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DESCRIPTIONCoral Reefs!. Coral Reefs!. Coral in General . Phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa There are over 800 known Hermatipic species Hermatipic- reef building Coral reefs are the most biologically diverse ecosystems on earth, Source of food Protect coastlines (from storms and erosion) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Coral Reefs!Phylum Cnidaria and the class AnthozoaThere are over 800 known Hermatipic speciesHermatipic- reef buildingCoral reefs are the most biologically diverse ecosystems on earth, Source of food Protect coastlines (from storms and erosion)Gives homes and spawning and nursery grounds for fishProvide jobs to local economies from fishing, recreation, and tourismNew medicines
Coral in General
Also known as ahermatypic (non reef building) coral, they do not produce a calcium carbonate skeleton Often called octocoralsMostly colonialContains sclerites in cells on the outside of the colony found in coenenchyme, (jelly-like tissue) between polyps. Sclerites made of protein and calcium carbonate.Some are also encrustingSoft coral!!
Hermatipic- Reef building coralContains a basal plateNet benefit of the world's coral reef ecosystems estimated to be $29.8 billion per yearHave zooxanthellaeDeep water and some cold water corals lack zooxanthellaeMost corals feed at nightSimilar to sea anemones. Polyps extend their tentacles to capture prey, first stinging them with toxic nematocyst cells, then drawing them toward their mouths. Also collect fine particles in mucous film which are drawn by cilia into the polyp's mouth. Some species are entirely mucous suspension feedersPrey ranges in size from small fish to zooplankton, depending on size of the coral
More coral, yippee
Deep sea corals live on in deeper water from 50 m to over 3,000 mA few species also live in shallower, cold water in the northern latitudes.Found in all oceansLike their shallow-dwelling relatives, deep-sea corals exhibit high biodiversity.Dont contain zooxanthellae (no light) Dont know the extent of communities because they live so deep http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUbaVZRIS18
Deep Water Coral
an algae that gives off oxygen and other nutrientspolyp gives the algae carbon dioxide That is why coral reefs grow near the surfaceAlgae enhance the corals ability to synthesize calcium carbonateCoral BleachingWhen algae leave, due to warmer than usual water or a change in pHhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aEdoizgeNJkhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60jof35WuAo
Feed similar to sea anemones. Polyps extend their tentacles to capture prey, stinging them with nematocyst cells, then drawing them toward their mouths.
Also collect fine particles in mucous film which are drawn by cilia into the polyp's mouth. Some species are entirely mucous suspension feeders
Prey ranges in size from small fish to zooplankton, depending on size of the coral
Can be either asexual or sexualBudding- asexualnew polyps bud off from parent. This occurs when the parent polyp reaches a certain size and divides. Continues throughout the animal's life and produces polyps identical to the parent polyp.Fragmentation- asexual Allows a portion of an entire colony to establish a new colony. The separated individuals start new coral colonies that are genetically identical to the parent colonyReproduction, whoo babiesBroadcast Spawning3/4ths of all stony coral species are broadcast spawners
Produce male and/or female gametes that are released into the water in large numbers Allows them to spread their children over a broad area.
Have lots of kids at one time to compensate for how many die a terrible depressing death, while their parents watch, and cant do anything about it.
occurs as a synchronized event, very important because male and female corals cannot move.
Usually occurs in response to environmental cues. Long-term cues may be related to temperature, day length, or rate of temperature change. The short-term control is usually based on lunar cueshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1aX61LzmeYAhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsaZ8-I7akg
Remaining 1/3 of coral species are broodersOnly male gametes released into water.
The gametes are negatively buoyant and transported by waves and current before sinking
They are taken in by female coral polyps containing egg cells fertilization occurs inside the female coral and produces a small planula.
The planula is released through mouth of female when it is old enough to settle very soon after its release.
Yet more chilrin
Overtoppingused mostly by fast growing speciesThe faster growing coral just grows over the other coralThe covered coral gets less light and food.Aggression involves extruded digestive filaments and sweeper tentacles. Typically results in the death of some of the others polyps. http://animal.discovery.com/video-topics/wild-animals/coral-nighttime-battle.htm
Two ways for coral to get space
Cells are specialized to perform various functionsVery limited organ development
Have a simple stomach (gastrovascular cavity) opens only on one end, and a ring oftentacles. No central nervous system.
While appearing to be a single organism, many coral are actually acolonyof many individual, identical, coral polyps.
Are only a few millimeters in diameter
Coral polyps themselves
The polyps of hard corals sit in a calyx that is produced by the coral with calcium carbonateThe walls surrounding the calyx are called the theca and the bottom is the basal plate.Basal plate is a calciferous ring with six supporting ridges. The ridges grow vertically and project into the base of the polyp. Tabulae are horizontal partitions that allow for upward growth by isolating the surface from the skeleton.