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Considering cognitive aspects in designing cyber-physical systems :. an emerging need for transdisciplinarity. Wilfred van der Vegte and Regine Vroom Delft University of Technology Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering Department of Design Engineering. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Considering cognitive aspects in designing cyber-physical systems:an emerging need for transdisciplinarityWilfred van der Vegte and Regine VroomDelft University of TechnologyFaculty of Industrial Design EngineeringDepartment of Design Engineering#Challenge the future

Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering#Challenge the futureContentsCyber-physical systemsCPSs design involved disciplinesDisciplinary approaches: mono, multi, inter, intra, and transFlavours of transdisciplinarity Two directions of research:Simulating cognitive loads and processing timesInforming systems and mental modelsConcluding remarks

#Challenge the futureCyber-Physical systems (CPSs)CPSs are integrations of computation with physical processes, in which embedded computers and networks monitor and control the physical processes, usually with feedback loops where physical processes affect computations and vice versa.

Example of a CPS:Swarming Micro Air VehicleNetwork (SMAVNET) @ EPFL, CHRapidly creates communicationnetworks for rescuers in disasterareasSensor networking technologiesSwarm intelligence

#Challenge the futureCPSs design @ IDE involved disciplinesIndustrial Design Engineering (IDE), Cognitive Psychology, Psychophysiology, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Disciplines commonly involved in an interdisciplinary faculty of IDE such as:Materials technologyManufacturing technologyHuman factorsElectronicsMechanical engineeringMarketingetc.

#Challenge the futureAddressing cognitive aspectsIn predecessors of CPSs (mechatronic/smart systems, etc.) ICT and physics were already heavily involved.CPSs will increasingly incorporate (distributed) artificial cognitionin interaction with human cognitionHandling cognitive psychology issues will be a key challenge in the near future of CPS developmentCognition-related issues:Allocation of cognitive tasks between human and CPSCognitive matching of inputs/outputs between human and CPSPreventing information overload of human usersEnabling CPSs as safety-critical systemsObjective: cognitive symbiosis between human and CPS

#Challenge the futureTransdisciplinary vs. intra-, inter- and multidisciplinaryFlavours of transdisciplinarityengineeringdesignother area of development (e.g., healthcare)end users/consumers(e.g., product users)end users/consumers(e.g., patients)engineeringscienceother area ofscience(e.g., medical)monomonomonointraintraintraintraintermultimultiintertrans#Challenge the futureengineeringdesignother area of development (e.g., healthcare)end users/consumers(e.g., product users)end users/consumers(e.g., patients)engineeringscienceother area ofscience(e.g., medical)transdisciplinary design=transdisciplinary researchFlavours of transdisciplinarity#Challenge the futureTwo directions of researchSimulating cognitive loads and processing times

Informing systems and mental models

#Challenge the future1.0 Simulating cognitive loads and processing times

Key application area: deployment of CPSs as safety-critical systemsRevision of decision-making responsibilitiesCPS humanSimulation of human mental processes together with models of products and systems (in particular, CPS)Goal: evaluate CPS during development identify bottlenecks to be addressed in the CPSs designincluding service design, task design/allocation

#Challenge the futureHow to simulate human thinking and human reasoning?1.1 Human-cyber-physical systems how can we simulate?

Interactive simulation vs. fully virtual simulation:Safety-critical systems identification of incidents happening once in ~1,000 years.Interactive human-in-the-loop simulation must be real-time,but we cannot run a simulation for 1,000 years! we need faster-than-real-time simulation fully virtual, even humans

Use simulation tools common in embedded systems engineering (procedural logic, state machines)Avoid time-consuming physics simulations based on geometric discretisation (e.g., FEM): use simplified models instead.

