colloid ppt pdf

Download Colloid Ppt PDF

Post on 26-Nov-2015

47 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

colloid vs crystalloid debate

TRANSCRIPT

  • Colloid Solutions To Use or not to Use?

    Ubaidur Rahaman Associate Consultant Critical Care Medicine

    Fortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital New Delhi 110070

  • the LV volume is a surrogate for LV wall tension

    And the LV wall tension a surrogate for LV stroke volume

    And the LV stroke volume determines CO

    And the LV CO is a surrogate for tissue blood flow

    And tissue blood flow is a surrogate for tissue oxygenation

    And the tissue oxygenation is a surrogate for ATP generation

    And ATP generation powers cellular function

  • COLLOIDS

    NATURAL Albumin

    SYNTHETIC Gelatin

    Starch

    Dextran

  • STARCH

  • SYNTHETIC COLLOIDS

    10% Pentaspan 250/0.45

    6% Hespan 450/0.60

    6% Voluven 130/0.40

  • Classification of Strarch

    Concentration

    Molecular weight

    Degree of substitution

    C2:C6 ratio

  • Concentration= Oncocity

    Plasma- 25 mmHg

    10% Pentaspan- 80 mmHg

    6% Voluven- 26 mmHg

  • Molecular weight

    HES are polydispersible substances.

    They contain a distribution of molecular weights.

    The number on the package is the average

  • Molecular weight

    After infusion the molecules are broken down by

    endo amylases.

    If their size is below the renal threshold, they are excreted.

    Excretion of smaller particles continuously reduces osmotic effectiveness of infused solution.

  • Molecular weight

    Low MW solutions have more molecules per volume.

    This gives them a greater oncotic effect.

    Also gives them less persistence in plasma

  • Molar Substitution

    This is where the drugs derive their name

    0.6 = Hexastarch

    0.5 = Pentastarch

    0.4 = Tetrastarch

  • Molar Substitution

    Proportion of the carbon atoms that are hydroxyethylated.

    Expressed as a number from 0 to 1.

    Most starches are substituted in the C2 or C6 position

    Hydroxyethylation inhibits rate of destruction of starch polymer by amylase

  • C2:C6 ratio

    Proportion of molecules that are hydroxyethylated

    at the C2 vs C6 position.

    A higher C2:C6 ratio results in longer intravascular half life.

  • Adverse effects of colloids

    Hemostatic

    Dermatologic

    Renal

  • HEMOSTATIC EFFECT

  • HEMOSTATIC EFFECT

    Seems to be more pronounced with the slowly degraded starches.

    Predominant effect is on vWF:VIII.

    Some platelet effects, but these are non significant

  • Multicenter randomized trial

    Patients with severe sepsis

    intensive insulin therapy or conventional insulin therapy

    HES was harmful, and its toxicity increased with accumulating doses.

    10% pentastarch HES 200/0.5 or modified Ringers lactate

    for fluid resuscitation.

  • Methods Randomized controlled trial

    7000 patients admitted to an intensive care unit Fluid resuscitation with

    6% HES Voluven 130/0.4 or 0.9% sodium chloride

    Conclusions No significant difference in 90-day mortality

    between patients resuscitated with 6% HES (130/0.4) or saline.

    More patients who received resuscitation with HES were treated with renal-replacement therapy.

    The primary outcome was death within 90 days. Secondary outcomes included AKI and failure and treatment with

    renal-replacement therapy.

  • Limitation observed rate of death was lower than predicted.

    Exclusion of patients with intracranial hemorrhage

    and those whom clinicians considered unlikely to survive, Inclusion of patients who had undergone elective surgery.

    Patients were recruited after admission to the ICU,

    (when the requirements for fluid resuscitation are often less than those for patients in the emergency

    department or the operating room)

  • Multicenter randomized trial Patients with severe sepsis

    fluid resuscitation in the ICU 6% HES 130/0.42 (Tetraspan) or Ringers acetate

    CONCLUSIONS Fluid resuscitation with HES 130/0.42 had an increased risk of death at day 90

    and were more likely to require renal-replacement therapy

    The primary outcome measure was either death or end-stage kidney failure (dependence on dialysis) at 90 days after

    randomization

  • In all these studies

    There was no/ little difference in

    Resuscitation volume of

    Colloid and Crystalloid

    ( 1:1 to 1:1.5)

  • methods We randomly assigned patients admitted to the ICU

    Fluid resuscitation with 4 percent albumin or normal saline .

    conclusions In patients in the ICU, use of either 4 percent albumin or normal saline for fluid

    resuscitation results in similar outcomes at 28 days

    The primary outcome measure was death from any cause during the 28-day period after randomization.

  • Methods For patients with traumatic brain injury

    baseline characteristics from case-report forms, clinical records, and CT scans were recorded

    and vital status and functional neurologic outcomes were determined 24 months after randomization.

    Post hoc follow-up study of patients with traumatic brain injury who were enrolled in SAFE study

    Conclusions Fluid resuscitation

    with albumin was associated with higher mortality rates than was resuscitation with saline.

  • Recommendations and conclusions We recommend not to use

    HES with mw 200 kDa and/or degree of substitution 0.4 in patients with severe sepsis or risk of acute kidney injury

    and suggest not to use 6% HES 130/0.4 or gelatin in these populations.

    We recommend not to use colloids in patients with head injury

    and not to administer gelatins and HES in organ donors.

    We suggest not to use hyperoncotic solutions for fluid resuscitation.

    We conclude and recommend that any new colloid should be introduced into clinical practice only after its patient-important safety parameters are established

  • 1. Crystalloids as the initial fluid of choice in the resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B).

    2. Against the use of hydroxyethyl starches for fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis and

    septic shock (grade 1B).

    3. Albumin in the fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock when patients require substantial amounts of crystalloids (grade 2C).

  • Effects of Fluid Resuscitation With Colloids vs Crystalloids on Mortality in Critically

    Ill Patients Presenting With Hypovolemic ShockThe CRISTAL Randomized Trial Djillali Annane, MD, for the CRISTAL Investigators

    Conclusions

    No significant difference in 28-day mortality.

    Although 90-day mortality was lower among patients receiving colloids,

    this finding should be considered exploratory and

    requires further study before reaching conclusions about efficacy.

    JAMA 2013

    Colloids ( gelatins, dextrans, hydroxyethyl starches, or 4% or 20% of albumin) Vs

    crystalloids (isotonic or hypertonic saline or Ringer lactate solution)

  • Involves caring for patients based upon explicit integration of pathophysiology, clinical experience

    best available evidence, adapted to each individual and the local health care setting

    Evidence Based Medicine

    And the

    Luciano Gattinoni

  • So

    Evidence Based Medicine

    Should not kill

    the

    Medical Reasoning

    Luciano Gattinoni

  • The world is a dangerous place, not because of those who do evil, but because of those who look on and do nothing.

    Albert Einstein

    You are not only responsible for what you say, but also for what you do not say.

    Martin Luther King

Recommended

View more >