade levels, working with Human Service Organizations, and creating relationships with community stakeholders school counselors must advocate for the programs and the students served. With all that school counselors are balancing, student development remains at the heart of the work they do. ReferencesAmerican School Counselor Association. (2012). ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Author.American School Counselor Association (2014). ASCA school counselor competencies. Retrieved from schoolcounselor.org/asca/media/asca/home/SCCompetencies.pdfCurtis, E., New, J., & Stambaugh, A. (2014). School counseling in the real world.Gysbers, N., & Henderson, P. (2012). Developing & managing your school guidance & counseling program (5th ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.Lewis, J., Packard, T., & Lewis, M. (2012). Management of human service programs (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.McKenzie, S. (2015). EDUC 665: Week 12 discussion 1. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://salem.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=1854New, J. (2015). EDUC 665: week 4 discussion 1. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://salem.mrooms.net/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=1314North Carolina State Board of Education, Department of Public Instruction. (2008). North Carolina professional school counseling standards. Retrieved from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/studentsupport/counseling/standards/counselingstandards.pdfWong, K. (2012). Introduction. In ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (3rd ed., p. x-xi). Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.Woodward, A., & Aeilo, B. (2012). Collaborate vertically. Retrieved from https://www.schoolcounselor.org/magazine/blogs/january-february-2012/collaborate-verticallyAppendix ATable 1Comparison of program modelsASCAHuman Service ModelComprehensive program elementsFoundationPlanning, Designing, StaffingJob design including hiring and recruitment practices (Lewis, Packard, & Lewis, 2012)Content Element, organizational framework & structure; Student standards; competencies grouped by domains and specified by grade level or grade level groupings (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, table 3.2). Structural components, definition, assumptions, rationale (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, table 3.2). Program components such as student planning, responsive services, and system support are also included here (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012).DeliveryLeadershipOrientation, training programs (Lewis et al., 2012)Resource ElementPersonnel: school counselors, teachers administrators, school psychologists and school social workers (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, table 3.2). Financial: budget, materials, equipment, facilities (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, table 3.2). Political: district policies, state and federal laws and rules (Lewis et al., 2012, table 3.2).ManagementSupervisingFurther training, performance reviews, understanding management objectives; encouraging staff involvement, dealing with employee stress and job satisfaction (Lewis et al., 2012)Development, management elementPlanning: guidance leadership, steering committee, advisory committee (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, table 3.2). Designing: written framework, program priorities (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, table 3.2).AccountabilityMonitoringFollowing federal guidelines, valuing diversityAccountability ElementEvaluating: program evaluation, personnel evaluation, results of evaluation (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, table 3.2). Enhancing: evaluation data, program redesign (Gysbers & Henderson, 2012, table 3.2).(New, 2015)Appendix BInterview Transcripts from Julie New: Becky Peele: Seagrove Elementary School; UNC Chapel Hill for both degrees; handles 480 students and has been employed for 4 years as a counselor 2 years at Seagrove. 1. Program Model roughly uses ASCA guidelines, there is no countywide comprehensive system in Randolph County NC. 2. Transitions: does classroom lessons on transitioning from ES, MS to HS. Believes it is important to start young with the students. 3. Program enhancements: Has Mentoring program (CIS) Second Step and uses Olweus for anti-bullying program. Olweus is a county wide initiative. Works district wide with the Backpack program, and they implement 30 backpacks. 4. Crisis system: District Wide Assist Team: 5 teams, Lead, Logistics, Individual and class counseling, parent and teacher assistance. 5. Other duties: work with BPP/DSS mental health. MTSS/Parent Conferences, home visitations. Leadership team, teacher consultations, student of the week, attendance. *Tracks everything with google calendar and a google form she created (Scan as an appendix). The form allows tracks appointments, guidance lessons and other items such as the back pack program. It feeds into a Quick Facts PowerPoint that graphs all the times. She can instantly show what she is doing and advocate for herself. Using this data, she was able to advocate for a classroom of her own for guidance lessons. Now the students come to her!6. Non counselor duties doesnt get pulled into too many, her administrators are very helpful and have set a good boundary. 7. Philosophy of program management: Serving EVERY child. She believes she needs to try and reach as many of the students as possible. 8. Challenges: Scheduling continues to be an issue, there just isnt enough time to get it all done9. Uses the NC standards, Common Core because that is what is expected. Uses ASCA as foundation, but not as formal. 10. Administrative relationship: open, supportive, mutually beneficial, collaborate on specific students. Tends to ask her opinion in counseling areas. They work together well. 11. Considers her relationship with administration already good, would like it to continue along this path. 12. Management: planning lessons, data collection, and logistics. Having her own class has helped a lot because she doesnt have to move all the stuff around when teaching. 13. Challenges with management: TIME, or lack of it really. Could always use more time with students. Currently sets up half days for 3 weeks out of the month with student classroom time, other half has to see all the students and handle any administrative type tasks. Would like more individual counseling time. 14. Contacts with human service: CIS=-BPP, mentoring and clubs15. By working with the district16. Human service contacts: give us resources, community connections. Social worker is spread between multiple schools so it is helpful to have other resources. Spends a lot of time online researching herself since no comprehensive program in Randolph County. 17. Continuing to learn: there are Prof Development opportunities available and her administration is open to her attending. She strong suggests being on leadership teams. Going to conferences is also a good place to college data18. Stakeholders: surveys for students, teachers the website/ parents and community. She feels it is important to reach out to all those concerned parties. 19. How does she get involved: Teacher PLCS/leadership meetings, conferences, phone calls, staff meetings20. Four areas of focus from ASCA: pretty open when she arrived. She has had to build her own program so to speak. Uses the ASCA guidelines daily, but loosely. 21. Changes you have made, or would like to make: BEP/SW involvement, own classroom for guidance lessons, data collection and dissemination. Being able to show accountability quickly advocates for self and program. Always lobby for your own printer, you print a lot of confidential items.Brittany Roberti handles the 7th and 8th grade students. She has been a counselor for two years and graduated from UNC-G for both her undergrad and graduate program. Pam Harden handles 6th and 8th grade students. She has been a counselor for 15 years, but has been at SWRMS for just a year. Between the two of them, they handle over 1100 students. 1. There is no countywide program, everyone has to invent their own process. Pam has been doing this for 15 years so Brittany relies on her quite a bit. 2. Standards: use the common core, but a lot of the time, are just working on staying caught up. Has guidance lessons attends heath classes to see their students and it works out that they see each student in these lessons approx. once a month. 