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Community Pharmacy Drug Album.. 4th year.. Faculty of Pharmacy.. Helwan University..






    Peptic Ulcer

    Gastrointestinal Reflex Disease


  • CO





  • Definition:Constipation is the diffculity infrequent passage of stool .Normal stool frequency (2-3) times daily or weak.

    Danger of contipation: Patinets often consider constipation as a simple complaint that is easy to manage .!!!! complaint that is easy to manage .!!!! However it can produce direct or indirect morbidity. 1)straining : lead to ischemic attcks and syncope 2)accumilation of feaces :lead to megarectum,megacolon. 3)Remaining:lead to dehydratin of feaces which can not pass through which can not pass through the anus . 4)paradoxic diarrhea.



  • ConstipationSymptoms:1) abdominal discofort. 2) swelling.3) bloating. 4) low back pain.

    Causes: a) Life style: 1) travelling diarrhea 2) inadequate fluid intake.3) inadequate exercise 4) inadequate fiber intake.3) inadequate exercise 4) inadequate fiber intake.5) loss of defecatory reflex.

    b)Medical conditions ;1) pregnancy 2) irritable bowel syndrome.3) nerve damage 4) colorectal carcinoma. 5) anal fissure, anal fistula, herpes simplex and hemorrhoids.6) diabetes, chronic renal failure and parkinoson disease.7) prolonged colon transit time especially in females.7) prolonged colon transit time especially in females.

    c) Medications:Opiates, diuretics, NSAIDs, anticholinergics, TCA, MAOI, Barbiturates, antihistaminics Fe,Ca contining drugs and antacids.

  • Non Pharmacological :1) Take 8 glasses of non cafinated fluid.2) Avoid SOFT DRINKS3) Increase fiber intake.3) Exercise.4) Defecation After breakfast.5) for Pregnant5) for Pregnant Woman : avoid castor oil as laxativeBecause it causes immature labour, The most appropriate OTC drug.for pregnant is PSYLLIUM


  • ConstipationPrecautions :-Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: an obstruction of the intestine (gut), paralytic ileus (lack of bowel movements, leading to blockage of the gut), abdominal pain plus feeling sick (nausea) or vomiting, pain plus feeling sick (nausea) or vomiting, active and severe inflammatory bowel disease (such as ulcerative colitis, a disease of the lower intestine [colon] characterised by open sores [ulcers] with symptoms such as frequent diarrhoea mixed with blood), surgical abdominal (belly) conditions (such as appendicitis), or severe dehydration.(such as appendicitis), or severe dehydration.

    PREGNANCYSodium picosulfate is suitable to take during pregnancy. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any doubts or questions about this.It is sensible to limit use of medication during pregnancy whenever possible. HoweveHowever, your doctor may decide that the benefits outweigh the risks in individual circumstances and after a careful assessment of your specific health situation.


  • ConstipationSame Precautions of Laxeol-PIbecause it has same ingtedients Sodium Picosulfate

  • MinalaxPrecautions :Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredientswhich can cause allewhich can cause allergic reactions or otherproblems.

    If you have any of the following health problems, consult your doctor or pharmacist before using this medication: severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, sudden change in bowel habits over the previous 2 weeks.This medication should be used only when This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. It is not known if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.before breast-feeding.




  • Whats Diarrhea ?!Diarrhea is an increase in the frequency of bowel movements or a decrease in the form of stool (greater looseness of stool). Although changes in frequency of bowel movements and looseness of stools can vary independently of each other,changes often occur in both.changes often occur in both.


    Who is at Risk for Diarrhea ?!People with compromised immune systems are at risk for developing diarrhea. That population includes those who are HIV positive, people who have had organ transplants and people undergoing certain types chemotherapy. Those who are living or traveling in regionsThose who are living or traveling in regions with unsanitary water systems are also at risk. Young children, especially those who are in child care facilities, and the elderly, who may be unable to properly clean themselves can also be susceptible to diarrhea.

