coral reef restoration research project

Download Coral Reef Restoration Research Project

Post on 18-Jan-2017

10 views

Category:

Environment

3 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • OPTIMAL SITES FOR CORAL TRANSPLANTATION

    By Melissa Olson and Julia-Ann Reyes

    FINAL REPORT

    McGill University, Bellairs Research Institute Barbados Field Study Semester Folkestone, St. James, Barbados

    David G. Elkhorn Coral. [digital image]. Retrieved December, 2016, from http://oceandoctor.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/IMG_1032.jpg

  • The Coastal Zone Management Unit (CZMU) is currently operating a coral cultivation facility at the Bellairs Research Institute under a loan agreement with the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). This project will soon be taken over by the Coral Reef Restoration Alliance (CORALL)

    BACKGROUND

    Carlee M. (2014). Folkestone Marine Park. [digital image]. Retrieved December, 2016, from http://www.carleemcdot.com/2014/04/huntes-gardens-barbados.html

  • BELLAIRS CORAL RESEARCH LAB

    Coral was fragmented off the reef and placed in the lab

    Three different species of coral

    are growing currently The corals are monitored daily

    The goal is to transplant the corals this December

    What is happening in the Bellairs Coral Research Lab?

    Barbados Today (2016). Reviving Barbados Coral Reefs. [digital image]. Retrieved December, 2016, from https://www.barbadostoday.bb/2016/08/05/reviving-barbados-coral-reefs/

    Amy Cox. Bellairs Research Institute Coral Lab. [digital image]. Retrieved December, 2016, from https://www.facebook.com/CORALLBarbados/photos

  • QUESTION: Where is the best place for corals to be transplanted? What parameters do we test for? How does the in situ environment compare to the in vitro

    environment?

    The Nature Conservancy. Elkhorn Coral. [digital image]. Retrieved December, 2016, from https://global.nature.org/content/natures-premium-the-insurance-industry-and-climate-risk

  • WHAT PRESSURES ARE AFFECTING MODERN CORAL REEFS? Ocean Acidification (OA) due to high concentrations of Carbon Dioxide Eutrophication due to high nutrient run off (Phosphorous and Nitrogen) Over fishing Destructive fishing practices Sunscreens Dredging for ports and harbors Onshore development

    MercoPress. South Atlantic News Agency. Sargassum bloom are ruining Caribbean beaches and tourism season. [digital image]. Retrieved December, 2016, from http://en.mercopress.com/2015/08/12/sargassum-bloom-are-ruining-caribbean-beaches-and-tourism-season

  • OCEAN ACIDIFICATION The process of OA explained

    2

    Melissa O. (2016) Process of Ocean Acidification. [drawing]

    pH Acidity

    pH Acidity

  • Changes in pH are difficult to measure. Instead, we can look at how the corals are growing Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC) rate

    How do we measure NEC rates? Measure the Total Alkalinity (TA)

    Total Alkalinity = the basicity of sea water

    HOW DO WE MEASURE OA?

    Ethan D. (2015). A field of staghorn corals (Acropora sp.). [digital image] Retrieved December, 2016, from https://www.carbonbrief.org/new-satellite-reveals-places-on-earth-most-at-risk-from-ocean-acidification

  • EUTROPHICATION Nutrient lab tests and their explanations

    TEST SOURCE OF CHEMICAL EFFECT ON CORAL

    Phosphorous Sewage Agricultural runoff Fertilizers Detergents, cleaning fluids Grey water

    Can reduce skeletal density Bleaching

    Nitrogen Terrestrial runoff Mixing, advection and diffusion from

    deep ocean water Atmosphere Black water (waste water from toilets)

    Bleaching

    Silica Siliceous rocks Atmospheric deposition of particles Preserved ocean sediments

    Controls phytoplankton communities

  • STUDY SITES

  • FIELDWORK Site evaluations

    Mullins Inside Reserve Outside Reserve

    Coral Species Acropora Palmata

    Land/Area Use Tourist destination Beachfront

    development Mainly small villas

    Marine Life Few fish species

    Coral Species Brain, Porites, Fan

    (More diverse)

    Land/Area Use Bellairs Research

    Institute Folkestone public

    park

    Marine Life Many species of fish

    Coral Species Similar to inside

    reserve (but less) More algae growth

    Land/Area Use Colony Club, Coral

    Reef Club Tourist activity Sewage/runoff stream

    Marine Life Fewer fish than inside

    reserve

  • FIELDWORK Methodology for sample collection

    YSI probe

    readings

    Water sample

    collection

    prepare samples

    for testing

    Kayak (Bellairs) or Floaty (Mullins) Drop probe ~1m down Record values for temp, salinity, D.O.

