concentration camps and their liberation

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CONCENTRATION CAMPS AND THEIR LIBERATION. "First they came for the Communists but I was not a Communist so I did not speak out; Then they came for the Socialists and the Trade Unionists but I was not one of them, so I did not speak out; - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • CONCENTRATION CAMPS AND THEIR LIBERATION "First they came for the Communists but I was not a Communist so I did not speak out; Then they came for the Socialists and the Trade Unionists but I was not one of them, so I did not speak out; Then they came for the Jews but I was not Jewish so I did not speak out. And when they came for me, there was no one left to speak out for me." Martin Niemoller, 1892-1984

  • ANTI SEMITISMWas created in 1879 First used by Wilhelm Marr German agitator to explain the current anti-Jewish campaigns in EuropeThe hostility or prejudice against the Jewish race and ethnic groupExtremism in Germany made by Hitler leads to . . .

  • THE FINAL SOLUTION Plan to exterminate all of Jewish peopleImplemented in stages

    Nazis and Hitler rose to powerState-enforced racism in Jewish legislation Boycotts Night of Broken Glass

    All leading to isolation of Jews

  • 1939 CAMPS

  • CAMPSAuschwitzPoland (Monowitz, Birkenau)DachauMunich, GermanyMajdanekLublin, PolandBuchenwald Weimar, Germany BelsenCelle, Germany

  • DACHAUFirst camp to be createdMarch 1933Empty munitions factory10 miles west of Munic, Germany

  • CAMP STRUCTURE

  • AuschwitzLargest camp establishedBroken down three campsAuschwitz I: Concentration campAuschwitz II: Birkenau Killing CenterAuschwitz III: Monowitz Forced Labor camp1.1 million Jews eliminatedOther victumsChristian PolesRoma GypsiesSoviet Prisoners of war

  • DEPORTATIONS

  • ENTERING CAMPS

  • HOW?

  • GAS CHAMBERSGas vansGas used:Carbon Monoxide Zyklon BTested on Gypsy childrenDelousing to control TyphusSeptember 3, 1941 first killing 600 Soviet POWsMost deaths from Gas

  • CREMETORIUMSPut in all campsAuschwitz campEstimated killing capacity up to 340 every 24 hoursNormally dead first

  • MEDICAL EXPIRAMENTSThree main groups1) Tests aimed at easing survival of military personnel2) Testing pharmaceuticals treating military and occupation personnel. 3) Advancing racial ideological tenets of Nazi worldview Other testingSterilization experiments in Auschwitz and Ravensbrueck on unfit races

  • ALL INVOLVEDHitler creator of Final SolutionDr. Josef Mengele experimented on prisonersMany SS officers killed and controlled Jewish and other prisonersU.S. troops liberated campsSoviet troops liberated camps

  • NEWS OF LIBERATIONNews of the U.S. and Soviet troops moving forward set off alarm for GermansBegan Death marches Destroyed crematories and gas chambers Prisoner riots began

  • DEATH MARCH1944-1945 Largest took placeNine days before reaching Auschwitz 60,000 marched toward Wodzislaw then put onto trains One march consisted of 6,000 women 1,000 men600 diedThe remainder were forced into the ocean and shot

  • PUSHED FORWARD

  • FINAL LIBERATION Camps liberated by Soviet Union:Majdanek July 1944Belzec, Sobiber, Treblinka summer of 1944Auschwitz January 1945StutthofSachsenhausenRavensbrueck

  • LIBERATION contdLiberated by U.S.:Dachau April 1945Buchenwald April 11, 1945Dora-Mittelbau April 1945Mauthausen May 1945Flossenbuerg

  • AFTER LIBERATION No homes to go to Many died weeks after liberation from malnutrition Many had louse-borne Typhus fever and had to be treatedTreated with doxycycline 200 for 24 hoursNever could fully return to their lives before

  • ESTIMATED NUMBER OF NON-COMBAT DEATHSUkrainians5.5-7 million Jews (all countries)6 million +Russian POWs3.3 million +Russian civilians2 million +Poles3 million +Gypsies 200 500 thousandDisabled 70 250 thousandHomosexualstens of thousands

  • CREDITSPage 1 picturegoogle imagesPage 2 cartoon...google imagesPage 3 picture..google imagesPage 4 map.............holocaust museumPage 5 map..holocaust museumPage 7 picture(1,2).google imagesPage 8 map................holocaust-history.orgPage 9 picture (1,2)........google imagesPage 10 map..............holocaust museumPage 11 map.holocaust museumPage 13-17 pictures google imagesPage 22 map.holocaust museumPage 24 picture.google imagesPage 25 map.holocaust museum