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  • 1.Concept Generation/Ideation Marketing 4250 February 1, 2007

2. Translating Observationsinto Interpreted Needs (Empathic Design)

  • Observation
  • Capture data - use video or still pictures, dont write
  • Show data to people who didnt observe first-hand and discuss observations
  • Brainstorm for solutions

3. Translating Verbatim Statementsinto Interpreted Needs

  • Identify the benefit and not the function(what the product does, not how it should/must do it).I want a 1/4 hole, not a 1/4 drill bit.
  • Describe an attribute of the product or the user
  • If possible, avoid words like must and should.

4. Designing a Kitchen Tool Customer Comment Interpreted Needs It hurts my hand. The tool is comfortable. It only does one thing. The tool can peel, gouge, cut, etc. It is not very attractive. The tool looks stylish. 5. Designing a Coffee-Making Machine I would like it to remind me of an English butler. I hate it when it drips if I pull out the pot or the filter. I dont like having the cord stretched all over the counter. I just want a good tasting cup of Joe. The product is elegant andunassuming, with clean lines. The product keeps itself and the area around it clean. The product has good cord management. The product makes good coffee. The product heats and keeps water at the appropriate temperature. Verbatim Needs Interpreted Needs 6. Structuring the Interpreted Needs

  • Categorize the interpreted needs into a smaller number of categories.
  • What primary interpreted needs labels should we attach to these categories?

7. Prioritizing Interpreted Needs

  • Kano Classification (one approach )
    • L= Linear Satisfiers
    • (The more the merrier.)
    • N = Neutral/Indifferent
    • (No big deal.)
    • M = Must Haves
    • (I wont buy without!)
    • D = Delighters
    • (What an unexpected treat!)

8. Kanos Model of (Non-Linear) Customer Satisfaction Customer Satisfied Customer Dissatisfied See (1) Matzler, et al.., 1996,Journal of Product & Brand Mgmt (2) Matzler and Hinterhuber, 1998, Technovation (3)Center for Quality Mgmt Must Have (M) Delighter (D) Linear Satisfier (L) Requirement Fulfilled Requirement Not Fulfilled Indifferent (I) 9. EMPATHIC (OBSERVATION) VS. USER ARTICULATION (INQUIRY) Empathic(Observation) UserArticulation (Inquiry) - Innovation possible beyond what users are able to tell you. - Technique relies upon real actions.- Users may be unable toarticulate needs (e.g unnoticed workarounds). - Interview/interaction process may bias response. Strengths Weaknesses - Technique relies upon well- trained observers who canconvert observations toinnovative solutions. -Inability to measure attitudes. - Information can be acquired on attitudes and reasoningfrom users. -Easy to acquire information. 10. Translating theVoice-of-the-Customer Customer Verbatims Observations Scenario Planning Or Market DrivingForecasting Interpreted Needs Product Concepts Product Specifications 11. Phase II:Concept Generation 12. What is a ProductConcept?

  • A concept includes:
  • a specificproduct form(the attributes)
  • a specifictechnology(the source of the form)
  • a specificbenefitfor a particular usage situation
    • see Page and Rosenbaum (1992), Developing an Effective Concept Testing
    • Program for Durables,J Product Innovation Mgmt

13. One that is both original AND useful Definition of a Creative Concept: 14. Creativity: is it an individual trait or is it situation-driven?

  • Both
  • Individual Trait:
    • Scientific Creativity (Engineer, Chemist)
    • Artistic Creativity (Painter, Composer)
    • Combo (Inventor) --rare
  • Situation-Driven:
    • No creative ability
    • Low creative ability
    • Some creative ability

No Situation Effects Some Situation Effects Strong Situation Effects 15. Strategy Implications

  • Individual Trait
    • Use Cross-Functional Teams
    • Use Personality Testing in Hiring
  • Situational Effects
    • Culture/Processes (3M, TI, IDEO, Kelloggs)
      • No more mistakes and youre through! -John Cleese
    • Reward Structures (IBM, Campbells)
    • Ideation Strategies (Analogies)
    • Analytical Strategies (Perceptual Mapping, Relationship Analysis, Morphological Matrix)

16. But, do you knowcreativity when you see it? 17. Are these creative new productconcepts? 18. What about these? 19. Or these? 20. Concept Generation / Ideation

  • Step 1:Clarify the Problem
  • Step 2:Search Externally
  • Step 3:Search Internally
  • Step 4:Explore Systematically
  • Step 5:Reflect on the Results and the Process

21. Concept Generation / Ideation

  • Step 2: Search Externally
    • Experts - Lead User Analysis
      • Lead Users - experience the need ahead of the mass market; not the same as early adopters

22. General Principle of Lead User Research

  • Extreme versus Means
    • Identificationof functionally novel products and service concepts should be done at theleading edgeof markets and applications
    • Evaluationof commercial potential should be done at the means of markets and market segments

23. Important Innovations by Consumers

  • Category
      • Health Products
      • Personal Care
      • Sports
      • Food
      • Office
      • Computers
      • Apparel
  • Example
      • Gatorade
      • Protein-based Shampoo
      • Mountain Bike
      • Chocolate Milk
      • White-out Liquid
      • E-mail, Desktop Publishing
      • Sports Bra

24. Benefiting from Lead Users

  • Lead User innovations form the basis for new products and service of value to manufacturers.
  • Lead Users
      • Have new product or service needs that will be general to the marketplace, but they face them months or years before the bulk of the market
      • Expect to benefit significantly by finding a solution to those needs

25. Adopter Categorization on the Basis of Innovativeness

  • Lead users are not the same as early adopters

26. Concept Generation / Ideation

  • Step 2: Search Externally
    • Experts - Lead User Analysis
      • Lead Users - experience the need ahead of the mass market; not the same as early adopters
    • Interviewing
    • Observation - Empathic Design
    • Focus Groups

27. Concept Generation / Ideation

  • Step 3: Search Internally
    • Analogy
      • Near Vs. Far
      • Relations Vs. Attributes

28. Exercise

  • A recent article in theWall Street Journalidentified the difficulties and problems inherent in eating in a moving vehicle.
  • Automotive dining has created a new opportunity for an innovative product introduction.
  • You are asked to develop a new product concept that will meet the needs/solve the problems of the commuting diner.

29. Some Interpreted Needs 30. Results

  • Teams of 2 Designers
    • Texas Instruments
    • TXS Industrial Design
    • Ignition

31. 32. Results from comprehensive study

  • Number of benchmarks or no benchmark
  • Design Strategy - use many vs. few analogies
  • Results:

33. 34. Concept Generation / Ideation

    • Step 4: Explore Systematically
      • GAP Analysis with Perceptual Maps