3. Program enhancements: they work by grades, and lessons are developed to benefit each grade level. They implemented an evaluation form for the students to complete once they have taken a class so they can make changes as necessary as needs arise. They keep notebooks on lessons they have completed so they do not have to reinvent the wheel every year. 4. Crisis: there are teams in the district, they believe in building helping relationships in order to be able to reach students during time of crisis. 5. Duties outside of counseling: Testing coordinators, scheduling, emergencies, have even had to ride the buses. They are pulled in many directions but it always their focus to watch out for the students. 6. Non-counselor duties: they can vary, but in most cases their administration protects them as much as possible. They could always use more time to work with students one on one7. Philosophy: IT IS ALL ABOUT THE KIDS PERIOD.8. Issues: never having enough time to get it all done. Working with so many different children. Having to try to help quickly because students at this age tend to be upset one minute and ok the next. You either love working with this age or you dont Pam said ((P. Harden, & B. Roberti, personal communication, April 10, 2015). Once you work with them you will not want to work with anyone else, its a calling they believe. 9. Standards: work hard to follow the standards though a lot of it is common sense10. Relationship with administration: there has been a lot of turnover at this school, including the principal and vice principal in the last year. The new administration is really nice and is working with them well. 11. Would like to continue to build an open relationship and get to know them. Would like to work with them to implement an even stronger program. There is not really anything to assess because of the turnover, starting from scratch. 12. Management: just keeping up seems to be what happens a lot of the time. Working to put in more structure13. Challenges: TIME14. Human services organizations: work with social workers and a nurse that travel to multiple schools. We have quite a bit of poverty in our school zone so there is always someone to help.15. Connections are made as they need them such as for recent career day. Since Pam has been doing this so much longer, she has quite a few contacts already. 16. It is important to work with the community and this gives us added resources17. We do have access to professional development and we learn a lot by helping each other seemed to be how they work things out. Administration is fine with them doing Prof Development activities as long as they fit in and do not cost funds that may not be available. 18. Working with stakeholders in the school and community they believe is important. BUT they believe the children come first always. 19. They work through teacher conferences and leadership meetings to build relationships.20. They do not have a lot of time to try and implement the ASCA model because they are pushed towards the common core. They do use it, they just have to be more vocal about Core.21. Implementing more structure and stability over the next few years is their goal. Shelia Dunphy-Atkins1. We use some of the ASCA model in our program, but we all follow the NC school counselor model which is heavy into ASCA. 2. K-12 doesnt really collaborate much with curriculum, we try to build off career guidance activities and we do collaborate with some programs if they need to continue into the middle and high school. But realistically, you have to work with the needs of your students and what is important currently. 3. Our school doesnt do anything in this area. 4. Crisis management team: There are five crisis management teams that are compiled of counselors that are compiled of counselors, central office staff, school psychologist, social workers, nurses and dropout prevention specialist that rotate if a crisis occurs at a school or multiple schools. We each have a role and we have training for what that role is. If something happens at a school we are evacuated to our off campus location for parents to pick up, certain staff members are assigned specific jobs. If something happens a school such as a shooting, there is a countywide response with local law enforcement, the SRO, state troopers etc. Each staff member has a specific job (to keep kids safe) and make sure they are following the procedures we have in place. We are trained several times a year on roles and responsibilities.5. Roles: Advance Placement Test coordinator. It is my responsibility to inform students when and where the tests are located. Diabetes/504/Autism county wide teams, lunch duty, covering our secretaries when they are out/answering phones, student enrollments, school improvement teams, faculty senate, gate duty for athletics, hall monitor, testing administrator, anything else assigned by administration. 6. Which do you consider non counselor duties? All of these are non-counselor duties, yet things need to be done. Team Work. About 25% of my day is occupied with items such as these. 7. Philosophy: I am here to help and swerve the kids the best possible way. To prepare them for adulthood and guide them to be productive members of society. To bring them what they need, not what I want. 8. Challenges: Class guidance, small groups, time, never able to follow a set schedule. Expect the unexpected. The change in leadership at central office. New director at the county office has a different philosophy than the previous one. He lets us do what we want, not much direction or communication has occurred. At school level teaching time is valuable to get the curriculum taught, teachers frown when you pull a student from their class, they think they should only see us during their LUNCH or before or after school. If that was the case, we would never see students. Groups are hard to get together at this HS because there are no study halls or free time. 9. How do you implement standards: Look at the standards, do a check/balance and rate myself then align my weaker areas into where I need to focus my professional development plan. There isnt much offered for this at the school/district level, I have to find it on my own. 10. Relationship with administrator: We have a good relationship. I dont take every little thing to them, when I feel they need to know I inform them. I do ask them for suggestions and feedback and we can talk about students. If they have concerns, we discuss it and come up with a solutions that will hopefully be a win win for all parties. 11. Changes that could help: The counselor and the admin need each other, currently no changes need to be done but if a new admin was to come in, we will have to work together. 12. No additional answer13. Duplicate question14. Human Svc Org: Communities in School, NCMENTOR, COAT, DSS these are the ones we use the most. They dont really have a role that impacts us directly. 15. How did you make these connections: we call them, they present at our first meeting of the year for counselors. 16. Relationships: If we are doing a program and would like them to speak we can call and set something up. Personal connections: If an agency is not friendly, or their response is takes too LONG, we dont call them17. We do not work with this area much, we each build our own program. ASCA is always in the back of our minds, but we have to work with the NC Core standards. 18. I meet with students and their parents as often as I can. I do a lot of getting students ready for college, working with FAFSA, scholarships and what they want to do. 19. To keep people informed, we use our school website, connected messages and parent meetings. 