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  • Dr. K. SivakumarWildlife Institute of India

    ksivakumar@wii.gov.in

    Conservation of Coastal Zones in

    India

    Training Programme

    Audit of emerging environment

    issues

    8-12 June, 2015, iCED, Jaipur

  • Green turtle

    Size: 150 cm

  • Hawksbill turtle

    Size: 90 cm

  • Dr.

    Kart

    ik S

    hanker

  • Olive Ridley turtle

    Size: 75 -80 cm

  • Introduction to coastal zone Ecological Values Threats Development vs Biodiversity Indian Scenario Economics of Ecosystem services Costal Zone Regulation in India What need to be done?

  • The confluence of three major realms -

    the Indo-Malayan, Eurasian and

    Afrotropical

    102 National Parks

    520 Sanctuaries

    6 World Heritage sites

    18 Biosphere Reserves

    Biodiversity Wealth of India

    26 recognized endemic

    centres for flowering plants

    30% of the worlds recorded

    flora

    7.31% of the global fauna

  • Biodiversity profile of India

    India is one of the 17 megabiodiverse country in the

    world

    India is also one of the 9 Vavilovian centers of

    origin and diversity of crop plants

  • Biodiversity Hotspots

    India has 4 of the 34 global biodiversity hotspots

    The Himalaya: Western and Eastern Himalaya form part of

    Himalayan global biodiversity hotspot.

    The Western Ghats: part of Western Ghats-Sri Lanka global

    biodiversity hotspot.

    North-east: part of Indo-Burma

    global biodiversity hotspot.

    Nicobar Islands: part of the

    Sundaland global

    biodiversity hotspot.

  • Endemism in select Plant and Animal Taxa

    In terms of endemism of Vertebrate groups, Indias

    global ranking is tenth in birds with 69 species, fifth in

    reptiles with 156 species and seventh in amphibians with

    110 species.

