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  • Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Concepts

    between the TOGAF

    framework and Macroscope

    Version 1.0 June 2014

    Macroscope is a registered trademark of Fujitsu Consulting (Canada) Inc. Fujitsu and the Fujitsu logo are registered trademarks of Fujitsu Limited.

    TOGAF and The Open Group are registered trademarks of The Open Group.

  • Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Concepts between the TOGAF framework and Macroscope

    2014 Fujitsu Consulting (Canada) Inc. All rights reserved. 2

    Proprietary Notice

    This document contains information that is Proprietary to Fujitsu Consulting (Canada) Inc., hereafter Fujitsu, and may not be disclosed to any person who is not a Fujitsu employee without the prior written consent of Fujitsu. In consideration of receipt of this document, the recipient agrees to treat information as confidential and to not reproduce or otherwise disclose this information to any persons not specifically authorized to receive it. Fujitsu reserves the right to request that the recipient return all copies of this document.

    Macroscope Licensees are authorized to use this document as long as they agree to treat it like any other Macroscope component governed by a Macroscope license granted by Fujitsu.

    About the mapping

    It is important to realize that mappings between two or more frameworks are always judgmental and must be used with caution. Mappings are often limited to prescribed activities and do not include other important aspects such as organizational considerations, and requirements such as commitment, abilities, governance, verification, or measurement.

    Mappings only provide an indication of what is documented and should never be used as a road map to successfully achieve an assessment against a given framework.

  • Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Concepts between the TOGAF framework and Macroscope

    2014 Fujitsu Consulting (Canada) Inc. All rights reserved. 3

    TOGAF Architecture Development Method

    Macroscope Definition of Capabilities (Architecture Domain)

    Comments / Discussion

    Four (4) domains for Enterprise Architecture:

    Business

    Application

    Data

    Technology

    Two (2) key perspectives in which different aspects of Enterprise Architecture are developed:

    Business & Work Architecture: determines the changes required to the business operations to support the new capabilities and guides the structuring of the business to accommodate the current and emerging strategies.

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Architecture: defines the information and communication infrastructures that are required by the new capabilities or that will act as a catalyst to stimulate new business opportunities.

    "Business & Work Architecture takes as much importance as "Technology Architecture" in Macroscope:

    All work resources must be clearly identified and defined.

    Inputs :

    Business Goals, Business Drivers, and Constraints

    Business capability assessment

    Architecture principles, including business principles

    Scope

    Architecture Vision - Business scenarios

    Target Architecture value propositions and KPIs

    Inputs from Macroscope Vision Domain :

    Strategic Vision

    Business Model

    Course of Action Inputs defined in Architecture Domain :

    Enterprise Requirements : o Business Scenarios o Enterprise Context Iteration scope o Enterprise Requirements o Enterprise Principles and Standard

    Taking into account inputs to the Definition of Capabilities process coming from the Vision domain, covers all concepts related to the Business Motivation Model.

    All concepts related to the development of an architecture vision are taken into consideration in the Enterprise Context Definition phase of the Definition of Capabilities process.

    Business Architecture: defines the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes Business Modeling :

    Business Activities: o Business Process Models (description of the

    enterprise business functions) o Use Case Models (Enterprise activities and functions

    from the perspective of actors) enable the identification of services

    o Class Models (information model)

    Business & Work Architecture define: Capabilities and Processes:

    Business Capabilities : o Business Capabilities Models o Value Chain, Supply Chain, Extended Value Network o Products and Services o Management Controls

    Processes and Systems: o Enterprise Process Models o Systems (working and information) Models o Business Services

    Macroscope begins the Target Architecture Definition phase by establishing architecture directions that will guide architecture work.

    Macroscope centers enterprise architecture definition on business capabilities:

    For each top level business capability, business services and their value chain are associated with the enterprise processes that realize them, and the systems that support them.

