Combining Soil Organic Carbon sequestration and food security in African soils

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CombiningSoilOrganicCarbonsequestra4onandfoodsecurityinAfricansoilsMINISTREDELAGRICULTUREETDELQUIPEMENTRURALINSTITUTSNGALAISDERECHERCHEAGRICOLES1Maintainingand/orincreasingSOCstocks(fosteringSOCsequestra8on)forclimatechangemi8ga8onandadapta8on,andlanddegrada8onneutralityRome,21-23March2017NdyeYacine.Badiane.Ndour;RazafimbeloT;J.L.ChoRe;MBernoux;qAprojec8onoftwobillionpeoplein20502Astateofrapidtransi4onintermofdemographyAstateofrapidtransi4onintermofdemographyqAnimportantchangesinmigra8onpaGernsandurbangrowth.3Source: UN Urban projections, 2010 4ChallengestoAfricanfoodsecurityqDomes8cfooddemandpredictedtotripleby2050inSubSaharanAfrica5qDomes8cfooddemandpredictedtotripleby2050inSubSaharanAfricaq WhatarethekeyroleofSOILCARBONSEQUESTRATIONforfoodsecurityinAfrica?ChallengestoAfricanfoodsecurityHowtoproducesufficientfoodinAfricancontext?6qAfricahas33millionsfarmsoflessthan2hectares,accoun8ngfor80%ofallfarms7Organiccarbonsequestra4ontoenhanceAfricansoilqualityqMostofAfricanSoilarecoarsewithlowac8vityclays;deficientinmostnutrients,especiallyNandPandhavingaverylowCa8onExchangeCapacity(CEC).8SoilOrganicmaRerboostsWaterHoldingCapacityB.D.Hudson,ina1994EffectofwasterecyclingtoaccessPavailabilityonSSAsoilsSoumare,M.,etal.,G.(2003 9EffectoforganicmaRerontropicalsoilproduc4vityOrganicfer4lizersEffectoforganicmanureandlocalizedfer4liza4ononahole(Za)ontheproduc4vityofsorghumintheSahelianzone,Bayenetal.GrennmanureLocalmanureapplica4on10Organicfer4lizersEffectoforganicmanureandlocalizedfer4liza4ononahole(Za)ontheproduc4vityofsorghumintheSahelianzone,Bayenetal.GrennmanureLocalmanureapplica4on11EffectoforganicmaReronsoilproduc4vityEffectoforganicmanureandlocalizedfer4liza4ononahole(Za)ontheproduc4vityofsorghumintheSahelianzone,Bayenetal.EffectofGreenmanureinmasyieldOrganicfer4lizersGrennmanureLocalmanureapplica4on12EffectoforganicmaReronsoilproduc4vityqScaleuplocallyrelevantSoilorganiccarbonprac8ces;qOvercomesocialconstraintsandreformingeconomicincen8vesqImprovemethodsandindicatorsformonitoring,evalua8onandcommunica8onqNeedtocombineSoilandWatermanagement,especiallyindryregionSOCcanreducelanddegradaConandenhancefoodsecurityinAfrica,howeveritsremainvariouschallenges,including?Challengeforscalinguporganiccarbonsequestra4oninAfricanfarmingsystems13Scalinguporganiccarbonsequestra4oninAfricanfarmingsystemsqTheadop8onofRMPsbysmalltropicsfarmersisnecessaryqMostoftheproposalscomeclosetotheCFSandagroecologyqTheseprac8cesneedtoincreasebiomasscollec8onandreducenutrientlosses?2.3Proposedsustainableprac4ces.14ScalingupSOCsequestra4oninAfricanfarmingsystemsqTheadop8onofRMPsbysmalltropicsfarmersisnecessaryqMostoftheproposalscomeclosetotheCFSandagroecologyqTheseprac8cesneedtoincreasebiomasscollec8onandreducenutrientlossesButincreasingbiomassinSSAsoilalsorequiresotherelements:waterandnutrients.Sowecannottotallyrefrainfrommineralfer4lizing.Butrequireefficientuse 15?2.3Proposedsustainableprac4ces.qSmallsizeoffarms(onaverage1.5to4ha)qFamilycharacteroffarmqandthelowlevelofcapital.NoShort-termbenefits(exemptReturn>50%).Non-availabilityofinputs:Labor.LackofCompa8bilitywithSocialFactors-Gapbetweentheobjec8vesofinnova8onandthoseofproducers:Sequestra8onC?-Costs/Benefitsvs.Prac8ces-Extension/LackofAwarenessCondi4onsofnon-adop4onCausesandreasonsslowingdownadop4onn16Overcomesocialconstraintsandreformingeconomicincen4vesqTherulesofaccess,useandmanagementofnaturalresources:Themodeofaccessandmanagementofresourcescanentailacompe88onbetweentheuseofresourcesqTherearestrongtrade-offsforeitheralloca8ngcropresiduesforlivestockfeedorusingthecropresiduesdirectlyformulchtherebyreducingtheamountandqualityofmanureavailableandcompromisingthecondi8onoflivestock.17Overcomesocialconstraintsandreformingeconomicincen4vesParksFaidherbiaalbida:WestAfricaSenegalMul8pleUsageTree:ReversePhenologyPodsusedorsoldasfodderLegume:contributestothefer8lityoftheland Markets for agroforestry tree products are critical to the adoption of FA to have significant economic, social and environmental impacts Thedenseshadeofsheatrees(Vitellariaparadoxa)reducestheyieldofmilletby50%,butthesetreesareneverthelessusedbecauseofthehigheconomicyieldsoftheirmarketableproducts.ParksSchea:WestAfrica:BurkinaFasoParcVitellariaBeurredeKarit18Reformsinlandrightsandpaymentsystemsforecosystemservicescanencourageands4mulatethedevelopmentofplanta4ons(Forestandagroforestryparks).Semi-intensivebreedingORGANICMANUREDOMESTICBIOGAS Reducespressureonbiomassuse ReducedGHGemissionsFeedforlivestock19Needstohavesynergiesbetweenini4a4vesForsustainabilityoffarmsAcarbonmanagementpolicyinvolvingasoilcarbontradingmarketisnecessaryMethodologyforCalcula8onofEcosystemServices(Sequestra8onC)Howtoorganizesmallproducers?Requirementtohaveabaseline/reference:beGerknowledgeofAfricansoilsEstablishmentofanevalua8onmethodologyandeffec8vemeansofverifica8on20Someimportantpointstotakeintoaccount... Ini4a4ve4PM21hRp://reseau-carbone-sol-afrique.orgTHANK FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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