    Collect while snorkeling Rinse sample bottle x3 Fill sample bottle at half depth

    Separate sample: Nutrient, TA/DIC Nutrient: rinse, add HNO3, pH test TA/DIC: rinse, filter, add HgCl2

    Melissa O. (2016). Fieldwork: Sample Collection. [digital image]

  • LAB WORK Test performed in the lab on our water samples

    Phosphate Nitrate-Nitrogen Silica

    Total Alkalinity

    Nutrient Tests:

    TA Tests:

    Melissa O. (2016). Lab work: Tests. [digital image]

  • 0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    (ppb

    )

    Nitrogen (ppb)

    RESULTS

    = Inside Reserve = Outside Reserve = Mullins

    Average amount of nutrients found at each site between September 30th and October 26th

    Error bars represent standard deviation No significant differences among three sites

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    500

    (ppb

    )

    Silica (ppb)

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    (ppb

    )

    Phosphorous (ppb)

  • RESULTS

    = Inside Reserve = Outside Reserve = Mullins

    Nutrient levels at each site over time

    Nutrient levels vary greatly over time which explains large errors Nutrient levels vary among sites as well

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    Phosph

    orou

    s (pp

    b)

    Date

    Phosphorous Values in All Sites vs. Time

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    Nitrog

    en (p

    pb)

    Date

    Nitrogen Values in All Sites vs. Time

  • 0 25 50 75

    100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450

    Nitrog

    en (p

    pb)

    Date

    Nitrogen Values in All Sites vs. Time

    DISCUSSION

    = Inside Reserve = Outside Reserve = Mullins =Standard

    9.80 0 25

    50

    75

    100

    125

    150

    175

    200

    225

    250

    275

    300

    325

    350

    Phosph

    orou

    s (pp

    b)

    Date

    Phosphorous Values in All Sites vs. Time

    2.48

    How does our nutrient data compare to optimal levels?

  • DISCUSSION

    = Rainfall = Phosphorous = Nitrogen

    Why do we see such variability among nutrient data?

    0

    0.05

    0.1

    0.15

    0.2

    0.25

    Rainfall (m

    m)

    Inside Reserve: Rainfall vs. Time

    0

    0.05

    0.1

    0.15

    0.2

    0.25

    Rainfall (m

    m)

    Outside Reserve : Rainfall vs. Time

    0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

    1.2 1.4

    Rainfall (m

    m)

    Mullins Bay: Rainfall vs. Time

    0 50

    100 150 200 250 300 350

    Nutrie

    nt Value

    (ppb

    )

    Inside Reserve: Nutrient Levels vs. Time

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    Nutrie

    nt Value

    (ppb

    )

    Outside Reserve: Nutrient Levels vs. Time

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    Nutrie

    nt Value

    (ppb

    )

    Mullins: Nutrient Levels vs. Time

  • RESULTS nTA at all sites

    TA is normalized to a reference salinity value so we can compare across all sites as nTA Error bars represent standard deviation No significant differences among three sites

    = Inside Reserve = Outside Reserve = Mullins

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    4000 nT

    A

    Average nTA for All Sites

  • DISCUSSION nTA and NEC rates among all sites

    -140

    -120

    -100

    -80

    -60

    -40

    -20

    0

    nTA

    nTA Between Offshore & Reefs for All Sites

    = Inside Reserve = Outside Reserve = Mullins

    nTA = nTA (offshore) nTA (reef) All reefs have a negative nTA meaning Net Dissolution and a negative NEC rate

  • CONCLUSIONS Nutrient Data: Differences in nutrient levels are

    negligible across sites Phosphorous and Nitrogen are above

    standard levels There is a correlation between rainfall

    and Phosphorous/Nitrogen levels Future transplantation sites need

    to consider drainage

    We cannot determine the best site based on this nutrient data

    Jennifer H. (2016). Elkhorn Coral, Na?onal Geographic. [digital image]. Retrieved December 2016, from hMps://socialmediafeed.me/ig/photo/BMgkQUsDa8r

  • CONCLUSIONS TA Data: No significant differences for nTA among

    all reefs Negative NEC rates (Net Dissolution) at

    all sites suggest that no site is optimal for transplantation

    Further research will have to be conducted in order to decide the ideal location for coral transplantation

    Carrier. Coral Reef Club. [digital image]. Retrieved Decemb

Recommended

View more >