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DESCRIPTIONContemporary Baking. Basic Ingredients. Baking, unlike cooking, leaves little room for error – if a recipe is not followed precisely, the texture and taste will be affected Ingredients include: Flour Liquids Fats Sugar and Sweeteners Eggs Leavening agents Salt Flavorings. Wheat Flour. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Contemporary BakingBasic IngredientsBaking, unlike cooking, leaves little room for error if a recipe is not followed precisely, the texture and taste will be affectedIngredients include:FlourLiquidsFatsSugar and SweetenersEggsLeavening agentsSaltFlavorings
Wheat FlourWheat flour is the main ingredient in many baked goods giving them structureThe classification of flour is based on the type of wheat it come from:Hard wheatI.e., Bread flourHas a high gluten content gluten is a firm, elastic substance that affects the texture of baked goods. Without gluten, a dough would collapseSoft wheatI.e., Cake and pastry flourHas a low gluten content making it perfect for cakes and cookies
Wheat FlourBread FlourPastry FlourCake Flour High gluten-forming protein contentProteins allow bread to rise fully and develop a fine crumb and give bread a chewier, firmer textureUsed to make yeast breads, pizzas and bagels
Lower in protein than bread flour but higher than cake flourUsed in pie doughs, cookies, muffins, and quick breads
Lowest in protein contentProduces a softer and more tender product Bleached with chlorine to help produce a fine, which crumb in cakes
LiquidsThe most common liquids used in baking are water, milk and cream. Accurate measurement of liquid is important because too much or too little can affect the outcome of the baked product. For example, adding too much water in pie dough will cause excess gluten formation, which may result in a tough texture.
LiquidsWaterIt has many uses besides moistening dry ingredients. Water is necessary for gluten structure to form in flour. Water temperature is used to adjust temperatures in dough. Because water is tasteless, odorless, and colorless, it does not affect the flavor or color of baked products. It also adds no fat or calories.
LiquidsMilkIts protein, fat, and sugar content make it a valuable addition to baked products, ice creams, and custards. Milk also improves the flavor and texture of bread and other baked goods.
LiquidsOther Dairy Products used include:Buttermilk, yogurt and sour cream These products contain live bacteria that convert milk sugar into acid. The acid in buttermilk, for example, provides a whiter, more tender crumb in biscuits.
LiquidsCreamHeavy cream has a high fat content. This fat content allows it to tenderize baked goods. Cream is often whipped for toppings, chilled desserts, and fillings such as pastry cream. It is used as a liquid ingredient in custards, sauces, and ice creams.
FatsFats surround or enclose, the flour particles and prevent long strands of gluten from forming. This tenderizes the baked goods. Fats also add to the flavor, moistness, browning, flakiness, and leavening, depending on the type of fat. Solid fats are referred to as shortening. Oils are made solid by a process called hydrogenation. IIn hydrogenation, the oils are made solid by adding hydrogen to the oil. FatsVegetable ShorteningVegetable shortening has a fairly high melting point, which makes it ideal for forming flaky pie dough. OilOil is a fat that is extracted from plants such as soybeans, corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. They are liquid at room temperature and neutral in flavor and color because they are highly refined. Oil causes baked products to be more tender. Oil is used in quick breads, some pie crusts, deep-fried products like donuts, and rich cakes like chiffon.
FatsButterButter can be purchased with or without salt. Unsalted butter is used in baking because of its pleasant flavor. Because butter is soft at room temperature, however, doughs made with butter are sometimes hard to handle. MargarineMargarine is typically a hydrogenated vegetable oil that has color, flavor, and water added. While they cannot match butters superior flavor, they are less likely to spoil and are usually lower in saturated fat.
Sugar and SweetenersSugars and sweeteners add a sweet, pleasant flavor to baked products. Flavor, however is not their only contribution to, or role in, baking. The other functions of sugars and sweeteners include:Creating a golden-brown colorStabilizing mixtures such as beaten egg whites for meringuesProviding food for yeast in yeast breadsRetaining moisture for a longer shelf life.Tenderizing baked products by weakening the gluten strandsServing as a base for making icings.
Sugar and SweetenersSugar is produced from sugar cane or sugar beets. The cane or beet is crushed to extract the juice. The juice is then filtered and gently heated to evaporate the water. Through a series of heat-induced steps, the sugar is crystallized and separated from the dark, thick molasses that forms. It must be refined to produce sugar grains of different sizes.
