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  • www.eurofins.de

    Contamination of teas and herbal infusions – a current review of

    findings for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and further contaminants

    Eurofins Dr. Specht Laboratorien GmbH

    Johannes Jaschik

    CoTeCa 2018

  • Contaminants ABC

    Anthraquinone Biphenyl, Bromide Chlorate, Copper Diethyltoluamid (DEET) Ethoxyquin Folpet, Fluoride G… Hexachlorobenzene I… J… K… Lead Mercury

    2 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Nicotine Ortho-Phenylphenol (2-Phenylphenol) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, Perchlorate, PAHs … QACs… Rare earth elements Smoke, S421 Trimethylsulfonium, Tallow amines U… V… W… X… Y… Z…

  • Residues vs. Contaminants

    from analytical perspective there is

    no difference

    3 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Residues: Whatever remains after the

    use of use or application of a certain chemical

    Contamination: Presence of an unwanted

    chemical which not originate of an use in the material.

    A residue may act as a contaminant in material or

    environment it was not intented to be used in.

  • Residues vs. Contaminants

    Why is it important to differ between residues and contaminants:

    • finding the source of the residue/contamination • residues: checking the application (limit/change use)

    • contaminants: checking environment (unavoidable?)

    • distribution of the residue/contamination • often spot contamination, not equally distributed

    • residues are more equally distributed

    • maybe different legal requirements • e.g. organic production

    4 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

  • Analytical options

    How do you approach the assessment of contamination in tea and herbal infusion:

    Looking at your product…

    5 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    There are as many different substances which act as contaminants as products available.

  • Examples for Categories

    Photo initiators

    6 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    PAHs

    Microbiology

    Radioactivity

    Irradiation

    Desinfectans (e.g. QACs)

    Plasticizers

    Mineral oils (MOSH/MOAH)

    Chlorate, Perchlorate, Phosphoric acid, etc. …

    Fluoride

    Dioxins (illegal) dyes

    Vet drugs

    Allergenes

    GMO

    Pesticides

    Heavy metals

    … and other products in your portfolio

  • Multi Method

    vet drugs Specific methods e.g. microbiology

    Offer with different methods

    There is no „C.S.I. – analysis“ but quite a lot of specific work!

    7 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Multi Method

    pesticides

    group specific methods

    e.g. mycotoxins

    Specific methods e.g. heavy metals

    sample tea

    many different methods, modern equipment,

    experience in evaluation

    all contaminants known

    What Eurofins can offer:

  • Keeping your risk low

    8 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Enjoy your product !

    Not to analyse everything

    but to control for your risks

    and specific checking these.

    In order to have time

    and opportunity to…

  • Example Lapsang souchong

    9 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Lapsang souchong […], sometimes referred to as smoked tea [..] is a black tea (Camellia sinensis) originally from the mountainous Wuyi region in the Chinese province of Fujian. It is distinct from other types of tea, as the leaves are traditionally smoke-dried over pinewood fires, imparting a distinctive flavor of smoky pine. (Wikipedia, 2018)

    THIE Compendium of Guidelines for Tea, 2018

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_tea https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camellia_sinensis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wuyi_Mountains https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fujian https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoking_(cooking) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine

  • Contamination of Lapsang

    10 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Biphenyl Anthrachinon

    2-Phenylphenol Phthalimid (PI)

    Bifenthrin Cypermethrin

    Thiamethoxam Cyhalothrin, lambda-

    Acetamiprid Thiacloprid

    Phthalimid

    Anthraquinone

    Cypermethrin

    Bifenthrin

    Imidacloprid

    Chlorfenapyr

    Thiamethoxam

    Acetamiprid

    Cyhalothrin, lambda-

    Thiacloprid

    Carbendazim

    Glyphosate

    ranking for Lapsang

    ranking for all teas

    different ranking but more important also

    different concentrations

  • Lapsang contaminants

    11 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 70,0 80,0 90,0

    Teas except Lapsang

    0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 70,0 80,0 90,0

    Lapsang

    Anthrachinon

    2-Phenylphenol

    Phthalimid (PI)

    Biphenyl

    • completely different concentration

    • but each substance has slightly different distribution

    • keeping in mind, that Biphenyl/2-Phenyphenol are not

    common on Tea except Lapsang at all

  • Biphenyl (1/2)

    Further contaminant from smoke and other sources. In the past used in citrus fruits.

    12 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Detection in foodstuff with GC-MS using multi method possible. Products MRLs

    Dried chilli 0.01 Dried fruits 0.01 Herbal infusions 0.05 Herbs 0.1 Mate 0.5 Nutmeg/Macis 1 Rice 0.01 Spices 0.05 Tea 0.05

  • Biphenyl (2/2)

    13 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Evaluation for organic products takes into account the different contamination sources of Biphenyl. But if the MRL is exceeded – there is no further tolerance. 0,0

    10,0

    20,0

    30,0

    40,0

    50,0

    60,0

    70,0

  • Anthraquinone (1/3)

    14 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Detection in foodstuff with GC-MS/MS using multi

    method possible.

    pesticide

  • Anthraquinone (2/3)

    Products:

    15 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    0,0

    10,0

    20,0

    30,0

    40,0

    50,0

    60,0

  • Anthraquinone – source (3/3)

    16 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Smoke

  • 2-Phenylphenol (1/2)

    17 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    0,0

    5,0

    10,0

    15,0

    20,0

    25,0

    30,0

    35,0

  • Now the graph shows the typical curve for contamination

    18 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    2-Phenylphenol (2/2)

    0,0 5,0

    10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0

  • Folpet/Phthalimide

    19

    Phthalimide

    Molar Mass: 147,13 g/mol

    Folpet

    Molar Mass: 296,56 g/mol

    Phthalimide residues have to be multiplied by 2 in order to gain the Folpet residue.

    Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 as it stood before being amended by this Regulation shall continue to apply to products which were produced before 26 August 2016.

  • Folpet/Phthalimide Relana/BNN

    Considering all arguments including the above mentioned, a positive finding of Phthalimide only is in our oppinion not sufficient to decide if regulation (EC) 396/2005 should be applied in this case.

    20 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    forming under heating conditions

  • Folpet/Phthalimide data review

    21 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    0,0 5,0

    10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0

  • Heavy metals

    Plants can take up the heavy metals e.g. lead from the soil and under certain conditions high levels can be accumulated in the leaves and other edible parts of the plant. For tea plants it is known, that they can uptake heavy metals from the soils and a proportion will be transported to the tea leaves which are used for the tea infusion.

    22 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Typically detected by single element analysis with AAS or ICP/MS.

    “…and some green tea leaves, particularly those from China, are contaminated with lead…”

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/295858621_Metals_Contents_in_Black_Tea_and_Evaluation_of_Potential_Human_Health_Risks_to_Consumers

    https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/23/whats-in-your-green-tea/

  • Lead

    23 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    0,0

    5,0

    10,0

    15,0

    20,0

    25,0

    30,0

    35,0

    40,0

    Lead

    conventional

    organic

    tea tobacco

    packaging material herbal infusions

    spices

    No MRLs for tea and herbal infusions in general, evaluation is only possible for selected commodoties according to regulation 1881/2006 .

    Only few data for organic available.

  • Copper (1/2)

    24 Johannes Jaschik, COTECA 2018

    Products with copper concentrations exceeding 10mg/kg

    Products MRLs Cocoa 50 Coffee 50 Herbal infusions 100 Herbs 20 Oilseeds 30-40 Spices 40 Tea 40 Tobacco

    Typically detected by single element analysis with AAS or ICP/MS.

    Plants can take up the heavy met

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