cognitive neuroscience an introduction

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This is an introduction to Cognitive neuroscience lecture delivered at IIIT Hyderabad Jan 2010


  • 1. Cognitive Neurophysiology

2. Cognition

  • Middle English cognicion, from Anglo-French, from Latin cognition-, cognitio, fromcognoscere to become acquainted with, know, from co- + gnoscere to come to know
  • The act orprocess of knowing ; perception.
  • the product of such a process; something thus known, perceived,
  • Faculty forprocessing information
  • Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism become aware of orobtain knowledge(MeSH)
  • A conscious intellectual act ,mental process of knowinglearning, thinking, judging

3. Cognitive Science Neuro Science Psycology Philosophy Computer Science Genomics 4. Neuro Science Cognitive Neuroscience 5. Knowledge can be acquired by. Surfing Diving 6. Begin with beginning

  • Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years
  • To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains
  • Surgical Papyrus the oldest medical writing 1600 BC
  • the first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation
  • Head and spine trauma and their effect

7. Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC)

  • Brain as the site of sensation
  • Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization

8. Brain and Heart

  • Hippocrates 460-377 BC
  • Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears .
  • Aristotle 384-322 B.C
  • the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,
  • brain could cool the passion of heart

9. Galen 130-200 AD 10. Brain as hollow organ

  • The first pair of ventricles were the seat of the common senses. They would make the analysis of the information originated in the sense organs.
  • The resultant images were carried to the middleventricle, the seat of reason, thinking and wisdom.
  • Then came into action the last ventricle, the seat of memory

11. Leonardo Da Vinci April 15, 1452 May 2, 1519 12. Renaissance Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE) 13. Descartes, Brain and Mind

  • most active and quickest particles of the blood were taken by the arteries from the heart to the brain, where they were transformed in a very subtle air or wind, a very pure and active flame: the animal spirits
  • that filaments in the nerves (supposed to be tubes) could move little valvules, opening pores that would allow the flowing or the animal spirits.

14. Sleeping and Waking Descartes 1662 15. Phrenology 1806 16. Lobar Localization Paul Broca 1868 17. Bioelectricity 18. Discovery of Neuron Ramony Cajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble 19. Nerve Cell 20. Supporting cells 21. Ion distribution across cell membrane

  • Effect of concentration difference
  • Electrical potential difference affecting negative ions
  • Pressure difference

22. Ion movement across cell 23. Resting membrane Potential 24. Action Potential 25. Propagation of AP 26. The Refractory Period 27. Synapse 28. Electrical synapse 29. Chemical Synapse 30. Neurotransmitter release 31. Post synaptic receptor 32. Depolarization of Post Synaptic Neuron 33. Repolarization 34. Excitatory and Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential 35. Neurotransmitters

  • The substance must be present within the presynaptic neuron
  • The substance must be released in response to presynaptic depolarization, and the release must be Ca2+-dependent .
  • Specific receptors for the substance must be present on the postsynaptic cell

36. Brain Development 37. Anatomical planes Anterior Posterior Lateral Medial Anatomical Planes 38. 39. Cerebrum 40. Functional Organization 41. Functional Organization of NS 42. Motor System 43. Motor System 44. Autonomic Nervous System 45. Sensory System Pain temp touch Position and vibration sense 46. Smell and Taste 47. Hearing 48. Vision 49. Consciousness 50. Sleeping 51. Language and Communication 52. Memory 53. 54. Intelligence 55. Thank You


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