Sugars and SweetenersMolassesBrown SugarThe thick, sweet, dark liquid made from sugarcane juiceThis stronger color and flavor is often desirable in baked products like gingerbread
A soft-textured mixture of white sugar and molassesIt can be light or dark in colorStore in an air-tight container to prevent moisture absorption
Sugars and SweetnersGranulated SugarIcing SugarOften referred to as extra fine white sugar or table sugarIt is the most common sugar used in the bakeshopUsed in cooked icings, candies and other baked goods
Also known as confectioner's sugar or powdered sugarIt is granulated sugar that has been crushed into a fine powderIt is often used in uncooked icings and glazes and as a decorative dusting on baked products
Sugars and SweetenersHoneyA thick, sweet liquid, made by bees from flower nectarThe type of flower will affect the final flavor and color of honeyUsed to give a destinct sweet flavorStore in a cool, dry place
EggsEggs are the second most important ingredient in baked products. Eggs come in a variety of sizes. Formulas listing the amount of eggs by number instead of weight have based the formula on large eggsCommercial bakeshops use egg yolks instead of while eggs when they want a richer, more tender product. They also use egg whites in place of whole eggs when they bake low-fat products.
EggsStructureBecause of their protein content, eggs give structure to baked products such as cakes. They also help thicken some products such as custard sauces.EmulsificationEgg yolks have natural emulsifiers that help blend ingredients smoothly.AerationBeaten or whipped eggs assist in leavening because they trap air that expands when heated, caused baked products to rise.FlavorEggs add a distinct flavor to baked goods.ColorEgg yolks add a rich, yellow color to baked products. Eggs also add color to crusts during the browning process.
Leavening AgentA leavening agent is a substance that causes a baked good to rise by introducing carbon dioxide or other gases into the mixture. The gases expand from the heat of the oven, stretching the cell walls in the baked product. The end result is a light, tender texture and good volume.
Leavening AgentsBaking PowderYeastMade from baking soda, an acid and a moisture-absorber such as corn starchWhen mixed with a liquid, baking powder releases CO2Double-acting baking powder will give off CO2 when mixed with a liquid and when it comes in contact with heat
A living organism that breaks down sugars into CO2 gas and alcoholUsed in breads
Leavening AgentsSteamBaking SodaSteam is created during the baking process when water evaporates to steam and expandsSteam is important in products like puff pastries
A chemical leavening agent that must be used with an acid to give off CO2 gasThe CO2 gas is what caused the baked product to rise
Leavening AgentAirAir is added during the mixing processYou can add air to a mixture by whipping eg whites, for example with angel foods cake
SaltIt enhances the product through its own flavor as well as bringing out the flavor or other ingredients. Salt also acts on gluten and results in an acceptable texture. Salt can negatively react in baked goods if it is not measured accurately or if it is added at the wrong point in the mixing process.
FlavoringsFlavorings include extracts and spices. Although flavorings do not usually influence the baking process, they do enhance the flavor of the final baked product.
Assignment 1Using an on-line dictionary, research the definitions on page 8 of your workbook.www.epicurious.comwww.dictionary.comwww.yourdictionary.comwww.merriam-webster.com
Quick breadsQuick breads are baked goods that can be served at breakfast, lunch or dinner and include:PancakesBiscuitsMuffinsSconesWafflesLoaf BreadsThey are tender and flavorful and do not require a lot of time or equipment to produceQuick BreadsThey are a product with a bread- or cake-like texture, but do not contain yeast and therefore do not need rising time.Rather, they use chemical leavening agents such as:Double acting baking powderBaking soda
Quick BreadsIngredients and Functions:Flour foundation Eggs provide added volume and structureFat used to keep the baked product moist and tenderSugar improve the flavor and colorSalt adds flavor and strengthens glutenLeavening agent allow quick breads to riseLiquid adds moisture
Quick Bread MethodsThe Biscuit MethodThe Blending MethodCut in the fat into the dry ingredients until it resembles corn mealAdd the liquid ingredients
Example: BiscuitsCombine the liquid, sugar, liquid fat, and eggs.Add the dry ingredients to the liquid ingredients.
Quick Bread MethodsThe Creaming MethodCream together the solid fat and sugar until the mixture is light and fluffy.Add the eggs, one at a time.Add the dry ingredients and the liquid ingredients alternately.
Example: Muffins with cake- like texture