Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotional Memory

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Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotional Memory. Kevin S. LaBar, Ph.D. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience Duke University. Outline of Talk. Enhancing effects of emotion on declarative memory: basic laboratory paradigms encoding, consolidation, and retrieval effects of emotion regulation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Contextual fear reinstatement in amnesia

Stanford Law 2011Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotional MemoryKevin S. LaBar, Ph.D.Center for Cognitive NeuroscienceDuke University1Outline of TalkEnhancing effects of emotion on declarative memory: basic laboratory paradigmsencoding, consolidation, and retrievaleffects of emotion regulation

Enhancing effects of emotion on declarative memory: 'real-world' paradigmsemotional memories of a complex sporting eventemotional autobiographical memories

Focus on our research over the past 5 years that has provided support for the primary animal model of emotional memory (MMH) and recent extensions into emotional memories for more complex, real-world events. In the spirit of NBA playoffs, basketball memories.2PsychologicalTheories of Emotion


(C)Categorical (evolutionary)Dimensional (social-motivational)Component Process (cognitive)Note: most studies to date have used dimensional approachesMemory modulation theories

Memory systems theories

Neurobiological theories of emotional memory Theories focus on role of amygdala based on animal modelsThe amygdala mediates emotional arousal influences on a variety of memory systems

LaBar & Cabeza, Nat Rev Neurosci, 2006Experimental fMRI Encoding Paradigm

High Arousing & Pleasant [N=60]High Arousing & Unpleasant [N=60]

Low Arousing & Neutral [N=60]Study: rate pleasantnessTest: cued recallDolcos, LaBar, & Cabeza, Neuron, 2004Left Amygdala

Right AmygdalaB.A.PleasantNeutralUnpleasant

TRTR% signal changeZ = -22

Main Effect of Arousal on Amygdala Activation and Memory

Subsequent Memory ParadigmDifference8Index of encoding success

Arousal Modulation of Subsequent Memory (Dm) EffectMeta-analysis of emotional encoding success studiesMurty , Ritchey, Adcock & LaBar, Neuropsychologia, 2010

Important in future studies to ease out relative roles. Mention Ritchey paper LOP effects and subsequent memory: amyg more for shallow than deep; vice-versa for vlPFC (but RH). Some valence effects: relative amygdala weights on hippocampal Dm stronger for negative than positive; vice-versa for vlPFC. Use BrainMap GingerALE 2.0 coordinate-based random-effects activation likelihood estimation (Laird et al., 2005) most similar to mega-analysis results; foci smoothed using FWHM determined by sample size10Emotion regulation and subsequent memoryEncode negative pictures during fMRI under passive view, suppress, and reappraise (reduce personal relevance) conditions, as well as neutral (view) control pictures

Test memory in 2-week delayed recognition test

Prior studies assumed that 'arousal' was an intrinsic property of the stimulus and individuals do not engage in coping strategies. James Gross.11Behavioral resultsPannu Hayes et al., Front Human Neurosci, 2010

*Note: reappraise still fairly low in arousal (may not be as low as Kensinger paper or our patient study). Also when took confidence into account, had no effect on memory for suppress items but did for reappraise items12Emotion regulation and hippocampal subsequent memory effect

Pannu Hayes et al., Front Human Neurosci, 2010Evidence that brain regions that code for monitoring body states is more active in suppression; so conclusion is that these systems do not just passively process the arousal content of a stimulus but can be modulated according to what strategies an individual has to try to cope with whatever situation they're in; also important for clinical disorders13Remembering One Year Later:Role of the MTL in Retrieving Emotional Memories Successful Retrieval = Hits vs. Misses

Divide into recollection- and familiarity-based retrieval operations

Compare Emotional Successful Retrieval vs. Neutral Successful Retrieval

Does the MTL also participate in the successful retrieval of emotional items from long-term storage? MMH only implicates consolidation processes that affect encoding into long-term storage.14

Emotional Modulation of Retrieval Success Activity in MTL(Remember/Know combined)Dolcos, LaBar, & Cabeza, PNAS, 2005Recollection- vs. Familiarity-Based Emotional Retrieval Success Activity

**Subjective experience of remembering!16There should also be more interest in what people actually do (eat, have political views, watch television), [and] more concern about whether the paradigmatic instances we choose for experimental analysis correspond to real-world events and are both robust and generalizableRozin, Perspectives Psychol. Sci., 2009Moving from the lab to the real worldRetrieving emotional memories for a complex sporting event: The Duke -UNC Basketball Study

"staged events" paradigmFeatures of the experimental designArchived game (@UNC 2000)

