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<ul><li><p>www.crccare.com</p><p>Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment</p><p>Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>TECHNICAL REPORT NO.33</p></li><li><p> Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Technical Report series, no. 33 June 2014 Copyright CRC CARE Pty Ltd, 2014 This book is copyright. Except as permitted under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (Commonwealth) and subsequent amendments, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the specific written permission of the copyright owner. ISBN: 978-1-921431-49-4 </p><p> Enquiries and additional copies: CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury South, South Australia, Australia 5106 Tel: +61 (0) 2 4985 4941 Fax: +61 (0) 8 8302 3124 www.crccare.com This report should be cited as: CRC CARE 2014, Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement, CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33, CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Newcastle, Australia. Disclaimer: This publication is provided for the purpose of disseminating information relating to scientific and technical matters. Participating organisations of CRC CARE do not accept liability for any loss and/or damage, including financial loss, resulting from the reliance upon any information, advice or recommendations contained in this publication. The contents of this publication should not necessarily be taken to represent the views of the participating organisations. Acknowledgement: CRC CARE acknowledges the contribution Francois Jeaneret (Curtin University), John Sutton (Aeolius Wind Systems) and Frank Yu (Curtin University) towards the writing and compilation of this report. </p><p>http://www.crccare.com/</p></li><li><p>CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment </p><p>Technical Report no. 33 </p><p>Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking </p><p>and measurement June 2014 </p></li><li><p>CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33 i Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>Executive summary </p><p>A study was conducted in Port Hedland, Western Australia to evaluate the performance of a Coherent Doppler Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging; also known as laser radar) system for monitoring dust emissions and wind fields. The results confirmed that the technology is suitable for use in operational settings to identify dust emission sources, track dust plumes, and resolve the fine-scale wind field dynamics responsible for dust transportation and community exposure. </p><p>A novel technique to derive PM10 particle concentration estimates was demonstrated. The accuracy of the technique was confirmed using a calibration procedure where PM10 data from beta attenuation monitoring (BAM) dust monitors were compared to Lidar signal intensity. The technology offers the potential to obtain detailed information on PM10 concentration levels at high spatial and temporal resolution in near real time - the equivalent to a virtual network of thousands of point dust monitors scattered over the Port Hedland area. </p><p>The field measurement identified the presence of intense dust plumes arising from ship loading operations. The plumes were directed over the West End precinct of the Port Hedland town site under the prevailing SSE wind conditions during the three week monitoring period. The PM10 concentration levels were estimated at 450+ g/m3., or potentially up to nine times the NEPM standard, and seven times the Interim Guideline Value recommended by the Port Hedland Dust Management Taskforce. It is noted that the guideline value does not apply in the West End of Port Hedland. Hence there are no existing controls in place to regulate dust impacts on local residents. </p><p>The technology can potentially be used for multiple applications at ports and mine sites including routine monitoring, health risk and occupational safety studies, validation of modelling, evaluating dust mitigation strategies, and for over the fence monitoring. </p><p>A proposal to develop an expert system to assist industry with managing the dust challenge is proposed. The system would comprise a fully autonomous Lidar system with tailored data post-processing software to provide real time information on relevant dust and atmospheric parameters. The data products could be streamed in real time to a central management authority, and/or to individual companies for interpretation and action, as appropriate. </p><p>Suggestions are forwarded on a new policy framework based on Continuous Improvement. The framework will broaden the regulatory basis for managing emissions and provide government and industry with flexibility to address the challenge in a practical and cost-effective manner. </p></li><li><p>CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33 ii Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>Glossary of terms </p><p>2D Two-dimensional </p><p>3D Three-dimensional </p><p>m Micrometer </p><p>AUSPLUME A standard Gaussian-plume model developed by Environment Protection Authority Victoria </p><p>BAM Beta