construction of an autonomous laboratory scale-drilling ... construction of an autonomous laboratory

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  • CONSTRUCTION OF AN

    AUTONOMOUS LABORATORY

    SCALE-DRILLING RIG FOR

    TESTING AND CONTROL OF

    DRILLING SYSTEMS

    Authors: Erik Andreas Lken (UiS) & Suranga

    C.H. Geekiyanage (UiS)

    Co-Authors: Dan Sui (UiS) & Robert Ewald (IRIS)

  • OUTLINE

    Introduction

    Rig structure (system design, components, sensors)

    Data acquisition & data quality improvement

    Control system design (WOB regulation, fault detection)

    Rig performance optimization

    Conclusion

    Future work

    1.

  • INTRODUCTION

    Team

    Drillbotics 2017

    competition

    Fully autonomous

    laboratory-scale rig

    2.

  • RIG STRUCTURESYSTEM DESIGN

    3.

  • RIG STRUCTURE

    Power transmission

    Hoisting

    Circulation

    Drill string, BHA & bit

    SYSTEM DESIGN

    Rock

    Actuator

    hoisting

    system

    Multi-

    filtration

    system

    Dual-Pump

    setup

    Leak

    valve

    Pressure

    valve

    Return line

    Swivel

    Top Drive

    Drill pipe

    BHA

    PDC bit

    4.

  • RIG STRUCTURE

    Hollow-shaft brushless top

    drive (0 3500 RPM)

    2.86 Nm rated torque (8.59

    Nm instantaneous torque)

    Direct torque transfer to drill

    string assembly

    Low vibration-signature

    Programmable auto-braking

    POWER TRANSMISSION

    5.

  • RIG STRUCTURE

    Three actuators w/ stepper

    motors and brakes

    500 N WOB capacity (hook

    load = 168 N)

    Variable speed adjustment

    for different drilling stages

    HOISTING SYSTEM

    6.

    Actuator #1

    Actuator #3Actuator #2

    Z-axis

    X-axis

    Fy

    Fz

    Fx

    Top Drive

  • RIG STRUCTURE

    Pmax = 4.1 bara

    Q = 11.5 l/min (min. velocity

    range of 0.5 0.7 m/s for

    cuttings transportation)

    Attached w/ swivel (1000 RPM

    capacity)

    Filtration deposit system

    CIRCULATION SYSTEM

    7.

  • RIG STRUCTURE

    Interchangable string

    (DP), BHA & bit

    Aluminum pipe

    (WT = 0.889mm)

    Stainless steel BHA

    w/ three stabilizers

    PDC bit with raked

    cutters

    DRILL STRING, BHA & BIT

    8.

  • DATA ACQUISITION

    Three triaxial load cells (LC),

    0-100N range (Fx, Fy, Fz)

    RPM and torque (TTD) in top

    drive sensors

    Ferromagnetic torque sensor

    (T)

    Pressure transmitter (P)

    Reference height sensor (H)

    SENSOR INTEGRATION

    Rock

    LC LC

    LC

    P

    T

    RPM

    &TTD

    h

    H

    9.

  • DATA ACQUISITION

    Torque Sensor sample rate

  • DATA QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    T, RPM, P, Fx/Fy, h low-pass (LP) filtered

    Fz (WOB) median,

    moving avg. & LP

    filters

    Frequency-analysis

    for cut-off frequency

    FILTERING OF DATA

    11.

  • CONTROL SYSTEMHIERARCHICAL TWO-LAYER STRUCTURE

    STRATEGIC DECISION CONTROLLER + VISUALIZATION

    HOISTING SYSTEM

    CONTROLLER

    3 TRIAXIAL LOADCELLS & HEIGHT

    SENSOR

    ROTATIONAL SYSTEM

    CONTROLLER

    2 TORQUE SENSORS + RPM FEEDBACK

    CIRCULATION SYSTEM

    CONTROLLER

    PRESSURE SENSOR

    Main computer

    Arduino DUE (3x)

    Sensor distribution

    Arduino DUE

    programmed as finite-

    state machines (FSMs)

    Non-

    deterministic

    control loopNormal Drilling

    Fault Detection

    12.