Valence is determined by opposing fan perspectives

Select engaged fans of opposing teams

Encoding conditions are controlled

Assess memory for specific plays (detailed event memory)each play has an emotional outcome that fluctuates widely across trials

getting the Duke Athletics Dept. to fork over the video was the battle in this studycf. movies no familiarity with context and other sports wont work (baseball score is too low; tennis might work but for individuals rather than teams)short hills and valleys of emotionvicarious dominance competitionSample retrieval trial

fMRI results: Arousal modulationAmygdala and hippocampus

parametric model of arousal, valence; interaction of those w/confidencealso strong activation in left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrustime courses on right derived from FIR modelfMRI results: Arousal modulationSocial cognitive/self-referential network Sensorimotor

also dorsomedial PFC/ACC/cuneus/precuneus and TPJ (and left BA47 mirror system)interesting to determine what aspects of social cognition are driving these effectsfMRI results: Valence effectsPositive valence effect

dorsal frontoparietal networkCorresponds to a positivity bias in memory23Spatiotemporal dissociation of emotional intensity and reliving in autobiographical memorycue wordtime emotionrelivingretrieval maintenance

eyes closed24 sec12341234MRT = 12.3 sDaselaar et al., Cereb Cortex, 2008Continue to explore subjective aspects of remembering. Although emotionally arousing memories are accompanied by greater sense of reliving and many other perceptual, linguistic and cognitive features, we are trying to use cognitive neuroscience techniques to dissociate these effects spatially and temporally

T valuesT valuesEmotionRelivingEmotionRelivingretrievmaintretrievmaintretrievmaintretrievmaintVisual CortexEmotion-specific variationReliving-specific variation

AmygdalaHippocampus showed same pattern as amygdalaEarly Role of Emotion During Memory RetrievalWhen a subject is being asked to remember, very often the first thing that emerges is something of the nature of an attitude. The recall is then a construction, made largely on the basis of this attitude, and its general effect is that of a justification of the attitude, where for Bartlett attitude is very largely a matter of feeling, or affect. Bartlett (1932/1995)

May explain why you dont get as strong an influence using cue generation method26ConclusionsEmotional memory is a multidimensional construct

Amygdala-MTL interactions are important for long-term encoding and retrieval of emotionally intense episodes, with additional support from frontoparietal and sensory regions

Emotion regulation strategies modify activity in this network

These interactions extend to more complex, real-world memories where emotion has a broader reach over social cognitive and sensorimotor networks Emerging VR technologies may be beneficial to reveal how real-world contexts regulate the expression of emotional memories

27AcknowledgementsResearch support:NIH R01 DA14094, R01 AG023123; NSF CAREER Award

Collaborators: Alison Adcock, Anne Botzung, Rachael Brady, Roberto Cabeza, Sander Daselaar, Florin Dolcos, Daniel Greenberg, Amanda Miles, Gregory McCarthy, Rajendra Morey, Jasmeet Pannu Hayes, Heather Rice, David Rubin, Moria Smoski, Holton Thompson, David Zielinski

LaBaratory:Jose Alba Hernandez, Matthew Fecteau, Nicole Huff, Phil Kragel, Vishnu Murty, Maureen Ritchey

No conflicts of interest to report

28Future directions: Virtual emotional memories

Duke immersive Virtual Environment (DiVE)

MTL Activation During Retrieval of Emotional Autobiographical MemoriesGreenberg, Rice, Cooper, Cabeza, Rubin & LaBar, Neuropsychologia, 2005

AnteriorAnteriorPosteriorPosterior Pre-scan cue generation method Compare autobiographical vs. semantic retrievalAMSMAlso get it in inferior frontal regions as well30How Can Cognitive Neuroscience Contribute?1. Whether emotion enhances or diminishes the strength of memory for an event

2. Whether special mechanisms are required to account for the effects of emotion on memory

3. Whether emotion affects the subjective experience of rememberingTwo central issues in emotional memory research (Schooler & Eich, 2000)Given this longstanding philosophical issue, how can we use modern cognitive neuroscience techniques to advance knowledge?Francis Bacon: Facts connected with strong feelings were easier remembered than indifferent facts

Descartes: Emergence of memories is brought about by the passions

Rappaport, Emotions and Memory, 1950Historical interest: Emotion and memoryArousal-Mediated Memory Consolidation Deficits Following Bilateral Amygdala Damage

# words recalled

R LS.P.LaBar & Phelps, Psychol Sci, 1998One of the functions of the hippocampus is to consolidate material into LTM. Arousal ratings normal33APPRAISAL CRITERIAJOYANGERFEARSADNES


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