cognitive neuroscience introduction

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  • 1.Introduction to Cognitive Neurophysiology
    Dr PS Deb MD, DM (Neurology)

2. What is Cognition?

  • Middle Englishcognicion,from Anglo-French, from Latincognition-, cognitio,from cognoscereto become acquainted with, know, fromco-+gnoscereto come to know

3. The act or process of knowing; perception. 4. the product of such a process; something thus known, perceived, 5. Faculty for processing information 6. Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism become aware of or obtain knowledge (MeSH) 7. A conscious intellectual act , mental process of knowing learning, thinking, judging7/2/2010
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8. What is Cognition?
Part of speech: noun
Definition: understanding
Synonyms:
acknowledgment, apprehension,attention, awareness, cognizance,comprehension,discernment, insightintelligence, knowledge , mind,need, note,notice,observance, observation, perception, percipience,reasoning, recognition, regard
Antonyms: ignorance,unawareness
Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition
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9. Spectrum of Cognition
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Neuro Science
Psycology
Computer Science
Philosophy
Genomics
Cognitive Science
11. Philosophy
Psychology
Neuroscience
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12. Evolution & Cognition
Cognition is survival instinct a consequence of carefully crafted modules dedicated to solving specific evolutionary problems
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13. Evolutionary Cognitive Science
Conditioned taste aversion
Garcia discovered that animals learned to avoid novel food products that made them ill in as little as one learning conditioning trial, something that had not been demonstrated with any other stimulus class previously.
Prepared learning
Seligman demonstrated a phenomenon in which it is easier to make associations between stimuli that possess a biological predisposition to be conditioned because of a role these stimuli played in an organisms evolutionary history
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14. What is the seat of Cognition?

  • Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years

15. To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains7/2/2010
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16. Surgical Papyrus

  • Surgical Papyrus the oldest medical writing 1600 BC the first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation

17. Head and spine trauma and their effect7/2/2010
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18. Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC)

  • Brain as the site of sensation

19. Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization 20. human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature, because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a principle of motion7/2/2010
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21. Brain vs. Heart
Hippocrates 460-377 BC
Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears.
Aristotle 384-322 B.C
the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,
brain could cool the passion of heart
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22. Galen 130-200 AD
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23. Brain as hollow organ : Nemesius (circa 320)
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24. Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 1519 )
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25. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)
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26. Phrenology : Gall-1806
Complex traits such as combativeness, spirituality, hope, and conscientiousness are controlled by specific areas in the brain, which expand as the traits develop.
This enlargement of local areas of the brain was thought to produce characteristic bumps and ridges on the overlying skull, from which an individual's character could be determined.
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27. Beginning of Modular theory
Paul Broca 1868
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28. Brodmanns area
In the early part of the twentieth century KorbinianBrodmann divided the human cerebral cortex into 52 discrete areas on the basis of distinctive nerve cell structures and characteristic arrangements of cell layers
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29. Brain Mapping
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30. Lateralization of brain functions
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31. Modern Phrenology
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32. Imaging of brain CT Scan
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33. MRI Brain
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34. fMRI
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35. PET scan
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36. Descartes: Brain and Mind
(1596-1650)
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37. Bioelectricity:Galvani 1737-1798
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38. Discovery of Neuron
RamonyCajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble Price
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39. Nerve Cell
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40. Natural Neural Network
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41. Study of Cognitive Neural Science
Single cell recording of behaving animal
Cellular study of brain architecture
Cognitive genetics
Study of behavior of patient with specific lesion the brain
Imaging of brain of normal and abnormal
Computer modeling
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42. Objectives
To know
Organization of Nervous system
Nerve signal processing
Sensory processing : Physical, chemical, EM
Motor control mechanism voluntary and involuntary
Consciousness, sleep, emotion reproduction
Cognitive function: Language, Memory
Development of NS and Genetics
Cognitive Neurophilosophy
Recent development
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43. 1. Functional Organization of NS
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44. 1. Structural Organization of NS
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45. 2.Nerve signal processing
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46. 3. Sensory Signal Processing
Laws of specific sense energies Muller 1826
Each nerve fiber is activated primarily by a certain type of stimulus and each makes specific connections to structures in the central nervous system whose activity gives rise to specific sensations
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47. 4. Motor Control
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Voluntary
Involuntary
48. 5. Consciousness, Sleep, Emotion Reproduction
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49. 6. Higher Cognitive Functions: Language, Memory
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50. 7. Brain Development and Genetics
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51. 8 Cognitive Neurophilosophy
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52. 9. Recent advances
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53. Selected Reading
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