cognitive neuroscience cognitive neuroscience – an interdisciplinary field involving cognitive...

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  • Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience An interdisciplinary field involving cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics and specialists from other fields who are interested in the connection between mental processes and the brain.
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  • Consciousness Consciousness The process by which the brain creates a model of internal and external experience. Can take many forms.
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  • Nonconscious Processes Nonconscious Processes Any brain process that does not involve conscious processing. Preconscious memories Unconscious Processes
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  • Conscious and Nonconscious Minds What Consciousness Does For Us: Restricts our attention Provides a mental meeting place where sensation can combine with memory, emotions, etc. Allows us to create a mental model of the world that we can manipulate.
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  • Levels of the Nonconscious Mind ThePreconscious : Preconscious memories Information that is not currently in consciousness but can be recalled to consciousness voluntarily or after something calls attention to them. Example Salem is the capital of Oregon.
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  • Levels of the Nonconscious Mind The Unconscious A part of the mind that houses memories, desires, and feelings that would be threatening if brought to consciousness.
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  • Levels of the Nonconscious Mind The Unconscious: Many modern psychologists view the unconscious in less sinister terms. Merely a collection of mental processes that operate outside of awareness, but not suppressing info or working at odds with consciousness.
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  • Daydreaming Daydreaming A common (and quite normal) variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation.
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  • Sleep Mysterious in many ways Perceptual window still open: Move about your bed but you dont fall out. Roaring vehicles may not disturb your sleep, but a babys cry wakes you instantly. The sound of your name wakes you!
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  • Circadian Rythms Circadian Rhythms Bodily patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours, such as sleeping and waking. Our biological clock. Body temperature rises in the morning to wake us up, then falls at night to put us to sleep. Disruptions: Light Staying up late Sleeping in late
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  • Sleep Stages 5 Stages Stage 1 Hallucinations occur: Falling, floating, being pinned down. Start to relax. Stage 2 Sometimes sleep walking occurs, you become more relaxed. Stage 3 and Stage 4 Deep sleep, hard to awaken. Stage 5 REM Sleep. Eyes move rapidly, heart rate and blood flow increase.
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  • Sleep Paralysis Sleep Paralysis A condition in which a sleeper is unable to move any of the voluntary muscles, except those controlling the eyes. Normally occurs during REM sleep.
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  • Why sleep? Sleep affects: Memory Concentration Mood Hunger Immune System If you struggle with any of these things, add 1 hour of sleep per night and they will improve!!!
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  • Why Sleep? Sleep: Helps us recuperate Makes memories Feeds creative thinking Plays a role in the growth process
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  • Sleep Debt Sleep Debt A sleep deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning.
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  • Sleep Disorders Insomnia Persistent problems in falling or staying asleep. Narcolepsy Experience periodic, overwhelming sleepiness. Sleep Apnea Trouble breathing during sleep. Night Terrors Deep sleep episodes that seem to produce terror.
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  • Dreams Start during REM Sleep Humans spend 600 Hours a year dreaming, experience 1500 dreams a year, and more than 100,000 dreams in a lifetime.
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  • What We Dream Dreams Hallucinations of the sleeping mind. Manifest Content - The story line of a dream, taken at face value without interpretation. Latent Content The symbolic meaning of objects and events in a dream. Usually an interpretation based on Freuds psychoanalytic theory.
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  • Why We Dream To satisfy our own wishes. To file away memories. To develop and preserve neural pathways. To make sense of neural static. To reflect cognitive Development.
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  • Activation-Synthesis Theory Activation Synthesis Theory The theory that dreams begin with random electrical activation coming from the brain stem Dreams, then, are the brains attempt to make sense of to synthesize this random activity.
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  • Hypnosis Hypnosis An induced state of awareness, usually characterized by heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and highly focused attention. Uses of hypnosis
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  • Meditation Meditation A state of consciousness often induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions, and minimizing external stimulation. May be intended to enhance self knowledge, well-being, and spirituality.
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  • Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by their effects on the brain.
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  • Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens Drugs that create hallucinations or alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness. Table 5.1 p. 183
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  • Opiates Opiates Highly addictive drugs, derived from opium, that can produce a profound sense of well-being and have strong pain-relieving properties.
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  • Depressants Depressants Drugs that slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.
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  • Stimulants Stimulants Drugs that arouse the central nervous system, speeding up mental and physical responses.
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  • Psychoactive Drugs Tolerance The reduced effectiveness a drug has after repeated use.
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  • Psychoactive Drugs Physical Dependence A process by which the body adjusts to, and comes to need, a drug for its everyday functioning.
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  • Psychoactive Drugs Addiction A condition in which a person continues to use a drug despite its adverse effects often despite repeated attempts to discontinue using the drug. Can be physical or psychological
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  • Psychoactive Drugs Withdrawal A pattern of uncomfortable or painful physical symptoms and cravings experienced by the user when the level of drug is decreased or the drug is eliminated.
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  • Psychoactive Drugs Psychological dependence A desire to obtain and use a drug even though there is no physical dependence.


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