attenuation monitoring </p><p>BHPBIO BHP Billiton Iron Ore </p><p>BOM Bureau of Meteorology </p><p>CALPUFF An advanced non-steady-state meteorological and air quality modeling system </p><p>CDL Coherent Doppler Lidar </p><p>CRC CARE Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment </p><p>dB Decibel </p><p>DER Department of Environment Regulation (WA); formerly the Department of Environment and Conservation </p><p>DOH Department of Health (WA) </p><p>DoIR Department of Industry and Resources (WA) </p><p>DSD Department of State Development (WA) </p><p>FMG Fortescue Metals Group Ltd </p><p>HRA Health Risk Assessment </p><p>Lidar Light Detection and Ranging </p><p>NEPM National Environment Protection Measure </p><p>NPB BHP Billiton NP berth B </p><p>PHPA Port Hedland Port Authority </p><p>PPI Plan Position Indicator </p><p>PM Particulate matter </p><p>PM10 Particulate matter 10 m or less in diameter </p><p>PM2.5 Particulate matter 2.5 m or less in diameter </p><p>RHI Range Height Indictator </p></li><li><p>CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33 iii Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>SSE South-southeast </p><p>TSP Total suspended particulate matter (all particles with an aerodynamic diameter of approximately 100 m or less) </p><p>US EPA United States Environment Environmental Protection Agency </p><p>USA United States of America </p><p>UTC Coordinated Universal Time </p><p>VAD Velocity Azimuth Display </p><p>WA Western Australia </p><p>WRF model Weather Research and Forecasting model </p></li><li><p>CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33 iv Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>Contents </p><p>Executive summary i Glossary of terms ii Contents iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Port Hedland dust management challenges 2 </p><p>2.1. CRC CARE Dust Workshop 2 3. Aim and scope of the project 4 4. Lidar technology and applications 5 </p><p>4.1. Previous experiences 5 5. Lidar deployment at Port Hedland 7 </p><p>5.1. Site selection and installation 7 5.2. Data acquisition and filtering 7 5.3. Data referencing 9 </p><p>6. Source identification 10 6.1. Potential dust sources 10 </p><p>6.1.1. Background particulate material 10 6.1.2. Local industrial activities 10 </p><p>6.2. Source mapping 10 6.3. Case study 12 </p><p>7. Dust concentration levels 16 7.1. Measurement validation 16 7.2. Dust concentration estimates 16 7.3. Measurement uncertainty 17 </p><p>8. Dust dispersion modelling 19 9. Model skill verification using Lidar 21 10. Fine-scale meteorology 23 </p><p>10.1. Monitoring network 23 10.2. Lidar wind measurement 23 10.3. Lidar Wind products 24 </p><p>10.3.1. Wind roses 24 10.3.2. VAD analysis 26 10.3.3. Two-dimensional wind retrieval 26 10.3.4. Detection of localised wind structures 27 </p><p>11. Pathway forward 29 12. References 35 </p></li><li><p>CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33 v Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>Appendices </p><p>Appendix A. Port Hedland Dust Workshop Port Hedland Health Risk Assessment </p><p>36 </p><p>Appendix B. Proposed air monitoring program 37 </p><p>Appendix C. Halo Photonics Doppler Lidar 39 </p><p>Appendix D. CRC CARE previous Doppler Lidar field investigation 41 </p><p>Appendix E. Examples of Lidar raw signals 43 </p><p>Appendix F. Backscatter values at NPB emission source 46 </p><p>Appendix G. Scanning strategy for Lidar calibration 48 </p><p>Appendix H. Uncertainties and technology evaluation 50 </p><p>Appendix I. Instrumental accuracy/resolution 52 </p><p>Appendix J. Lidar-derived and anemometers wind comparison 53 </p><p>Appendix K. Detection of localised wind structures 58 </p><p>Appendix L. VAD analysed time series output 61 </p><p>Tables </p><p>Table 1. Mean wind speed and direction difference between Lidar and anemometers </p><p>27 </p><p>Table 2. NPB loading zone coverage by the Lidar beam in Lidar coordinates </p><p>47 </p><p>Figures </p><p>Figure 1. Scanning Doppler Lidar 5 </p><p>Figure 2. The scanning blind spots for the two Lidar scanning positions 8 </p><p>Figure 3. Examples of dust sources and plume behaviour under a range of operational and meteorological conditions </p><p>11-12 </p><p>Figure 4. Port Hedland Inner Harbor 13 </p><p>Figure 5. Lidar backscatter time series of the NPB loading zone for week 3 of the deployment period superimposed on columns representing periods where a ship was at berth </p><p>14 </p><p>Figure 6. Lidar-derived dust concentration estimate under calm wind conditions </p><p>17 </p><p>Figure 7. Base case scenario (2004-2005): maximum predicted 24-hour average PM10 ground level concentrations </p><p>19 </p><p>Figure 8. Contour colour scale stretch from &lt; 20 g/m3 to 120 g/m3 22 </p><p>Figure 9. Wind rose at 38 m above sea level 24 </p></li><li><p>CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33 vi Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>Figure 10. Wind rose at 12m above sea level 25 </p><p>Figure 11. Wind rose at Port Hedland Airport JuneAugust 2004/2005 25 </p><p>Figure 12. VAD wind profile on 18 August 2011 26 </p><p>Figure 13. Retrieved wind speed and vectors at above Lidar and backscatter intensity PPI