compa exoskeleton

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Comparative anatomy


Phylum ChordataSubphylum: Urochordata / TunicataPandocia sp. (Sea Squirts)3

Filter feeders Outer covering: Tunic / Test Has (1) incurrent (larval mouth) and (2) excurrent (atriopore) siphon1

Subphylum: Cephalochordata / AcraniaBranchiostoma lanceolatus (Lancelet)


(1) Gill Slits (2) Mouth (w tentacles or cirri) (3) Notochord (4) Dorsal hollow nerve cord Filter feeders

Muscle segments : Myotomes/ Myomeres (60) At ventral portion: Pleural folds / Laterla fins Parts p. 26 Hyman, p.35 kent Look for oral hood w membranous velum, vestibule (chamber for seawater)

Subphylum: Vertebrata / CraniataClass: AgnathaSuborder: Petromyzontia

Petromyzon marinus (Marine Lamprey) Buccal funnel (attachment) with lip tentacles Parasitic Dorsal surface: Nasohypophyseal opening Eyes w/out eyelids; Naked skin (slime glands) 7 gill slits (water conduction) JAWLESS and NO PAIRED FINS Myotomes separated by myosepta Anandromous live in the sea but migrate upstream to lay eggs. Adults : Marine; Young: Freshwater

Class: Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) Cartilaginous skeleton Exposed gill slits & SPIRACLE Placoid scales Ventral mouth w/ claspers! Macrolecithal egg Oviparous Has spiracles

General Anatomy:

Fusiform bodies Pointed part of head: Rostrum W upper and lower jaws (mouth) May have Endolymphatic ducts Heterocercal tails Pectoral fins hydrofoil Cranium w/out sutures No Swim bladders Fins stiffened by ceratotrichia

Scoliodon palasorrah (dogfish) Has a lateral line extending on sides of body Cloacal aperture/ anus between pelvic fins; Urogenital papilla in betweenDasyatis kuhli (skate) May have Nasofrontal process Projecting spine w/ anus and claspersSphyrna sp. (Hammerhead shark)Rhinobatis sp. (Guitar shark)Remora sp. (Shark sucker fish)

Class: Osteichthyes (Bony fishes) Gill slits are covered by a bony operculum w/ swim bladder & cloaca Fins stiffened by lepidotrichia GANOID FISHES Order: Chondrostei Cartilaginous endoskeleton Heterocercal fins Bottom feeders Egg is called Roe Ganoid scales! w/ spiracle

Acipenseri sturio (Sturgeon) 4 branched ventral projections: Barbels (detection of food)Polyodon sp. (Paddlefish/Spoonbill) Operculum lacks bones W/ teeth

Order: HolosteiLepidosteus sp. (Garpike) No spiracle Ganoid scale Freshwater Operculum Heterocercal tail

Order: Teleostei Ossified skeletons w/ Operculum! Cycloid or ctenoid scales w/ swim bladders no spiracles Homocercal/Protocercal/DiphycercalOreochromis sp. (Perch/Tilapia)Chanos chanos (milkfish)Clarias batrachus (catfish)Ophiocephalus sp. (mudfish)Microboglossus sp. (Solefish)Hippocampus sp. (Seahorse)Remora sp. (shark sucker fish)Diodon sp. (Puffer fish)

Class: Amphibia Have cloacaOrder: Anura Cold-blooded w/ lungs

Rana erythrea (Frog)Bufo marinus (Marine toad) Mostly terrestrial Specialization of hind limbs for jumping Webbed feet Presence of Eardrums

Order: UrodelaNecturus macolosus (Salamander/ Mudpuppy) No scales; slimy skin Have external nares 3 External gills (respiration) w/ gill slits Gular fold found across throat

Class: Reptilia Dry, scaly skin No gills EVEROrder: Chelonia Jaws lack teeth but are clothed w HARD HORNY BEAKS Have nictitating membrane Have circular eardrum Shell consists of Carapace, ventral flat Plastron, and lateral bridges connecting the former 2.Cuora amboinensis (pond turtle)Gopherus sp. (desert)Chelonia (sea water turtle)

Order: Squamata (Lizards) Tetrapod in form Body is clothed w horny scales, plates, or tubercles Have nictitating membrane (3rd eyelid) Pineal eye (small spot) Some have femoral pores at thighs(?) Teeth are in socketsVaranus sp. (Monitor lizard/ bayawak)Hemidactylus sp. (House lizard)Gecko gecko (tree lizard)

Suborder Ophidia Have pits temperature detectors Molt!!Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (pit viper)Python reticulatus (Reticulated python)

Order: Crocodilia Semi-aquaticCrocodilus sp. (Crocodile)Alligator sp. (Alligator) Horny thickenings underlain by bony plates

Class: Aves Presence of wings Warm blooded (duh) Tail: Uropygium Contour feathers cover the whole body; 2 types: (1) Flight feathers large feathers of wings and tail(2) Coverts cover bases of wings and tail Hair feathers / Filoplumes where feathers are removed Feather follicles where filoplumes were removed