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UNIVERSITATEA LIBER INTERNAIONAL DIN MOLDOVA

COMERUL MONDIAL CU PRODUSE PETROLIERE

Teza de doctor n economieConductor tiinific Boris Chistruga, doctor habilitat n economie, conf. univ. Autor

Chiinu 2009

ANNOTATION to the Thesis for the Doctor degree in Economics of Mr. with the subject: Global trade with oil products, Specialty: 08.00.14 World Economy; International Economic Relations. One of the most topical problems of the modern global economy is the Energy Problem. In thelast century the Oil became one of the most important traded goods, this product being crucial in defining national strategies for development, as well as of the global politics. In the last decades the increasing demand for Energy for the sake of economic and social development has lead to intensify exploitation of energy resources and implicitly to rise of production of fuel. Possibilities for classic energy resources offered by Terra are limited. Their consumption suggests a wiser use on

national and worldwide scale.The scope of the research consists in determining tendencies of the development of the oil products market on a global scale; factors that determine these tendencies; in evaluating conditions created in the Republic of Moldova in the field of satisfying national economy with main oil

products, determining their impact on social and economic development, emphasizing problems that this sector of the economy is confronting and elaborating some measures aimed to contribute to improvement of the situation in this sector. The thesis has a well-determined structure and consists of introduction, three chapters divided in subchapters, conclusions and proposals, bibliography and annexes. Chapter I, Oil source of energy on global scale examines following issues: Energy sector as a subsystem of the economy. General notions; oil as energy resource in modern economy; aggregate global supply and demand of oil and oil products; evolution of prices for oil products on global scale. In chapter II, International flows of oil and oil products is presented a complex analysis of the evolution of international trade with oil products. Perspectives; place and role of OPEC countries in world oil trade; Peculiarities of the main oil exporting countries within OPEC; oil trade in USA as biggest consumer and in the Asian states (China, Japan, South Korea); supplying EU with oil resources; role of Russia and other CIS countries in production and export of oil products etc. In chapter III, Oil products market in the Republic of Moldova is studied the active legislation of the republic with regard to oil products market; evaluation of the level of satisfaction of needs of the country in oil products; attraction of investments in development of the technical and material basis of the oil market; fiscal evasion, underground economy and smuggling on the oil market of the republic; models of theoretical tackling the issue of smuggling and measures of combating it. On the basis of made investigations in conclusion the author arguments a complex of concrete measures regarding improvement of the situation on the market of main oil products in the Republic of Moldova. 2

ADNOTAREla teza de doctor n economie a dlui cu tema: Comerul mondial cu produse petroliere, specialitatea: 08.00.14 Economioe mondial; relaii economice internaionale.

Una dintre cele mai actuale probleme ale economiei mondiale contemporane este problema energetic. n ultima sut de ani petrolul a constituit unul dintre cele mai importante bunuri comercializate, acest produs fiind crucial n definirea strategiilor naionale pentru dezvoltare, dar i a politicii mondiale. Cantitatea tot mai mare de energie solicitat de dezvoltarea economic i social din ultimele decenii a dus la o intensificare a exploatrii resurselor energetice i implicit la creterea produciei de combustibil. Posibilitile n resurse energetice clasice oferite de Terra sunt limitate. Consumul lor reclam o mai judicioas folosire pe plan mondial i naional. Scopul cercetrii const n determinarea tendinelor dezvoltrii pieei cu produse petroliere pe plan mondial, a factorilor ce determin aceste tendine, n evaluarea condiiilor create n Republica Moldova n domeniul asigurrii economiei naionale cu produse petroliere principale, determinarea impactului lor asupra dezvoltrii social-economice, evidenierea problemelor cu care se confrunt acest sector al economiei i elaborarea unor msuri menite s contribuie la ameliorarea situaiei n sectorul respectiv. Teza are o structur bine determinat i const din introducere, trei capitole divizate n subcapitole, concluzii i propuneri, bibliografie i anexe. Capitolul I Petrolul surs de energie pe plan mondial examineaz obiectivele: energetica ca subsistem al economiei. Noiuni generale; petrolul ca surs energetic n economia contemporan; cererea i oferta agregat mondial de petrol i produse petroliere; evoluia preurilor la produsele petroliere pe plan mondial. n capitolul II Fluxurile internaionale cu petrol i produse petroliere este prezentat o analiz complex a evoluiei comerului internaional cu produse petroliere. Perspective; locul i rolul rilor OPEC n comerul mondial cu petrol; particularitai ale principalelor ri exportatoare de petrol din cadrul OPEC; comerul cu petrol n SUA ca cel mai mare consumator i n rile din Asia (China, Japonia, Coreia de Sud); asigurarea UE cu resurse petroliere; rolul Rusiei i altor ri din CSI n producia i exportul produselor petroliere etc. n capitolul III Piaa cu produse petroliere n Republica Moldova este studiat legislaia republicii n viguare privitor la piaa produselor petroliere; evaluarea nivelului de asigurare a necesitilor economiei naionale la produse petroliere; atragerea investiiilor n dezvoltarea bazei tehnico-materiale a pieei petroliere; eviziunea fiscal, economia tenebr i contrabanda pe piaa produselor petroliere din republic; modele de abordare teoretic a contrabandei cu produse petroliere i msurile de combatere a ei. n baza investigaiilor efectuate n concluzie autorul argumenteaz un complex de msuri concrete privind ameliorarea situaiei pe piaa produselor petroliare principale din Republica Moldova.