    These systems comprise work and ICT resources that are assembled and configured to deliver the required

  • Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Concepts between the TOGAF framework and Macroscope

    2014 Fujitsu Consulting (Canada) Inc. All rights reserved. 4

    TOGAF Architecture Development Method

    Macroscope Definition of Capabilities (Architecture Domain)

    Comments / Discussion

    Work Resources:

    Human Resources: o Human Resource Capabilities Models o Human Resource Services o Human Resource Model - Organizational Structure

    Information Architecture: o Information Capabilities Model o Information Services o Information Resource Model

    Work Environments: o Work Environments Capabilities Models (sites, buildings,

    rooms, workstations, physical environment, peripheral equipment)

    o Work Environment Services o Work Environments Resource Model

    Financial and Other Resources: o Financial Capabilities Models:

    Cost-revenue Models o Financial Services o Other Resources Capabilities Models

    Knowledge and Know-how Models

    business services.

    The architecture of each resources type is developed, for both the business/work and ICT aspects.

    The services of each architecture component are identified.

    Traceability of architecture components to requirements is established.

    Technologies Architecture :

    Data Architecture describes the structure of an organization's logical and physical data assets and data management resources. o Business data model o Logical data model o Data management process model o Data Entity/Business Function matrix o Data interoperability requirements

    Application Architecture provides a blueprint for the individual applications to be deployed, their interactions, and their relationships to the core business processes of the organization.

    Technologies Architecture defines Technologies Resources:

    Data Architecture o Data Capabilities Models o Data Services o Data Resources Model

    Software Architecture o Software Capabilities Models o Software Services o Software Resources Models - Application Software

    Systems

    Technology Infrastructure Architecture o Technology Infrastructure Capabilities Models

    Macroscope makes a distinction between the information supporting business activities, as perceived by human resources, and its persistent representation using technologies.

    Consequently, information capabilities are defined at the business/work architecture level and data capabilities at the ICT architecture level.

    Macroscope makes a distinction between software architecture and systems architecture.

    Systems (e.g. work systems, information systems) are defined in the Systems Architecture.

  • Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Concepts between the TOGAF framework and Macroscope

    2014 Fujitsu Consulting (Canada) Inc. All rights reserved. 5

    TOGAF Architecture Development Method

    Macroscope Definition of Capabilities (Architecture Domain)

    Comments / Discussion

    o Document each building block o Document final mapping from the selected building

    blocks

    Technology Architecture describes the logical software and hardware capabilities that are required to support the deployment of business, data, and application services. This includes IT infrastructure, middleware, networks, communications, processing, standards, etc. o Fundamental functionality and attributes semantic,

    unambiguous including security capability and manageability

    o Dependent building blocks with required functionality and named interfaces

    o Interfaces chosen set, supplied (APIs, data formats, protocols, hardware interfaces, standards)

    o Map to business/organizational entities and policies

    Hardware Infrastructure Capabilities Software Infrastructure Capabilities

    o Technology Infrastructure Services o Technology Infrastructure Resources Model

    Computer and network equipment, etc.. Operating systems, integration systems,

    collaboration systems, etc.

    Software architecture defines the set of application software supporting the systems. These systems may be associated with the TOGAF building block concept and represent sets of resources (work and ICT) supporting the realization of enterprise processes.

    The Macroscope Technology Infrastructure concept is equivalent to the TOGAF Technology Architecture concept.

    Enterprise Architecture is supported by the management of a set of artefacts : Business Architecture:

    Catalogs: inventories of the core assets of the business o Organization/Actor catalog o Driver/Goal/Objective catalog o Role catalog o Business Service/Function catalog o Location catalog o Process/Event/Control/Product catalog o Contract/Measure catalog

    Matrices: core relationships between related model entities o Business interaction matrix (showing dependency and

    communication between organizations and actors) o Actor/role matrix (showing the roles undertaken by

    each actor)

    Enterprise architecture is supported by four management areas of the design process of enterprise architecture:

    Requirements management (definition, following and audit): o Business Requirements (objects of interest, design

    variables, performance targets, Metrics) o Operational Requirements (audit, Accessibility,

    Operability) o Stakeholder Requirements o Solution Requirements o Transition Requirements

    Quality management: o Architecture Evaluation Criteria o Architecture Evaluation o Capabilities and Resources Gap Analysis

    Capability Management with Traceability Matrix between: o Business capabilities Human Resource Capabilities

    In Macroscope, requirements management is an integral part of the Definition of Capabilities process.