20. I do not have a specific a printed model using ASCA at this time. I update my programs as necessary21. I have been here since the school opened, I had to build my program into what it is and I change it based on how the students needs change. Drew Maerz: AdministrationI had sent him the questions in advance that I had asked the counselors. He gave me his perspective from the testing assessment side of the house as well as his view as a principal. When he first started, the counselor was the testing coordinator, now state law says they cannot be. They can help but they cannot be in charge. They work on teams to help the students and do things like look at the data from test such as basic skills testing to see how to help the students more. As a principal, he built a team in the school that looked at the top five students with issues or that they were most worried about each week. The team was made up of the counselor, the AP, the nurse, the social worker and the receptionist. Then the team brain stormed ways to help this child. Most of the time the students did not end up on the list two weeks in a row, but if they did, there was more involvement by all parties. If they could not help them without outside intervention, parents or authorities would be contacted.His views on the counselors as an administrators is that:They need to be valued and empowered moreThere needs to be more of a team modelIn HS, freshman need their own counselor, rest can be divided alphabeticalCounselors need to work on a five year plan with students early. They need to do things like career inventories and surveys. If he could build anything he wanted, he believes that there should be one or two advocates at each school for each student. There has to be an adult that a child can trust, whether it is the teacher, a coach, the counselors. He believes in mentors both students and adults that can help the new students succeed. Groups are great, but can be difficult to do at different ages. Having mentors may work better. Appendix CInterview Transcripts from Elizabeth Duncan: 1. What is the program model currently in use in your school counseling program? To your knowledge, is this program in place throughout the school district?Haas: ASCA National Model with freedom to mesh with N.C. Essential StandardsHand: ASCA National Model built from county adjustments, county tries to use same domains as ASCATakach: National Model- varies by school how it is implemented.Scardina: Right now, we have our guidance counselor teaching classes 3 days per week and then providing direct services (small groups, individual, and then other duties) the other 2 days. Its not ideal but as a small school with limited staffing, it makes it a necessity. I believe most elementary schools have their counselors in the specials rotations, but I wouldnt swear to it.2. In what ways does the K-12 counseling program collaborate? (If prompting is needed, transitions are one area in which collaboration occurs)Haas: As 5th grade counselor works with middle school 6th grade counselor, elementary monthly PLC, and collaborates with the school social worker who works with K-12Hand: Monthly middle school PLC and sometimes collaborates with feeder high schools.Takach: Through previous experience with K-5 has a good connection with other teachers. High school counselors have a monthly PLC (professional learning community). Works with feeder Middle school counselors.Scardina: The district director of student services holds K-12 meetings (PLCs) about once per month or at least once per quarter. I think outside of that there is not much collaboration unless individuals take it upon themselves to have that vertical collaboration.3. In what program enhancement models or activities is your school counseling program currently engaged? (School or district-wide Peer Helping, for example)Haas: School-wide PBIS (serves as leader)Hand: School-wide Rachels challenge (bullying program), also have some connections with arts councilTakach: varies from school to school, no district-wide programsScardina: I am unfamiliar with what you mean by program enhancement models. Our counselor facilitates the New Student Club which meets once a month and provides lessons over lunch to new students to help acclimate them to our school and school culture. She sponsors the Student Action Team, which carries out service projects for the community, and she also sponsors Safety Patrol where our 5th grade students stand post and help throughout the school. She organizes mentor programs between our local firefighters and our at risk students.4. In a school setting, a crisis might be anything from the death of a student or teacher, a natural disaster, such as a fire or tornado, to a threat to students and staff, such as those involving weapons or the taking of hostages. What crisis management plans or models does your school or the school districts have in place to address these potential issues? Is there a crisis management team?Haas: County model, county provides a crisis team. Administration is in charge of safety plans for most situations and counselors follow administration instructionHand: County model, county crisis team (counselors and social workers). Having outside help really makes it easier to help students.Takach: District wide plans, personalized for each administration, there is a county teamScardina: We have a designated Crisis Team with defined roles for anticipated scenarios. Depending on the event or crisis, the different roles change. Members of our crisis team include administrators, counselor, nurse, custodians, and office staff. Our school social worker is also a key player in some instances but since she is only with us one morning a week, she is a resource in the event of an unforeseen, immediate crisis. The plans are district-wide with individual school flexibility.5. Please describe some of your duties and responsibilities, outside of classroom lessons, small group counseling, and individual counseling.Haas: car duty (a.m. and or p.m.), 30 minutes of supplemental instruction- teaching or classroom assistance in addition to whole class instruction, occasional lunch duty. Kindergarten intervention facilitatorHand: morning/afternoon duty and scheduled lunch dutyTakach: morning/afternoon duty(each counselor mentioned liking some of the duties (like morning/afternoon) to increase face time and general contact with students)Scardina: Our counselor is in charge of service projects such as food and clothing drives, student action teams, safety patrol, Wellness Fair (in conjunction with our school nurse), Career Day, on/off task student observations, partnering with community agencies such as outside counseling services, referrals, mentor programs, church partnerships, school based committees, administering state tests, supervision duties (like breakfast or hall duty).6. Which of these duties do you consider "non-counselor" duties? What percentage of an average school day is dedicated to performing "non-counselor" duties?Haas: facilitator duties helps advocate for students and helps with intervention each duty can fit into counselors roleHand: low percentageTakach: not muchScardina: I would think administering tests would fall into that category but you could also argue that by the counselor giving the test to students with specific needs helps calm them and helps them make it through the 3 hour test which in turn, lets them show their true abilities. The supervision duties arent direct services but do provide opportunities for the counselor to be visible and foster relationships with students, their families, and staff. Our counselor is able to keep a pulse on the school and intervene when there is a need during these duty times.7. Discuss your philosophy of program management, in regard to your school counseling program.Haas: see power pointHand: depends on the day-plan for the unexpected, use broad timelinesTakach: Team philosophy is based on data and needScardina: The philosophy that I have is to meet the needs of our students, families and staff utilizing all of the resources (curriculum, services, agencies) to the best of our ability. Since much of that lies outside of my control, I do not have a better answer. J8. What are some of the challenges, or issues, that you deal with as you try to manage your program? Which issues are school-level issues and which ones are district-level issues?Haas: time/scheduleHand: time/scheduleTakach: schedule, student needs vs. program needs, unexpected always happens, school needs vs. county needsScardina: Some of the challenges we face are time and resources. We are fortunate enough to have our counselor here at school 5 days/week but not all schools do. The time demands are very high on counselors so it is a challenge to make things work, for example: classroom lessons, small groups, individual counseling, teacher support, and all of the other things she takes care of. Most of those are school level issues and its the district that is in charge of personnel allotments. That translates into time/resources.9. Discuss how you implement the NC Standards within your school counseling program.Haas: follow/match