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Download Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation

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Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India Slide 2 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. Slide 3 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. Aryan Invasion circa 1500 BCE -Small regional kingdoms -Influenced by the Persian/Alexandrian encroachment into Gandhara -Eventually Chandragupta Maurya united the land in 321 BCE with the help of Kautilya *arthashastra! -The high point of the Empire came under his grandson, Ashoka Maurya Slide 4 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 GREAT TEXTS OF POLITICAL REALISM THE BOOK OF LORD SHANG Slide 5 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 Ashoka Maurya Grandson of Chandragupta Represents high point of Mauryan Empire, r. 268-232 BCE Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for south Positive rulership integrated Indian society Promoted Buddhism (although never made it the state religion), capital Patilaputra Slide 6 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 Slide 7 7 So what are the benefits to Ashoka to supporting Buddhism? Morally? Politically? Socially? Economically? Culturally? Which one benefits the least? Slide 8 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. From Bactrian, Kushan, and eventually the Gupta Empires India never had a long substantiated CENTRALIZED system of rule Why the move to the Ganges? Iron, then most active trade, most importantly it is located in a good location for seaborne trade with china, and SE Asia Look at the land route to Taxila, where is it going? Slide 9 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 Proto-Greek Kingdom Slide 10 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 Slide 11 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Long-Distance Trade Towns encouraged the development of trade within the subcontinent Long-distance trade Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius Massive road-building projects under Persian rule Alexander extends trade west to Macedon Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Seasonal sea trade expands due to MONSOONAL WINDS! Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-west Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean Slide 12 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 ADD Monsoon map Why is this important??? Slide 13 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Society and Social Order Gender relations: Patriarchy entrenched Child marriage was common; Women encouraged to remain in private sphere Mahabharata and Ramayana commonly portrayed women as weak-willed and emotional creatures and exalted wives who devoted theirselves to their husbands. Lawbook of Manu Caste system from Aryan times Brahmins (priests); Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats); Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants); Shudras (serfs) Slide 14 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 Where in India would there be any remnants of Matriarchy? Slide 15 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Society and Social Order Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system Jatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castes, chief governing body of society!!! Enforced social order, but had some flexibility Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, Shudras Wealth challenges varna for status Slide 16 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 Religions of Salvation in Classical India Social change generated resentment of caste privilege e.g. Brahmins free from taxation 6 th -5 th BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quo What is Status Quo? Charvakas: materialistic atheism, gods were figments of our imagination Jainists and Buddhists Popular Hinduism, eventual majority religion, why? Slide 17 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life Promotes 7 th c. movement based on Upanishads (a sitting in front) Emphasis on selfless living, care for all beings Ahimsa: Principle of extreme non-violence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects Inspired modern movements (Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr.) Slide 18 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 Jainism So whats the Appeal of Jainism Rejected caste and jati; appealed to the underprivileged Concept of Ahimsa is very peaceful and welcome to many people, However, the Asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement What is Asceticism? Slide 19 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563-483 BCE Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk Intense meditation and extreme asceticism 49 days of meditation under a bo tree (Bodh Gaya) to finally achieve enlightenment Attained title Buddha: the enlightened one Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCE Slide 20 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 The Buddha and his Followers Publicly announced his doctrine nearby the Buddhist holy city Banaras (Varanasi) Followers lived ascetic lives: simple clothing, food, and wandering Establishment of monastic communities Slide 21 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 The Buddha and his Followers Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma The Four Noble Truths and the eight-fold path all life involves suffering desire is the cause of suffering elimination of desire removes suffering this may be done through the eight-fold path (right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration) A life style based on dharma leads to salvation, nirvana (why use words already known to Hindus?) Slide 22 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption middle path Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit Official support Ashokas conversion to Buddhism and material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities Slide 23 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 Changes in Buddhist thought 3 rd c. BCE 1 st c. CE: reduction in obligations Devotional focus: Buddha considered divine Institution of Bodhisattvas (Buddhist saints) Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity Mahayana (greater vehicle), newer development India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (lesser vehicle, also Theravada), earlier version Ceylon, Burma, Thailand Slide 24 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 Changes in Buddhist thought Buddhist Monastery at Nalanda Quasi-university: Vedas, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine Peak at end of Gupta dynasty and helped spread Indian thought, e.g. mathematical number zero Slide 25 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25 Slide 26 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26 Slide 27 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 Buddhist stupa at Sanchi Slide 28 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28 Slide 29 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29 Slide 30 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 30 Slide 31 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 31 Slide 32 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 32 Slide 33 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 33 Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditions Vedas and Upanishads Mahabharata and Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations (Opposite :A 13th century Cambodian bronze statue of Vishnu) Slide 34 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 34 The Bhagavad Gita Song of the Lord Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CE Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in India due to doctrinal mass appeal and, Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support Slide 35 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 35 Hindu Ethics A proper balance of dharma, artha, a