    As architectures are developed, requirements are traced down to architecture components to ensure they are addressed adequately.

    Audits are conducted to confirm requirements response.

    In Macroscope, candidate enterprise architectures and solutions undergo a formal evaluation process to ensure their quality and select those that best meet established criteria. A gap analysis between the enterprise current and target situations enables the identification of new capabilities to be developed, and existing capabilities to be improved or retired. In Macroscope, each business capability is traced down to

  • Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Concepts between the TOGAF framework and Macroscope

    2014 Fujitsu Consulting (Canada) Inc. All rights reserved. 6

    TOGAF Architecture Development Method

    Macroscope Definition of Capabilities (Architecture Domain)

    Comments / Discussion

    Data Architecture :

    Catalogs: o Data Entity/ Data Component catalog

    Matrices: o Data Entity/Business Function o Business Service/Information o System/Data

    Application Architecture:

    Catalogs: o Application Portfolio catalog o Interface catalog

    Matrices: o System/Organization matrix o Role/System matrix o Application Interaction matrix o System/Function matrix

    Technology Architecture :

    Catalogs : o Technology standards o Technology portfolio catalog

    Matrices : o System/Technology matrix

    (Organization) o Business capabilities Enterprise Processes o Business capabilities Systems o Business capabilities Information Capabilities o Systems Software Capabilities o Human Resource Capabilities (Organizational) Software

    Capabilities o Software Capabilities Data Capabilities o Software Capabilities Technology Infrastructure

    Capabilities Macroscope integrates Services management in Enterprise Architecture domain :

    Service Catalog o Business Services o Human Resource Services o Information Services o Work Environment Services o Financial Services o Data Services o Software Services o Technology Infrastructure Services

    Service Contract

    the architecture components that contribute to its realization.

    The tool provided by Macroscope supports the analysis of capabilities and facilitates the identification of components to be developed to support the change.

    Phase E: Opportunities & Solutions Derive a series of Transition Architectures that deliver continuous business value (e.g., capability increments) through the exploitation of opportunities to realize the building blocks. Outline Implementation and Migration Strategy. Phase F: Migration Planning Confirm the Transition Architectures

    Create, evolve, and monitor the detailed Implementation and Migration Plan

    Phase 3: Evolution Scenario Selection

    Define one or more possible enterprise solutions

    Confirm the likely impact of the capability changes and identify the initial benefits, costs, assumptions and risks associated with each enterprise solution.

    Determine the configurations which will implement capabilities.

    Outline Change Strategy Phase 4: Capability Delivery

    Identify transition problems and constraints related to

    Phases 3 and 4 of the Macroscope Definition of Capabilities process cover the activities of phases E and F of TOGAF.

    It consists of identifying preferred enterprise solutions to realize the change towards the selected target architecture.

    A release strategy is established for selected solutions, covering activities directly involved in solution delivery and activities enabling a smooth change transition.

  • Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Concepts between the TOGAF framework and Macroscope

    2014 Fujitsu Consulting (Canada) Inc. All rights reserved. 7

    TOGAF Architecture Development Method

    Macroscope Definition of Capabilities (Architecture Domain)

    Comments / Discussion

    preferred enterprise solutions.

    Deliver enterprise solutions for implementation.

    Package the required capabilities into separate releases.

    Plan the change program benefits realization.

    Phase G: Implementation Governance

    To perform appropriate governance functions while the solution is being implemented and deployed

    To ensure conformance with the defined architecture by implementation projects and other projects

    To ensure that the program of solutions is deployed successfully, as a planned program of work

    To ensure conformance of the deployed solution with the Target Architecture

    Phase H: Architecture Change Management

    T...

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