lessons to grade standardsHand: check off standards as implemented, use curriculum crosswalks online, PLC collaborationTakach: following guidelines and implementing based on school needs, provide artifactsScardina: Our counselor teaches lessons that follow the curriculum for each grade level. She is also able to implement lessons/topics based on specific need or data. 10. Please describe your perception of the relationship between you (the school counselor) and your administrators.Haas: good support, with PBIS there is a lot of collaboration; they understand the counselors jobsHand: very strong relationships, fabulous respect, protects the role, and understands what the counselors job is, feel supported and free to work how see fitTakach: great support, believe in the program and the work the counselors do, work together for students needsScardina: As an administrator, I have to trust that my counselor will bring important issues with students, families, or staff to my attention as appropriate and I also have to trust that I can go to them to seek assistance with a concern with students, families, staff as well. We are a team that keeps each other in balance: the counselor focusing on the counselor aspect and myself focusing on the admin bigger picture. We may not always agree but do respect each others expertise and opinions. Our common vision/ goal is to serve our school population.11. Please describe how you believe the relationship between the school counselor and the administration should be? Are there changes that need to occur on the administrative level to improve your ability to manage your program?Haas: no changesHand: no changesTakach: no changesScardina: I think I addressed that more in the previous question. I have worked with many different counselors over the years and at all levels, K-12. Ive been in situations where the relationships were not as good and sometimes even better. When it comes down to it, the counselor/administrative relationship plays a vital role in theschool climate and culture. Ideally, counselors would not be tied to a teaching a schedule so that they could be free to implement the counseling program with fidelity. At the secondary level, I dont think the counselors are tied to classroom teaching, but are burdened with scheduling and graduation constraints.12. Management is one of the four major components of the ASCA National Model. Planning, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement are major parts of management for comprehensive school counseling programs. Can you tell me how you are able to include management (including planning, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement)?Haas: Not answeredHand: Not answeredTakach: ASCA model is constantly on her mind, begins the process following guide but tends to lose track as the plan progresses. One of the thing the department hopes to improve on.Scardina: Its a collaborative process for us in that our counselor plans and implements her program with the given parameters/time constraints. She surveys staff and students for feedback on services and needs, reflects on the results and makes changes as necessary. Our counselor is visionary and constantly seeks to do more even when we tell her that she really cant take on anything else. Time management and responding to needs of our population is sometimes hard to balance.13. Can you tell me which human service organizations your school has a relationship with and what role the organizations play in the school counseling program?Haas: social worker handles thisHand: social worker handlesTakach: social workerScardina: Our counselor maintains positive relationships with DSS, the Cabarrus Health Alliance, Thompsons Counseling Agency, Firefighters, Businesses and charity organizations in the community. They either provide direct services to our students and families (counseling, mentoring, Positive Parenting classes, mental, physical, and dental health resources), fundraising, or are resources with whom we can collaborate.14. How did you make the connections to the human service organizations to create the relationships?Haas: uses social workers listHand: social workerTakach: district wide connections usually, social workerScardina: Our counselor reaches out to the different organizations and collaborates with them. She builds those relationships through constant communication.15. What do you feel is the importance of having relationships with the human service organizations for the success of your program and the success of your students?Haas: helps students in ways the school cant, have the ability to work with whole familiesHand: work with whole family instead of just student in one schoolTakach: Schools are sometimes limited by liability where as HSO may not be, families may be more open with HSO, HSO can create more open and longer relationshipsScardina: It is extremely important to partner with the different organizations because often they can provide the resources and support to students and families that we cannot.16. (E, F) The ASCA National Model Competencies tell us that a school counselor (III-B-4a.) Creates a system support planning document addressing school counselors responsibilities for professional development, consultation and collaboration and program management (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 5). Can you tell me how this works within your program?Haas: see Boger Documents, wish had more time to develop more resourcesHand: Not answeredTakach: Not answeredScardina: With our district student services director and guidance counselors, they work together to develop a complete service plan that outlines the guidance program.17. (E, F) I-A-6. States collaborations with stakeholders such as parents and guardians, teachers, administrators and community leaders to create learning environments that promote educational equity and success for every student (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 2). Can you elaborate on how you would build and use these relationships within your program assessment and implementation of changes?Haas: website and other handoutsHand: Handbook information, website information, working with administration on goalsTakach: follow the ASCA model and constantly look for ways of development, accountability, etc.Scardina: not answered18. I-B-1e. Describes the benefits of a comprehensive school counseling program for all stakeholders, including students, parents, teachers, administrators, school boards, department of education, school counselors, counselor educators, community stakeholders and business leaders (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 2). Can you tell me how you as a school counselor or administrator communicate your program to the various groups listed above?Haas: websites and handoutsHand: information in handbook, websites, working with administration on goals, PLCTakach: website, PLCScardina: During curriculum nights or at our annual Wellness Fair, we communicate all of the services and resources to our parents. After that, we communicate those individually as the need arises. Our counselor stays in constant contact with all stakeholders to stay abreast of new research, resources, etc. as well.19. The ASCA National Model gives us four areas to work within as we implement a comprehensive guidance program; the foundation, delivering the program, managing the program and holding the program accountable. Do you use this method within your current program? Did you develop it for your school, or was it already set up when you arrived?Haas: try to follow the model in planning and implementingHand: not answeredTakach: not answeredScardina: We use the state rubric to evaluate, monitor, and plan our program. At the end of each year, our counselor meets with the administrative team to reflect on the program and what we want to differently for the upcoming year.20. Gysbers and Henderson give us a ten year plan that has year one working with assessing the current program and deciding what you would like to change. Have you done this type of assessment and how did you decide what changes you would like to make?Haas: no formal assessmentHand: overtime trying to slowly grow the ASCA model in the program, so many changes through the yearsTakach: no formal assessment, lots of things they are working onScardina: I am not familiar with this assessment.Appendix DInterview Transcripts from Susan McKenzie1. What is the program model currently