at 0o elevation scan </p><p>27 </p><p>Figure 14. Schematic of expert system for managing dust in Port Hedland 32 </p><p>Figure 15. Picture of the Doppler Lidar 39 </p><p>Figure 16. Lidar plots showing horizontal scans of a) backscatter intensity and b) radial wind velocity on 12 December 2008 </p><p>41 </p><p>Figure 17. Two-dimensional horizontal wind speeds with wind vector overlay Composite 45 metre terrain-following wind speed maps (July and October-November 2009) </p><p>42 </p><p>Figure 18. Backscatter pseudo colour plots of PPI scans at different times of deployment </p><p>43 </p><p>Figure 19. Example of Lidar PPI with high levels of dust (PM10) 44 </p><p>Figure 20. Examples of PPI stack with seven layers during the first week of deployment </p><p>44-45 </p><p>Figure 21. Schematic top view of the Lidar beam pointing at NPB loading zone and the range gates overlapping the ship </p><p>47 </p><p>Figure 22. Schematic view of three beams over the Moore St Station 48 </p><p>Figure 23. Harbour station: best least square solution of Lidar backscatter signal to overlap the BAM PM10 concentration over the first week of operation </p><p>49 </p><p>Figure 24. Time series of wind speed and direction comparison between Lidar and anemometer at Wilson Street </p><p>54 </p><p>Figure 25. Time series of wind speed and direction comparison between Lidar and anemometer at Harbour Street </p><p>55 </p><p>Figure 26. Time series of wind speed and direction comparison between Lidar and anemometer at Hospital </p><p>56 </p><p>Figure 27. Linear regression of the wind direction comparison 57 </p><p>Figure 28. An incoming breeze in a thin layer from the ocean to the port around 14:30 UTC was captured by Lidar </p><p>59 </p><p>Figure 29. An incoming breeze in a thin layer from the ocean to the port around 15:05 UTC was captured by Lidar </p><p>60 </p><p>Figure 30. Time series of VAD analysed results over the experimental period at Port Hedland </p><p>61-62 </p></li><li><p>CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33 1 Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>1. Introduction </p><p>Air quality is a major issue in Australia. The Australian federal government seeks to protect and improve air quality through national action to reduce emissions of air pollutants that pose threats to human health and the environment. Airborne particulate matter (PM) or dust is one of the many pollutants that contribute to air quality degradation. PM is the sum of all solid and liquid particles suspended in air, many of which are hazardous. The effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter include premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Recent epidemiological studies estimate that exposures to PM may result in tens of thousands of excess deaths per year, and many more cases of illness among the US population (US EPA). </p><p>Particulate matter can consist of sea salts, pollens, smoke and minerals. It is commonly categorised according to the size of the particles: 1) total suspended particulate matter (TSP), which is all particles with an aerodynamic diameter of approximately 100 m or less; 2) PM10, particles with a diameter &lt; 10 m; and 3) PM2.5, particles below 2.5 m in diameter. Research on health effects has focused increasingly on particles that are 10 micrometres in diameter or smaller (PM10) because those are the particles that generally pass through the throat and nose and enter the lungs. </p><p>Significant resources are directed by the mining industry in Australia and overseas towards managing PM exposure to their workforce and local communities. Mining by its nature has the potential to generate high levels of ambient dust during the extractive processes, processing, transporting and shipping through sea ports. </p></li><li><p>CRC CARE Technical Report no. 33 2 Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study: Broadscale, real-time dust tracking and measurement </p><p>2. Port Hedland dust management challenges </p><p>The task of maintaining acceptable dust levels at the iron ore export facilities in Port Hedland, Western Australia is challenging. The port has experienced extraordinary growth in the last ten years as global demand for minerals increased. Iron ore bulk handling facilities in the inner harbour, including train unloading, crushing and screening, stockpiling and ship loading, generate high amounts of airborne particulate matter that impact on local residential and business facilities. Dust levels regularly exceeded standards adopted by the National Environment Protection Measures (NEPM) for PM10, PM2.5 and State Government guidelines for TSP. The extent of the challenge is underlined by the fact that there were 120 exceedances of the PM10 standard in 2008. The allowable limit under the NEPM is 5 (DSD 2010). The monitoring data at the port also show that the PM2.5 Advisory Standard is also exceeded frequently. </p><p>In March 2010, the Western Australian government released an interim guidance document entitled The Port Hedland Air Quality and Noise Management Plan (DSD 2010). The plan was developed by the Port Hedl...</p></li></ul>

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