    44

    53

    168

    60

    Mammals

    Birds

    Amphibian

    Fresh Water Crabs

    4045

    8

    196

    642568

    3625

    1949 Angiosperms

    Gymnosperms

    Pteridophytes

    Bryophytes

    Lichens

    Fungi

    Algae

    Fauna

    Flora

    Source: BSI, 2013

    Source: IUCN Red List, 2013

  • Highly productive Ecosystem

  • Pelagic organisms BacteriaVirus

    PlanktonNekton

    PhytoplanktonZooplankton

    Cephalopods

    Pisces

    Dinoflagellates

    Crustaceans

    reptiles

    Mammals

    Protozoa

    Ctenophora

    AnnelidaMolluscs

    Urochordates

    Cnidarians Arthropods

    Cyanobacteria

    Coccolithophorids

    Sillicoflagellates

    http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~ddiresta/msc101/CUTTLEF.JPGhttp://fig.cox.miami.edu/~ddiresta/msc101/CUTTLEF.JPGhttp://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/graphics/angelfish.jpghttp://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/graphics/angelfish.jpghttp://www.advanceddivermagazine.com/PhotoG/tisg/ti0012.jpg', 'Elegant Hermit Crabhttp://www.advanceddivermagazine.com/PhotoG/tisg/ti0012.jpg', 'Elegant Hermit Crabhttp://www.advanceddivermagazine.com/PhotoG/tisg/ti0012.jpg', 'Elegant Hermit Crabhttp://www.molecularexpressions.com/featuredmicroscopist/vanegmond/noctilucadarkfieldlarge.htmlhttp://www.molecularexpressions.com/featuredmicroscopist/vanegmond/noctilucadarkfieldlarge.htmlhttp://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/~jomce/acidification/Clio_pyramidata_images_fichiers/image001.jpghttp://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/~jomce/acidification/Clio_pyramidata_images_fichiers/image001.jpghttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://jellieszone.com/images/oikopleura.jpg&imgrefurl=http://jellieszone.com/gelatinousid.htm&h=400&w=600&sz=21&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=J06YNTOzETue8M:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&prev=/images?q=Appendicularians+&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://jellieszone.com/images/oikopleura.jpg&imgrefurl=http://jellieszone.com/gelatinousid.htm&h=400&w=600&sz=21&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=J06YNTOzETue8M:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&prev=/images?q=Appendicularians+&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ices.dk/marineworld/photogallery/images/jellyfish.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.ices.dk/marineworld/photogallery/jellyfish.asp&h=283&w=425&sz=8&hl=en&start=5&tbnid=FRYUQE8-ACJNSM:&tbnh=84&tbnw=126&prev=/images?q=jellyfish&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ices.dk/marineworld/photogallery/images/jellyfish.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.ices.dk/marineworld/photogallery/jellyfish.asp&h=283&w=425&sz=8&hl=en&start=5&tbnid=FRYUQE8-ACJNSM:&tbnh=84&tbnw=126&prev=/images?q=jellyfish&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://mywebpages.comcast.net/rellstab/krill/krill5/Krill333.jpg&imgrefurl=http://mywebpages.comcast.net/rellstab/krill/krill5/index1.htm&h=2460&w=3072&sz=671&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=1uOBSN5NrTAn1M:&tbnh=120&tbnw=150&prev=/images?q=krill&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://mywebpages.comcast.net/rellstab/krill/krill5/Krill333.jpg&imgrefurl=http://mywebpages.comcast.net/rellstab/krill/krill5/index1.htm&h=2460&w=3072&sz=671&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=1uOBSN5NrTAn1M:&tbnh=120&tbnw=150&prev=/images?q=krill&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/micropolitan/fresh/bacteria/oscillatoria450.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/micropolitan/fresh/bacteria/frame2.html&h=319&w=450&sz=39&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=75_emk0j7i-RCM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=127&prev=/images?q=oscillatoria&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=Xhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/micropolitan/fresh/bacteria/oscillatoria450.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/micropolitan/fresh/bacteria/frame2.html&h=319&w=450&sz=39&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=75_emk0j7i-RCM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=127&prev=/images?q=oscillatoria&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=Xhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.orhab.org/images/educationImages/psuedo_nitzschia_full.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.orhab.org/education/Pseudo_nitzschia_sp.htm&h=469&w=500&sz=60&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=UUCBIRyT4EgvuM:&tbnh=122&tbnw=130&prev=/images?q=nitzschia&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=Xhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.orhab.org/images/educationImages/psuedo_nitzschia_full.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.orhab.org/education/Pseudo_nitzschia_sp.htm&h=469&w=500&sz=60&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=UUCBIRyT4EgvuM:&tbnh=122&tbnw=130&prev=/images?q=nitzschia&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=Xhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgfeb04/figurex2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artfeb04/rvwmarine1.html&h=326&w=426&sz=8&hl=en&start=8&tbnid=NlBI1-9hkggA7M:&tbnh=96&tbnw=126&prev=/images?q=Silicoflagellates&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=Xhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgfeb04/figurex2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artfeb04/rvwmarine1.html&h=326&w=426&sz=8&hl=en&start=8&tbnid=NlBI1-9hkggA7M:&tbnh=96&tbnw=126&prev=/images?q=Silicoflagellates&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=X

  • BENTHIC ORGANISMS

    Porifera Cnidaria Ctenophora Platyhelminthes

    Nemerta

    Annelida

    Sipunculida Pogonophora Phoronida Brachiopoda

    ArthropodaMollusca Bryozoa Holothuria Echinodermata

    Ascideans

    Cephalochordata

    http://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gcb.vic.gov.au/gallery/SEA SPONGE, PORIFERA.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.gcb.vic.gov.au/gallery.htm&h=496&w=750&sz=111&hl=en&start=7&tbnid=enGXJEEtX3LwCM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=141&prev=/images?q=porifera&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=Ghttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gcb.vic.gov.au/gallery/SEA SPONGE, PORIFERA.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.gcb.vic.gov.au/gallery.htm&h=496&w=750&sz=111&hl=en&start=7&tbnid=enGXJEEtX3LwCM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=141&prev=/images?q=porifera&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=Ghttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.aboututila.com/Photos/AdamLaverty/Coral-ElkHorn.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.aboututila.com/PhotoGallery/PGCorals01.htm&h=600&w=800&sz=140&hl=en&start=3&tbnid=KlglBraqTlv0rM:&tbnh=107&tbnw=143&prev=/images?q=Coral&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.aboututila.com/Photos/AdamLaverty/Coral-ElkHorn.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.aboututila.com/PhotoGallery/PGCorals01.htm&h=600&w=800&sz=140&hl=en&start=3&tbnid=KlglBraqTlv0rM:&tbnh=107&tbnw=143&prev=/images?q=Coral&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.deiopea.ch/images/fullsize/taka/deiopea_jellyfish_-_ctenophora_deiopea_-_deiopea_rippenqualle_00.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.deiopea.ch/gallery.de.php&h=480&w=640&sz=23&hl=en&start=21&tbnid=ontSwiRMWCyP2M:&tbnh=103&tbnw=137&prev=/images?q=Ctenophora&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=enhttp://images.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.deiopea.ch/images/fullsize/taka/deiopea_jellyfish_-_ctenophora_deiopea_-_deiopea_rippenqualle_00.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.deiopea.ch/gallery.de.php&h=480&w=640&sz=23&hl=en&am

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