in use in your school counseling program? To your knowledge, is this program in place throughout the school district?Garren We follow the ASCA National Model. The new NC Standards/Evaluation have kind of forced our hands. Everyone is going to this model.Blakely I would normally follow the ASCA model, but that isnt possible here. I do individual, small group, and classroom guidance. This year has been a year of crisis. Its not proactive or preventative, just reactive. Lots of intervention and crisis management.Hurd Services are not delivered the same at al high schools. We tend to follow more of an individual delivery of services model. We divide the students alphabetically between the two counselors. We see each student at least 2x per year. We tailor services to students needs. Big services are divided between the 2 counselors. There is no advisory committee/council. We try to cover all the aspects of a comprehensive program.Auten The ASCA National Model. Counselors have many other duties. I feel like I do more counseling than 2 of our 3 counselors.2. In what ways does the K-12 counseling program collaborate? (If prompting is needed, transitions are one area in which collaboration occurs)Garren Transitions: 5th grade visits middle school, 8th grade visits high school, and pre-schools visit kindergarten. Elementary, middle, and high schools collaborate on shared families. Participate in district-wide trainings. Crisis planning /teams.Blakely Transition planning, student clubs, call previous schools to find out about students past experiences.Hurd The County sets up meetings for all counselors. We sometimes collaborate with the middle school. If there are big topics which affect everyone, all the counselors will meet together. I would like more of a heads up from the middle school about upcoming students.Auten I dont feel like they collaborate a whole lot. There are monthly counseling meetings, but they dont actually happen unless there is a program planned. Crisis response teams are a great example of the different levels working together. I wish there was more collaboration. The district supervisor (who has been mentioned by everyone) is one reason for this.3. In what program enhancement models or activities is your school counseling program currently engaged? (School or district-wide Peer Helping, for example)Garren Afternoon homework club for kids who dont get help at home or who need more attention. Also use peer tutors (older kids) to help. Morning lab (7:30) when first bus arrives take at risk kids for homework help or to play educational apps on the iPads. Fletcher UMC provides volunteers in AM/PM. We have a big career day every year lots of parents come. Its a big event!Blakely I havent done much here, but at other schools I had buddies or mentors in place. I am planning 8th grade buddies next year for the 6th graders. Backpack program.Hurd We set up a math tutoring program through the counseling office which has been really successful. We have tried to get some other programs going, but the principal is not on board.Auten They have started a lot of peer mentor activities. Henderson County getting more involved in outside activities like Relay for Life. Clusters do a good job working together.4. In a school setting, a crisis might be anything from the death of a student or teacher, a natural disaster, such as a fire or tornado, to a threat to students and staff, such as those involving weapons or the taking of hostages. What crisis management plans or models does your school or the school districts have in place to address these potential issues? Is there a crisis management team?Garren There are a cross-grade level crisis management teams for the district made up of groups of feeder schools. There is a process when a crisis occurs a phone tree is activated and all counselors on the team go to the school with a crisis. There are crisis drills at the schools. There is a new suicide scale used to judge the seriousness of the problem.Blakely There are crisis management teams in the county which are separated by zones phone tree and leader. There are crisis management plans for each situation.Hurd A middle school counselor organized the crisis response teams. Its a school-wide collaboration involving each school. It has worked really well! Auten - The crisis response teams work in clusters. They have a formal plan. Administrators are much more comfortable with a formal plan!5. Please describe some of your duties and responsibilities, outside of classroom lessons, small group counseling, and individual counseling.Garren Tier 2 and 3 team leadership takes a huge amount of time. Im also on every committee known to man.Blakely Attendance L, 504 coordinator, 6th grade orientation, Christmas donations, backpack program, car dutyHurd I am in charge of Governors School applications, PSAT, AP program, Career/Personality assessments, Junior English classes, gate duty, lunch duty, outside duty. The other counselor does scholarship bulletins, awards day, and Move Up day. We both work with Homebound.Auten Testing coordinators (I wish someone other than a counselor could do this). I wish counselors gave college ready tests ACT, SAT, College & Career, Work Keys, PSAT, PLAN. Checking with at-risk kids I which there was a larger connection with outside agencies. We need to have a non-profit fair that is actually targeted to those agencies that serve our kids. Most of what they do is directly related to students.6. Which of these duties do you consider "non-counselor" duties? What percentage of an average school day is dedicated to performing "non-counselor" duties?Garren I dont spend a lot of time on non-counselor duties because I have advocated for myself and my position. I swapped out non-counselor duties (bartered) like morning and afternoon coverage and do the morning and afternoon labs instead, which I feel are counselee.Blakely Almost all. It depends on the day. I have to take stuff home a lot. At least 50% of every day.Hurd The AP program should probably be handled by someone else. I think its actually a pretty low percentage of time 1-2%.Auten They dont really have a lot of non-counselor duties. I wish their AM/PM duties were just in the afternoon so they could be available for the kids when they get to school. Also, they dont use their administrative assistant as they should she could take over a lot of the administrative work they do.7. Discuss your philosophy of program management, in regard to your school counseling program.Garren It takes a lot of work to balance a good program. Its a dance figuring out what your school needs I use data and constantly tweak services to meet those needs.Blakely Ideally, there would be an emphasis on services and programming. It would be skill based (like coping skills). Individual/small group counseling and classroom guidance. Crisis management would be a priority, but I would hope to avoid it through preventative measures. We need another school counselor (610 students).Hurd There is no committee structure. The other counselor and I know how the year flows. We work on it together.Auten Two of our counselors are fairly new, so they come to me a lot for advice. When I say fairly new, I mean they have been here for several years. I feel like Im still doing a lot of program management for them. I wish they would be more self-starting, take on some leadership.8. What are some of the challenges, or issues, that you deal with as you try to manage your program? Which issues are school-level issues and which ones are district-level issues?Garren Its tough to balance working with kids and academic time. I have to work with the teachers to find that balance. I have to keep positive relationships with the staff for the benefit of the kids. At the district level, the biggest challenges are funding for resources and having someone in charge of counseling who doesnt understand school counseling or what we are supposed to do.Blakely The biggest challenge is that I am required to do so many non-counselor duties. I am trying to diplomatically educate and advocate for the priorities and positive effects of the counseling program. A big problem is that the head of counseling has no history or background in counseling. We dont have an advocate. The head of counseling told the principal the counselor should be handling all of these duties.Hurd At the district level, the lack of counseling experience is a big problem. She literally has no idea! At the school