  • CONTROL SYSTEM

    Complete closed-loop PID-

    controller for WOB

    Phases (1. calibration, 2.

    pilot hole drilling, 3. normal

    drilling, 4. optimization, 5.

    completion)

    Incremental increase of

    RPM and WOB setpoint

    (sweep algorithm)

    NORMAL DRILLING STATE

    RPM

    WOBmax

    max

    Input

    13.

  • CONTROL SYSTEM

    Coordinator implemented

    Detects axial vibrations,

    stick slip, lateral vibrations,

    pack-off (OP), leak, key-

    seating & overpull

    Problems simulated in

    laboratory

    Example: stick-slip

    management

    FAULT DETECITON & INCIDENT MANAGEMENT

    Stick slip detected (T increase, RPM

    decrease)

    Pick-up off-bottom (10mm) Increase

    RPM by 10%, reduce WOB 10-

    15%. Retag bottom

    YesDrilling

    commences

    If still stick slip at RPM/WOB-thresholds, pick-up off-bottom. Set very low WOB & very high RPM.

    Continue slow drilling before sweep can commence

    Stick slip?

    No

    14.

  • CONTROL SYSTEMFAULT DETECTION & INCIDENT MANAGEMENT

    Stick slip & lateral

    vibrations get detected

    System attempts to correct

    the faults and reduce

    vibrations

    15.

  • CONTROL SYSTEMHUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE

    16.

  • RIG PERFORMANCEROP CALCULATION

    ROP calculated (

    )

    Instantaneous- and

    average-ROP

    calculated using

    arrays of 15 s & 180 s

    Effect of DP deflection

    will be implemented

    (depth-based

    measurement)

    1st second < 1 2 3 14 15>

    2nd second < 2 3 4 15 16 >

    3rd second < 3 4 5 16 17>

    Etc.

    # 60 = [

    ]

    Replace oldest value with newest every second

    17.

  • RIG PERFORMANCERESULTS, NORMAL DRILLING

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14400

    600

    800

    RP

    M

    time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 140

    5

    10

    RO

    P(m

    m/m

    in)

    time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 140

    0.5

    Torq

    ue o

    f bit(N

    m)

    Time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 140123

    WO

    B(k

    g)

    Time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20200400600800

    RP

    M

    time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 200

    1

    2

    RO

    P(m

    m/m

    in)

    time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 200

    0.5T

    orq

    ue o

    f bit(N

    m)

    Time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 200

    2

    4

    WO

    B(k

    g)

    Time(min)

    Weak formation (cement) Hard-drilling formation (floor tiles)

    18.

  • RIG PERFORMANCENEW FORMATION DETECTION

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 140

    100

    200

    300

    MS

    E(M

    Pa)

    Time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 140

    20

    40

    60

    UC

    S(M

    Pa)

    Time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 200

    500

    1000

    MS

    E(M

    Pa)

    Time(min)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 200

    100

    200

    300

    UC

    S(M

    Pa)

    Time(min)

    Weak formation (cement) Hard-drilling formation (floor tiles)

    =4

    2 ROP

    +4

    2

    = 0.35 19.

  • CONCLUSION

    Understanding, evaluating

    and investigating current

    solutions available

    Experiments for developing

    models, control system

    algorithms etc.

    Prototyping of BHA /

    sensors / components / bits

    ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES

    Not necessarily scalable to

    industry

    Some components (i.e.

    actuators for hoisting) only

    work well on lab-rig

    Limited sensors &

    processing power

    20.

  • FUTURE WORK

    Drill string dynamics model

    development

    Machine-learning fault detection

    Kalman filtering for WOB and ROP

    estimation

    Gauss-Seidel Constraint

    Control for ROP-optimization

    New BHA design w/ real-time

    downhole measurements

    Mud design & cuttings transportation21.

  • QUESTIONS?

    22.

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