  • DiarrheaWhat Causes Diarrhea?The most common cause of diarrhea is a virus that infects the gut. The infection usually lasts for two days and is sometimes called "intestinal flu" or "stomach flu." Diarrhea may also be caused by:* Infection by bacteria (the cause of most types of food poisoning)* Infections by other o* Infections by other organisms(eg.E-coli)* Eating foods that upset the digestive system* Allergies to certain foods* Medications(eg.Cholchicine)* Diseases of the intestines (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)* Malabsorption (where the body is unable to adequately absorb certain nutrients from the diet)* Radiation therapy * Hyperthyroidism* Radiation therapy * Hyperthyroidism* Some cancers * Laxative abuse* Alcohol abuse * Digestive tract surgery* Diabetes * Competitive running* Some people get diarrhea while traveling (traveler's diarrhea).

  • DiarrheaWhat About Symptoms?1. Watery, liquid stools : The stools may be any color. The passage of red stools suggests intestinal bleeding and could be a sign of a more severe infection,which indicate the probability of parasite infections (e.g) Giardia Lamblia

    2. Abdominal cramps : Occasionally diarrhea is accompanied with mild-to-moderateabdominal pain. Severe abdominal or with mild-to-moderateabdominal pain. Severe abdominal or stomach pain is not common and, if present, may suggest more severe disease.

    3. Fever : A high fever is not common. If present, the affected person may have a more severe illness than acute diarrhea,which indicate the probability of viral infection with (Rota virus in infants or Norwolk virus in adult or Adeno virus in all age gp).Adeno virus in all age gp).

    4. Dehydration : If diarrhea leads to dehydration, it is a sign of potentially serious disease.

  • How to prevent Diarrhea ? 1- Practice good hand-washing hygiene, especially when you are around a group of children, or after using public bathrooms or shopping. Wash your hands after you have a bowel movement, or after wiping up your children after their bowel movements. It's possible to spread bacteria. 2- 2- Avoid huge dietary changes. For example, don't go on an all-grapes diet. Introduce new foods slowly into your diet, especially fruits, vegetables, grains and milk products. 3- Throw food away if it drops onto the floor or the ground. Parasites and germs are found at ground level. 4- Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating. 5- Cook food thoroughly, especially meat. 6- 6- Avoid foods that have a tendency to loosen bowels, like the sorbitol found in many diet foods. 7- Practice good stress management if your diarrhea is caused by anxiety. 8- Forgo milk products.. if your diarrhea is caused by a lactose intolerance. 9- Cut back on caffeine, which can cause stools to loosen. 10- Read your medication labels carefull 10- Read your medication labels carefully. If one of the side effects is diarrhea, check with your physician about changing medications.



  • DiarrheaStreptoquin Streptoquin is stable and can be used for 14 days after reconstitution or for 7 days ,when kept at roon temperature.

    Precations :** The produt should be avoided if the pataint is hypersensitive to iodine or with impaired liver function .* Its use is best avoided in patiants with neurological disorders .* It should be used cautiously for thyroid patients , patients requiring thyriod function tests ,requiring thyriod function tests ,should inform their physician that they are taking this medicine since diiodoauin bound iodine for up to 6 mouths .

  • DiarrheaFlagylContraindication :* Hypersensitivity to inidazol derivatives .* Pregnant and breast feeding women .

    WWarning and special precations :- Alcoholic drugs should be avoided during secnidol treatment .- Donot administer to subjects with a history of blood dyscrasia .

    Pregnancy :No teratogenic effects is observed during animal experimentation during animal experimentationHowever , in view of theabsence of data in humans ,it is not recommended to take secnidazole during pregnancy.

    Lactation :Secnidazol is excreted in breast milk.

  • DiarrheaAntinal (Nifuroxazide)Contraindcation :Nifuroxazide is contraindicated in conditions like Paralytic ileus, Neonates, Hypersensitivity to any component of product.

    Interaction :Interaction :Nifuroxazide is known to interact with other drugs like Alcohol.These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dosethe change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

  • HEM



  • HemorrhoidWhat are Hemorrhoids ?H


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