level, the school has gotten too large (739). We need another counselor.Auten At the school level its their program management skills. At the district level its that the head of the program doesnt know anything about the program.9. Discuss how you implement the NC Standards within your school counseling program.Garren I match them to what I do with the kids classroom guidance, individual and group counseling, etc.Blakely They are guidelines that I aspire to, but my hands are completely tied. The 80/20 idea is completely reversed. I have 3 evaluations throughout the year, and the principal is completely understanding about the realities of the situation. I have been very honest with the principal about the challenges.Hurd I implement the standard through individual delivery. We do very few group activities. We just do what needs to be done.Auten I do the evaluations. All of them are conscientious about following the standards. Realistically, you cant focus as much time on some standards as on others. You have to rate their importance and adjust accordingly. You have to find a happy medium between following the standards and doing your job.10. Please describe your perception of the relationship between you (the school counselor) and your administrators.Garren We have a collaborative relationship for the benefit of the kids. We share ideas that will help everyone. We work on scheduling for better delivery of services.Blakely At this school, they are very understanding and supportive, but with some of the bigger changes that need to be made, their hands are tied. Hurd On paper, we all do fine, but we know where not to go with the principal. He likes us, be we know we can get on his nerves. We have to use a lot of diplomacy. Auten My relationship with the counselors is fantastic! We talk every day, work hand in hand, if there is an issue I expect them to say something. The principal doesnt really communicate with them unless he needs something immediately. The counselors get frustrated with his lack of communication.11. Please describe how you believe the relationship between the school counselor and the administration should be? Are there changes that need to occur on the administrative level to improve your ability to manage your program?Garren The relationship should be collaborative. Principals should have training so they understand the job of the school counselor.Blakely It should be collaborative. I have felt less supported at other schools. I have had major ethical issues before to the point that I couldnt work there anymore. Administration needs to be really educated about what counselors are supposed to do.Hurd You have to work hard to make them aware of the things you have to do. Administration is not always on top of offerings and opportunities. Its a journey.Auten There needs to be communication and respect.12. Management is one of the four major components of the ASCA National Model. Planning, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement are major parts of management for comprehensive school counseling programs. Can you tell me how you are able to include management (including planning, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement)?Garren I do a pre-counseling and post-counseling assessment. I do a comprehensive school survey for students and staff (needs assessment).Blakely More needs assessments, communication, share an outline of the program with staff/team through regular meetings, goals for program shared with administration, pre-test/post-test feedback.Hurd We get together at the start of the year. We know the time frame, and plan together for the year.Auten Without management, the program will flop. Theres stuff you have to do to make the program work. You have to see the big picture. Planning involves scheduling, registration, classroom guidance. We dont spend a ton of time on this unless something needs to change.13. What are the challenges you face with regards to management?Garren TIME (for everything)Blakely Time for regular meetings, time in generalHurd Mainly, not getting bogged down by the day to day. Checking to make sure youre doing all that youre supposed to do.Auten None, really.14. Can you tell me which human service organizations your school has a relationship with and what role the organizations play in the school counseling program?Garren We work with a variety of organizations to help the kids DSS, Family Preservation, Mental Health organizations, area churches, Fletcher Area Business Associates (FABA)Blakely Mediation Center, Access Family Services and Family Preservation (mental health), Mobile Crisis, Manna Food Bank, Salvation Army, HELP, Healing Place, HospiceHurd HELP (homeless), Kiwanis/Kiwanettes (Backpacks), school nurse/health department, DSS (not a good relationship), school resource officer (suicide prevention), Storehouse (getting food for kids), Michael Johnson (behavioral health)Auten One of our counselors came from Mainstay (domestic violence shelter), so she has lots of contacts. We work with churches, community agencies, Family Preservation, Adolescent Parenting Program (APP), Children and Family Resource Center (CFRC), Pisgah Legal, Storehouse, Mainstay, IAM, Blue Ridge Health Center15. How did you make the connections to the human service organizations to create the relationships?Garren I have spoken at churches and businesses. I network. Some connections have been made through outreach and some through need.Blakely I made sure I had a good resource list when I started. I introduced myself to some, others I have called as needed.Hurd Michael reached out. Luckily, several are available through the schools. We reached out to the others.Auten A variety of ways/networking. When we call, the agencies are right on it. The district supervisor organized a non-profit fair, but it wasnt really targeted to groups that help our students.16. What do you feel is the importance of having relationships with the human service organizations for the success of your program and the success of your students?Garren Working together for the good of students.Blakely This is extremely important! This was drilled in to me during training recognize your limits and make referrals. You need relationships for an effective program.Hurd They provide valuable information/support that we cant always provide. Having law enforcement on campus is great cut and dry. They bring their expertise and their time!Auten These resources are very important they help our students both in and out of school.17. The ASCA National Model Competencies tell us that a school counselor (III-B-4a.) Creates a system support planning document addressing school counselors responsibilities for professional development, consultation and collaboration and program management (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 5). Can you tell me how this works within your program?Garren ASCA yearly plan surveys and data from year before, pull ideas together and create plan for year.Blakely It doesnt happen. I use the evaluation tool as an outline/guideline for an ideal program. PDP updated annually turned in at beginning of year, then checked mid-year, and an end of year evaluation.Hurd No document, but we do it.Auten We host monthly professional development meetings try to bring someone in. Collaboration counselors have done a great job collaborating so everyone will be on the same page. They started Monday morning meetings at 8:30 each Monday to make everyone in the counseling office aware of what was going on. Since then, program management has gotten distinctly better.18. ASCA Model I-A-6. States collaborations with stakeholders such as parents and guardians, teachers, administrators and community leaders to create learning environments that promote educational equity and success for every student (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 2). Can you elaborate on how you would build and use these relationships within your program assessment and implementation of changes?Garren Parent surveys, teacher surveys (Google docs, Survey Monkey), Needs Assessment (drives program with data)Blakely I establish a positive relationship with the stakeholders. I do a needs assessment, I follow up on the success of the program. I keep an open mind for suggestions/concerns/questions.Hurd We see parents and teachers all day. We share needed information. If kids need help, they ask. We help file FAFSAs. People are just comfortable coming in to see us. We