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Abrevierile folosite n lucrareONU Organizaia Naiunilor Unite OCDE Organizaia pentru Cooperare i Dezvoltare Economic CSI Comunitatea Statelor Independente CME Consiliul Mondial de Energie GUAM Gruzia Ucraina Azerbaidjan Moldova OPEC Organizaia rilor Exportatoare de Petrol FMI Fondul Monetar Internaional BM Banca Mondial EAU Emiratele Arabe Unite (Federaia din 7 state arabe (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjan, Ras alKhaimah, Ajman, Fujairah i Umm alQaiwain) FEAO Federaia Emiratelor Arabe Unite UE Uninea European G7 grupul de apte ri dezvoltate (SUA, Canada, Japonia, Germania, Italia, Marea Britanie, Frana), iar G8 (+ Federaia Rus) URSS Uniunea Republicilor Sovietice Socialiste EIA Energz Information Administration AOC Arabian Oil Company APC Autoritatea Provizorie a Coaliiei Brent - Trei tipuri de iei la nivelul preurilor de pe piaa stop (de pe piaa european) WTI (de pe piaa american) i Dubai (de pe piaa asiatic) CPC Caspian Pipeline Consorium SOCAR Societatea Naional de Petrol a Azerbaidjanului CCG Consiliul de Cooperare a Statelor din Golf (Arabia Saudit, Bahrain, EAU, Oman i Qatar) Azer Azerbaidjan CAOP Central Asia Oil Pipeline SEEL Pproiectul South East Europe Line UNOCAL Companie american petrolier BTCCo. BacuTbilisiCeyhan Pipeline Company AIOC Azerbaidjan International Operating Company AMBO AlbanianMacedonianBulgarianOil Pipeline Corporation Mlrd. t miliarde tone Mt megatone Gt gigatone bbl bareli echivaleni n iei mil. bbl milioane bareli Gbarile Gigabareli Mkm milioane kilometri ptrai2

$ dolari SUA PIB; BNB produsul intern brut; produsul naional brut Tr , Tr , Tr . Tr trimestrul 1, 2, 3, 4. CISR Centrul de Investigaii Strategice i Reforme1 2 3 4

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CUPRINSAdnotare......................................................................................................................................2Abreviatura.................................................................................................................................5

Introducere..................................................................................................................................7 1. Petrolul surs de energie pe plan mondial......................................................................11 1.1. Energetica ca subsistem al economiei. Noiuni generale.......................................11 1.2. Petrolul ca surs energetic n economia contemporan......................................18 1.3. Cererea i oferta mondial de petrol i produse petroliere.......................................25 1.4. Preurile produselor petroliere pe plan mondial.......................................................35 2. Fluxurile internationale cu petrol si produse petroliere....................................................44 2.1. Comerului internaional cu petrol i produse petroliere. Perspective......................44 2.2. Locul i rolul rilor OPEC i non-OPEC n comerul mondial cu petrol................47 2.3. SUA cel mai mare actor pe piata mondiala a petrolului........................................58 2.4. Comerul cu produse petroliere n Asia....................................................................62 2.5. Asigurarea Uniunii Europene cu resurse petroliere...............................