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  • REPORT NUMBER: WI/SPR-03-05

    COST EFFECTIVE CONCRETE PAVEMENT CROSS SECTIONS

    FINAL REPORT

    JUNE 2006

  • Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report Number WI/SPR-03-05

    2. Government Accession No.

    3. Recipient's Catalog No.

    5. Report Date June 2006

    4. Title and Subtitle Cost Effective Concrete Pavement Cross Sections Final Report

    6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) James A. Crovetti

    8. Performing Organization Report No. 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

    9. Performing Organization Name and Address Marquette University Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering P.O. Box 1881 Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881

    11. Contract or Grant No. WisDOT SPR # 0092-45-79, 0092-45-80 and 0687-45-79 13. Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report; 1995 - 2005

    12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Transportation System Development Bureau of Technical Services Pavements Section Madison, WI 53704

    14. Sponsoring Agency Code WisDOT Research Study #95-03

    15. Supplementary Notes 16. Abstract This report presents the findings of a study of alternate pavement designs targeted at reducing the initial construction costs of concrete pavements without compromising pavement performance. Test sections were constructed with alternate dowel materials, reduced dowel placements, variable thickness concrete slabs and alternate surface and subsurface drainage details. Performance data was collected out to 5 and 7 years after construction. The study results indicate that FRP composite dowels may not be a practical alternative to conventional epoxy coated steel dowels due to their reduced rigidity, which results in lower deflection load transfer capacities at transverse joints. Ride quality measures also indicate higher IRI values on sections constructed with FRP composite dowels. Study results for sections constructed with reduced placements of solid stainless steel dowels also indicate reduced load transfer capacity and increased IRI values as compared to similarly designed sections incorporating epoxy coated dowels. Reduced doweling in the driving lane wheel paths also is shown to be detrimental to performance for most constructed test sections. The performance of sections with reduced doweling in the passing lane wheel paths indicates that this alternate may be justifiable to maintain performance trends similar to those exhibited by the driving lane with standard dowel placements. Performance data from sections constructed with variable slab geometry and drainage designs indicate that one-way surface and base drainage designs are performing as well or better than standard crowned pavements with two-way base drainage. The drainage capacity of the base layer, constructed with open graded number 1 stone, appears sufficient to handle all infiltrated water. 17. Key Words FRP composite dowels, stainless steel dowels, alternate dowel locations, alternate dowel spacing, variable slab thickness

    18. Distribution Statement

    Distribution unlimited, authorized for public release

    19. Security Classif.

    (of this report) Unclassified

    20. Security Classif. (of

    this page) Unclassified

    21. No. of Pages 99

    22. Price

  • COST EFFECTIVE CONCRETE PAVEMENT CROSS SECTIONS

    FINAL REPORT WI/SPR-03-05 WisDOT Highway Research Study # 95-03 by

    James A. Crovetti, Ph.D.

    Marquette University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881 June 2006 for WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DIVISION OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT BUREAU OF TECHNICAL SERVICES PAVEMENTS SECTION 3502 KINSMAN BOULEVARD, MADISON, WI 53704 The Pavements Section of the Division of Transportation System Development, Bureau of Technical Services, conducts and manages the pavement research program of the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. The Federal Highway Administration provides financial and technical assistance for these activities, including review and approval of publications. This publication does not endorse or approve any commercial product even though trade names may be cited, does not necessarily reflect official views or polices of the agency, and does not constitute a standard, specification or regulation.

    i

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The author gratefully acknowledges the support of Ms. Debra Bischoff of the

    Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) during the conduct of this study. The

    following manufacturers are also acknowledged for providing dowel bars to WisDOT for

    participation in this research effort: MMFG, Glasforms, Creative Pultrusions, RJD, Slater

    Steels, Avesta Sheffield, and Damascus-Bishop Tube Company. The Composites Institute

    and the Specialty Steel Industry of North America (SSNIA) are also gratefully

    acknowledged for providing assistance with project coordination.

    ii

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................1

    1.1 Project Background .........................................................................................1 1.2 Test Section Descriptions................................................................................5

    2.0 Laboratory Tests ........................................................................................................9

    2.1 Introduction......................................................................................................9 2.2 Load-Deflection Tests .....................................................................................9 2.3 Pull-Out Tests Non-Oiled Dowels...............................................................16 2.4 Pull-Out Tests Oiled Dowels.......................................................................19

    3.0 Test Section Construction ........................................................................................28

    3.1 Introduction....................................................................................................28 3.2 WIS 29 Abbotsford ........................................................................................28 3.3 WIS 29 Wittenberg ........................................................................................31 3.4 WIS 29 Tilleda ...............................................................................................34

    4.0 Performance Monitoring...........................................................................................37

    4.1 Introduction....................................................................................................37 4.2 Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) Analysis...............................................37

    4.2.1 Pre-Paving Deflection Testing .......................................................37 4.2.2 Post-Paving Backcalculation of Pavement Parameters .................39 4.2.3 Post-Paving Transverse Joint Analysis..........................................41 4.2.4 Pre-Paving Deflection Testing WIS 29 Abbotsford .....................43 4.2.5 Post-Paving Deflection Testing WIS 29 Abbotsford....................47 4.2.6 Post-Paving Deflection Testing WIS 29 Wittenberg....................57 4.2.7 Post-Paving Deflection Testing WIS 29 Tilleda...........................62

    4.3 Ride Quality Measures ..................................................................................68 4.3.1 WIS 29 Abbotsford.........................................................................68 4.3.2 WIS 29 Wittenberg.........................................................................73 4.3.3 WIS 29 Tilleda ...............................................................................77

    4.4 Distress Measures.........................................................................................80 4.4.1 WIS 29 Abbotsford.........................................................................80 4.4.2 WIS 29 Wittenberg.........................................................................84 4.4.3 WIS 29 Tilleda ...............................................................................86

    iii

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.) 5.0 Construction Cost Considerations............................................................................88

    5.1 WIS 29 Abbotsford ........................................................................................88 5.2 WIS 29 Wittenberg ........................................................................................89 5.3 WIS 29 Tilleda ..............................................................................................89 5.4 Initial Construction Costs..............................................................................90

    5.4.1 Alternate Dowel Placements..........................................................92 5.4.2 Trapezoidal Cross Sections...........................................................92 5.4.3 Alternative Drainage Designs ........................................................92 5.4.4 Alternative Dowel Materials ...........................................................93

    6.0 Summary and Recommendations ............................................................................94

    6.1 Summary of Study Findings ..........................................................................94 6.2 Recommendations for Further Study.......................................