are driven by talking to kids and knowing their goals. Parents are comfortable too.Auten We have info nights for parents/guardians (bullying and internet safety, for example). Parent involvement is tough dont have good turnout. We do have good turnout for financial aid/college nights, though. Counselors advocate with all stakeholders to make sure kids are getting what they need. 19. I-B-1e. Describes the benefits of a comprehensive school counseling program for all stakeholders, including students, parents, teachers, administrators, school boards, department of education, school counselors, counselor educators, community stakeholders and business leaders (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 2). Can you tell me how you as a school counselor or administrator communicate your program to the various groups listed above?Garren Talks in the community, present plan for year to administrators, teachers (ask for feedback and communicate plans), send home parent signups for groups, teacher referrals for groups, presentations to school boardBlakely I outline the program in teacher team meetings, staff meetings, and with the PTO.Hurd We usually send letters to parents explaining about the alphabetical split and our contact information. Teachers know because we talk to them. The principal is a micromanager. He knows what everyone is doing. Auten We put our regular school messenger/phone alerts. Teacher websites are updated often. We use the marquis outside to share information about upcoming events. We invite community members in for senior projects, plays, sporting events to promote our students to the community.20. The ASCA National Model gives us four areas to work within as we implement a comprehensive guidance program; the foundation, delivering the program, managing the program and holding the program accountable. Do you use this method within your current program? Did you develop it for your school, or was it already set up when you arrived?Garren Yes use the method. No, it wasnt here when I arrived, but Ive been here a long time. Things have completely changed. It takes so much time, time that we dont have, to collect data and document. There are too many kids (489) for me to do it easily.Blakely I try to reinforce guidelines to the administration to prioritize student needs. I got nothing when I came here. The previous counselor was changing careers. I am working toward using this more next year. I aspire to it! Hurd Its not formally laid out, but all parts are addressed. No oversight, per se. Annabelle came in 2002 and Dan in 2004. They changed to structure to ALPHA from grade level. We changed the number of visits per student (mandatory) from 1 to 2. We tweak it as we go along to better support the students.Auten The National Model holds the program accountable. Without one component the others dont work. Counselors know the expectations. They are really only checked during the evaluations.21. Gysbers and Henderson give us a ten year plan that has year one working with assessing the current program and deciding what you would like to change. Have you done this type of assessment and how did you decide what changes you would like to make?Garren No, I have never done that. Its always a work in progress because expectations change. The new evaluation tool has really affected things. I have done surveys, but I have never used a formal tool.Blakely Not formally, but in process. I would like to do an official assessment. I have done a lot of looking at the guidelines, highlighting, and meeting with the principal. I always err on the side of safety for the students first, then helping them be successful in school. I have already cut out some things the former counselor did.Hurd We have never done a formal program assessment. Our program is somewhat random, but its effective. We desperately need another counselor.Auten Yes, but unfortunately although we would all like to see our counselors doing more counseling. With mental health issues on the rise in the schools there is so much more that needs to be done that actual counseling does not get as much attention as needed.Appendix EInterview transcript Sarah Emily Curtis1. What is the program model currently in use in your school counseling program? To your knowledge, is this program in place throughout the school district?B - No specific model is in place. The program is based around the preferences of the administrator.L - "My program is based on the idea of the ASCA model, but not strictly aligned."D - No specific model to my knowledge.2. In what ways does the K-12 counseling program collaborate? (If prompting is needed, transitions are one area in which collaboration occurs)B & L - County-wide meetings to improve vertical alignment. These meetings have been helpful and encouraging at the district level.D - The school counselor is a liaison for teachers and administrators. The school counselor is a stopping point, or mid-point, before disciplinary action from administration. 3. In what program enhancement models or activities is your school counseling program currently engaged? (School or district-wide Peer Helping, for example)B- PBIS at Boonville ElementaryL - PBIS at West Yadkin ElementaryD - The "Lunch Bunch" small groups are good for our students.4. In a school setting, a crisis might be anything from the death of a student or teacher, a natural disaster, such as a fire or tornado, to a threat to students and staff, such as those involving weapons or the taking of hostages. What crisis management plans or models does your school or the school districts have in place to address these potential issues? Is there a crisis management team?B & L - The County published and provided an updated Crisis Management Flipchart that is available to all faculty members. School counselors are part of school-level crisis management teams. Bradley is split position, so he is not a lead member of the crisis management teams.D - SMS has a crisis team that consists of the AP (Dawn), the SRO (Officer JJ Robinson), the school nurse (Lynda Carter), the school counselor (Emily Curtis), any faculty members holding a current CDL (bus license), and select classroom teachers. This information is kept in an orange binder at the front desk in the lobby. The crisis plan is part of the ongoing "school improvement plan" that is reviewed three times a year, every year. The flipchart that outlines the district's plan for crises is part of our crisis management plan.5. Please describe some of your duties and responsibilities, outside of classroom lessons, small group counseling, and individual counseling.L - Asked for am car duty - "Morning car line allows me to check in with students and parents at the beginning of the day. If any students are having a hard morning or have started the day off badly, I can catch this early and be proactive in these issues. This also helps me connect with parents". Lisa is also part of the PBIS and SWAT (School-wide Assessment Team) committeesB- am car duty at Jonesville ElementaryD - School counselors are expected to participate in fair share duties which may include, but are not limited to, car duty, bus duty, hall duty, lunch duty, etc.6. Which of these duties do you consider "non-counselor" duties? What percentage of an average school day is dedicated to performing "non-counselor" duties?B & L - fair share duties, such as car line are not counselor-specific duties but can maximize counselor connections with students and parentsD - Fair share duties7. Discuss your philosophy of program management, in regard to your school counseling program.B & L - organization is keyL - use of calendars to organize daily, weekly, and monthly schedule and communicate with faculty members, any time that is not scheduled for classes is time for individual and group counseling, interventions, etc.B - at Jonesville, due to limited time there and tight schedule - "more reactionary than proactive"D - "The role of the school counselor is to be approachable by students and faculty. The school counselor should function as a mediator at school, in the community, and for parents/guardians. School counselors should implement consistent routines for counseling, including groups."8. What are some of the challenges, or issues, that you deal with as you try to manage your program? Which issues are school-level issues and which ones are district-level issues?B & L - both agreed that more hours in the day and more counselors on staff would make