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  • Complementary Feeding Recipes for

    Ethiopian Children 6-23 Months Old

    A Practical Cooking and Feeding Guide

    AUGUST 2006

    Contains daily recipes for

    Staple Group 1: maize/enset

    Staple Group 2: teff/wheat/barley

    Staple Group 3: maize/sorghum

    Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

    Ministry of Health

  • This publication is supported by

    This publication was developed by LINKAGES: Breastfeeding, LAM, Related Complementary Feeding, and Maternal Nutrition Program, and was made possible through funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided to the Academy for Educational Development (AED) under the terms of Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-97-00007-00. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the USAID or AED.

  • Table of Contents Page

    Section I: Ethiopian Infant & Young Child Feeding Recommendations A. Feeding infants 0-5 months old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 B. Feeding children 6-23 months old . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 C. Responsive feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    Section II: Complementary Feeding of Infants 6-11 months of age A. Ethiopian Feeding Guidelines: infants 6-11 months . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B. Recipes for Three Staple Groups: Group 1: maize and enset Recipe 1: Bulla porridge enriched with milk, carrots and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    7 Recipe 2: Maize porridge enriched with kidney beans,

    tomato and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    8 Recipe 3: Bulla porridge enriched with milk, tomato and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    9 Recipe4: Mashed potato enriched with kale, carrot milk and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    10 Recipe 5: Bulla and pea porridge enriched with pumpkin and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    11 Recipe 6: Maize porridge enriched with milk, tomato and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    12 Recipe 7: Mashed beef heart with potato, carrot, kale, egg

    and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    13 Recipe 8: Enjera with shiro, onion and tomato . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Group 2: teff, wheat and barley Recipe 9: Teff porridge enriched with milk, carrot, tomato

    and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    15 Recipe 10: Wheat porridge enriched with milk, pumpkin

    and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    16 Recipe 11: Mashed potato porridge enriched with tomato,

    milk and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    17 Recipe 12: Barley porridge enriched with milk, pea/bean

    flour, carrots and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    18 Recipe 13: Enjera with shiro, onion, carrot and tomato . . . . 19 Recipe 14: Enjera with meat, potato, kale and oil/butter. . . . 20 Group 3: maize and sorghum Recipe 15: Sorghum porridge enriched with tomato, carrot,

    milk and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    21

  • Recipe 16: Maize porridge enriched with pumpkin, milk and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    22 Recipe 17: Sorghum porridge enriched with Tomato, carrot

    and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    23 Recipe 18: Mashed potato enriched with carrot, milk and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    24 Recipe 19: Sorghum porridge enriched with pea flour, kale

    and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    25 Recipe 20: Maize porridge enriched with pumpkin, tomato

    and oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    26 Recipe 21: Potato porridge enriched with carrot, egg and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    27

    Section III: Complementary Feeding of Children 12-23 months of age A. Ethiopian Feeding Guidelines: children 12-23 months . . . . . . . . . 29 B. Recipes for Three Staple Groups: Group 1: maize and enset Recipe 22: Enjera with kale, potato, egg and oil/butter,

    with milk to drink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    30 Recipe 23: Enjera with potato, carrot, kale and egg, with

    milk to drink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    31 Recipe 24: Bulla porridge enriched with kale, milk and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    32 Recipe 25: Enjera with meat and kale, with milk to drink. . . 33 Group 2: teff, wheat and barley Recipe 26: Teff porridge enriched with pea flour, carrot

    milk and oil/butter, with milk to drink . . . . . . . . .

    34 Recipe 27: Barley porridge enriched with kale, egg, milk and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    35 Recipe 28: Enjera with lentile and carrot sauce, with milk

    to drink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    36 Group 3: maize and sorghum Recipe 29: Sorghum porridge enriched with pea flour,

    carrot and oil/butter, and milk to drink . . . . . . .

    37 Recipe 30: Enjera with potato and carrots, with milk to

    drink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    38 Recipe 31: Sorghum porridge enriched with kale, milk and

    oil/butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    39 Recipe 32: Enjera with meat and kale sauce, with milk to

    drink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    40

  • References Annex 1: Key ‘Essential Nutrition Action’ Messages for Feeding Infants 0-5 months Annex 2: Key ‘Essential Nutrition Action’ Messages for Feeding Children

    6-23 months Annex 3: Food Composition Table Annex 4: Different types of cups used to measure quantities in different

    localities

  • Acknowledgments

    This book focuses on ‘how to’ adequately feed young children 6-23 months and was adopted from materials originally developed by Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, all of which are listed in the reference section. We are grateful to have had this valuable technical background on which to develop this present document. We would like to give special thanks to Dr. Victoria Quinn, Dr. Agnes B. Guyon Dr.Hana NekaTebeb and Ms Mulu G/medhin for their encouragement in the preparation and production of this book on how to feed children 6-23 months of age in Ethiopia. Special thanks are also given to Aster Mekonen for her help in the LINKAGES/Ethiopia kitchen during the testing of the recipes. Appreciation is also extended to other members of the LINKAGES team and colleagues from other organizations, foremost the Federal Ministry of Health, for their input and support.

    LINKAGES/Ethiopia

    August 2006

  • Introduction

    Studies show that malnutrition is a significant health problem for infants and young children in Ethiopia. Though poverty is the underlining cause of malnutrition, inadequate food security, sup-optimal infant caring practice and limited access to water and sanitation services are also important causes of child malnutrition. Improved child care and infant feeding practices are important interventions for reducing infant and young child malnutrition. The purpose of this book is to provide service providers with information necessary for counseling mothers and child caretakers on how to feed their children 6-23 months, specifically on aspects of complementary feeding in addition to continued breastfeeding. Complementary feeding means giving other foods in addition to breast milk starting when an infant is 6 months old since at this time breastmilk alone is not sufficient to meet a growing infant’s nutritional needs. Complementary foods are needed to fill the calorie, protein and micronutrient gap between the total nutritional needs of the child and the amount provided by breast milk. The book contains simple nutritious complementary feeding recipes that can be prepared from locally available foods for three major staple eating areas of the country, including (1) maize/enset/teff, (2) wheat/barley, and (3) sorghum/maize. The recipes have been developed to meet the changing nutritional needs of children in two age groups, 6-11 months and 12-23 months, in terms of calories, consistency and thickness. It is assumed that children are still receiving breast milk, thus the amounts and types of

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