Take shortcuts: disregard perception, motor skills, etc.humanCPS; environmentinformation processingphysics#Challenge the future1.2 Simulating human thinking and human reasoning

Two aspects:logic of decision making and processing time of decision makingLogic of decision making:What action is taken under what condition?e.g. IF cup is full THEN retrieve cup from machine:straightforward execution of normal use,assuming a particular history of preceding events.But can a simulation predict a user acting according tothe production rule IF cup is full THEN stick finger in it? unlikely!Yet we can try to generate typical aberrations from regular use:so-called error phenotypes (Hollnagel):actions accidentally in wrong order, accidental repetition, etc.,by applying systematic variations

#Challenge the future1.3 Simulating human thinking and human reasoning: processing time

Processing time:How long does it take to accomplish a given action, taking into account aspects such as memory retrieval, memory capacity, learning, multitasking, distraction, etc.These aspects can be simulated using cognitive architectures such as ACT-RA cognitive architecture isa blueprint of the human mindbased on findings from brain sciencefilled with psychologically validated task modelsexpressed as production rules

#Challenge the future1.4 ACT-R cognitive architecturesimulationof CPS &environmentACT-Rsimulation(human)declarative module (temporal cortex / hippocampus)intentional module(not identified)external worldretrieval buffer(ventrolateral prefrontal cortex)visual module(occipital cortex)visual buffer(parietal cortex)motor buffer(motor cortex)goal buffer (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex)motor module (motor cortex / cerebellum)central production system(basal ganglia)ACT-R models are task specific, programmed in LISP by skilled, dedicated cognitive scientistsMost tasks require scientists to create new customized models, that have to be validated in laboratory experiments with human subjectsIntensive collaboration between cognitive scientists and designers of CPSs seems inevitable

#Challenge the future1.5 Example CPS for simulating cognitive loads & processing times:

Advanced support of emergency response#Challenge the future2.0 Informing systems & mental modelsInforming CPSs (e.g. informing public traffic systems)aims to find novel means to inform users and to find new symbiotic relations between human and cyber-physical systems;based on which designers can be supported in the early stages of CPS development;the objective is to avoid situations where users are mentally or perceptually overloaded and to precisely give the information that will help to take a right decision to react.

#Challenge the future2.1 Project purposeThe purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding in the manner in which MMs influence our interaction with the informing part of CPSs, and to provide guidelines for designers based on these insightsCyber-PhysicalSystemHuman systemProcessingCPS output adapted to the cognitive capabilities of individual user(s) in a specific situation CPS inputSensors /detectorsHuman inputSensesBrain (cognition, including knowledge, experiences, reasoning)Human outputHuman output detected by a CPSCPS informs (or offers other functionality) to humanCurrent situationCurrent detection e.g. through motion detection, smart phone connection, id tag, #Challenge the future2.2 Informing systems & mental modelsGoal: Include cognitive insights to influence the adaptability of CPSs.Approach: Study the behavior of mental models Future situationMental modelCyber-PhysicalSystemHuman systemProcessingCPS output adapted to the cognitive capabilities of individual user(s) in a specific situation CPS inputSensors /detectorsHuman inputSensesBrain (cognition, including knowledge, experiences, reasoning)Human outputMental model: internal representation that people hold of an external reality that allows them to explain, interact, and predict that reality (from cognitive psychology)Mental model#Challenge the futureMental modelCyber-PhysicalSystemHuman systemProcessingCPS output adapted to the cognitive capabilities of individual user(s) in a specific situation CPS inputSensors /detectorsHuman inputSensesBrain (cognition, including knowledge, experiences, reasoning)Human output2.3 Future situationCognitiveScienceDesign Engineeringprecisely give the information that will help to take a right decision to reactDesignerly cognitiveinsightsCurrent situation#Challenge the future2.4 Designerly cognitive insightsStudy behaviour of mental models: Is there inertia when switching from one mental model towards another?E.g. if an unexpected situation occur, will there be a different reaction on the same situation if the person was reading an exciting book than when he was playing football? Difficulty: perception influences cant be reset (undo or delete)How to identify inaccuracies and gaps in a mental model (i.e. in a persons knowledge and experience)?Mental models are inaccurate and incomplete. Insights in how to determine the gaps and the faults incorporate clues to better inform people. #Challenge the future2.4 Designerly cognitive insights contdStudy relationships between mental states and cognition at one side and physical human data (facial expressions, gestures, heart beat etc., i.e. psychophysiology) on the other side.In addition to search for direct determination methods, indirect measurements might be useful: some facial expression may indicate that a person doesnt understand a message for example.How to effectively address the major gaps and faults in a mental model? Effect of senses to address, effect of amplitude of the message (audio volume, pressure level in haptic information, etc.)The bridge towards guidelines for designers of informing CPSs: insight in the mental model stat

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