a great deal of positive difference -- improved district-level support and encouragement, therefore issues and concerns are more appropriately addressed (new district-level director - she's highly motivated and organized)B - his split position makes it difficult to meet the needs of all students, he feels that he is always "bouncing between schools" and he feels "disconnected from the school community in each school"L - feels supported at the school and district level, but needs more time or more counseling personnelD - Time, resources (community support and items/stuff needed to carry out lessons and responsibilities). The split-position is difficult in that the counselor is not 100% available to the staff and students of SMS.9. Discuss how you implement the NC Standards within your school counseling program.B & L - both recognize and use the NC standards, however they are broad and loosely applied, they are included as part of the old NC evaluation system and processD - The standards are directly linked to the evaluation process10. Please describe your perception of the relationship between you (the school counselor) and your administrators.B & L - both feel that they are part of a team, they feel supported and connected to the administrators in their schools, collaboration is good and they feel in the loop, both say "I am allowed to manage my program. I feel trusted to make decisions for the program and carry them out."D - The school counselor is in a position to diffuse situations before they become a matter of discipline. The school counselor can also be a buffer with administration to prevent the need for disciplinary action. The administration and the school counselor should have an open line of communication where everyone shares thoughts, observations, and concerns.11. Please describe how you believe the relationship between the school counselor and the administration should be? Are there changes that need to occur on the administrative level to improve your ability to manage your program? B & L - addressed in question 10D- Having a full-time school counselor at SMS12. Management is one of the four major components of the ASCA National Model. Planning, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement are major parts of management for comprehensive school counseling programs. Can you tell me how you are able to include management (including planning, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement)? B & L - calendars are the main source of management, adjustments can be made as necessaryD- There is currently no specific system of management, partly due to the split position and party due to lack of long-term experience of the school counselor.13. What are the challenges you face with regards to management? B & L - both counselors say the key to improving management would be more time and/or personnel to carry out all aspects of a school counseling programD - Issues include - time, need for more community outreach and knowledge, more personnel (counselor needs to be more visible to all stakeholders)14. Can you tell me which human service organizations your school has a relationship with and what role the organizations play in the school counseling program? B & L - both access county human services organizations such as DSS and the Domestic Violence office, law enforcementD - Our school has partnerships with DSS, Juvenile Justice, the Sheriff's dept (including school resource officer and anti-bullying programs), Compassion Care (for human growth and development), mobile crisis through Partners Behavioral Health, local private counseling agencies, local churches provide school supplies. There is a desire to have more community involvement.15. How did you make the connections to the human service organizations to create the relationships? B & L - both are inherently involved in educationD - through phone calls (both ways), as needs arise, personal contacts16. What do you feel is the importance of having relationships with the human service organizations for the success of your program and the success of your students?B & L -"help meet extended needs of students outside of what is manageable and appropriate through the school counseling program"D - "outside agencies are necessary because it is impossible to meet all every need in the educational environment"17. The ASCA National Model Competencies tell us that a school counselor (III-B-4a.) Creates a system support planning document addressing school counselors responsibilities for professional development, consultation and collaboration and program management (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 5). Can you tell me how this works within your program? B & L - work in collaboration with bilingual services, county offerings such as "in the know" sessions, and NCSCA offeringsD - The job description provided by NCDPI, county and state mandated PDPs and evaluations, county level professional development offerings and county level goals, 504/SWAT (interventions) to add to the academic domains18. ASCA Model I-A-6. States collaborations with stakeholders such as parents and guardians, teachers, administrators and community leaders to create learning environments that promote educational equity and success for every student (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 2). Can you elaborate on how you would build and use these relationships within your program assessment and implementation of changes? L - PTO meetings, websites, teacher sites, newsletter column, just be visibleB - website and general visibilityD - the kids having knowledge of counseling services helps them be more open and allows for counseling proactivity before discipline19. I-B-1e. Describes the benefits of a comprehensive school counseling program for all stakeholders, including students, parents, teachers, administrators, school boards, department of education, school counselors, counselor educators, community stakeholders and business leaders (American School Counselor Association, 2012, p. 2). Can you tell me how you as a school counselor or administrator communicate your program to the various groups listed above? Same as responses to 18D- an area of improvement for our program would be more visibility and outreach to members of our school community (ex. website, brochure, etc)20. The ASCA National Model gives us four areas to work within as we implement a comprehensive guidance program; the foundation, delivering the program, managing the program and holding the program accountable. Do you use this method within your current program? Did you develop it for your school, or was it already set up when you arrived? B & L - Administrators share their expectations, counselors meet those; delivery is inherent in the program through individual and group counseling sessions; management is focused around the calendar system; accountability is addressed through the new NC Evaluation InstrumentD - "The ASCA model is not currently in place at SMS. Implementation is expected to begin soon."21. Gysbers and Henderson give us a ten year plan that has year one working with assessing the current program and deciding what you would like to change. Have you done this type of assessment and how did you decide what changes you would like to make? B - annual goals and themes, often linked to any goals and themes of the school, adjustments can and should be madeL - annual goals and themes, often linked to the school, including 7 Habits of Happy Kids and 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens, with activities, themes, and goals devised through this contentD - goals for the future counseling program would be to implement a more cohesive referral process, peer mediation, more anti-bullying programs, continue and grow the group counseling program, be more accessible to students and faculty (full-time position at only 1 school would assist in that)Bradley Shore - B.S. in Psychology, M.A. in Community Counseling with School Counseling add-on, all from ASU- 19 years experience. Works at Boonville Elementary and Jonesville Elementary with both schools totally around 650 students.Lisa Wagoner - credentials in paper from first spring semester. Works at West Yadkin Elementary with a total of approx. 600 students.Dawn Huggins - AP at Starmount Middle (350 students) - B.S. in Elementary Ed, M.A. in Middle Grades English Language Arts, M.A. in School Administration, Certificate in Curriculum Assistance - 21 years experience.