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- 1. To search for ore or other valuable minerals Prospecting determine the size, value. To obtain legal title. Sampling, mapping. Exploration Opening a mineral deposit for exploitation Excavating overburden Development To mine out material ore to utilize it. Mining or recovery of minerals Exploitation Protection of the environment To make it as useful for living things as before. Reclamation
- 2. During 2nd world war, to have sufficient and quick energy supply, surface mining was introduced. On the other side the underground mining was also become speedy. After the war set off, the Industrial Revolution occurred. Then many states showed concern about environmental impacts of this mining. Laws were made to be obeyed by miners, as well as, mine engineers to re establish land. In 1977, SMCRA Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act was signed into law by President Carter on April 3rd, into law. Standards: Lands affected by mining operations should generally be reclaimed to Highest previous use of affected land. State similar to surrounding terrain and natural vegetation. The re-establishment of wildlife and aquatic habitat and resources.
- 3. The restoration of land, after being mined, as a natural or economical usable state as before it was. The last but a major step for mining, which must be designed and made economically viable before mining (exploitation) get starts. All existing and new mines must have closure or reclamation plans and are required to set aside in a trust, the total estimated reclamation costs. When a mine is under construction , inspectors visit every two weeks. Inclusions: The land filling of excavated area. Making land available for any use. Soiling, seeding and planting to make land fertile again. Removal of all waste and gangue. Complete and safe dispose off of gangue and refuse. Utilization of coal mining waste.
- 4. Firstly, the land should be filled completely and compacted for any type of utilization. Backfilling of the abandoned mines. The reshaping of land is also important for revegetation. Top soiling Fertilization. Perennial grasses and legumes can be seeded. Several rows of hardwood trees should be planted parallel to highwall. Scotch pine, white pine, spruce can show growth in these lands. After this that land might be used as residential area but it will require time span. Wildlife can be initiated. Roads should be constructed to have a link with city.
- 5. Subsidence : The gradual movement or sometimes abrupt collapse of the rock and soil layers into an underground coal mine, which can disturb the surface above the mine. Caving or dumping off Leaching: The removal of materials in solution by the passage of water through soil. Loose filled lands: the mountain top removal site is loosely filled so it got dump.
- 6. Environmental Economic impacts. Legal problems associated with upgrading reclamation standards. Environmental Impacts: The effects on environment are of following types: Land effects Coal mine wastes. Water pollution decrease. Air pollution reduction. Protection from Leaching. Prevention from Acid mine drainage.
- 7. WASTE & TAILINGS: For the production of building materials, i.e. brickware production. For the construction of roads and air strips. As a base material for construction of highway, dams, irrigation, reclamation and other civil work sites. Utilization of wastes in civil engineering. Waste heap supported by installation of concrete or stone walls. LAND: Rehabilitation and reconstruction of underground mine. The land can be restored for forestry, agriculture, re vegetation. The land can be utilized as artificial lakes. It is estimated that since 2005, 60 million trees have been planted and are thriving on a previously mined lands, a much more rapid recovery for coal-abused lands than had been expected. Though the forests haven't reached their full growth potential yet, some trees are already 30 feet tall after 10 years, similar to those growing in unmined forests.
- 8. The happy day comes when mine waste can be turned into profit cannot come soon, but until it does, it seems reasonable to use the average cost of mine waste disposal. The economic effects are: Reduced tax revenue. Loss of infrastructure. Expense of reclamation efforts. Loss of normal revenue. Huge sums of federal assistance were necessary to held jump start recovery efforts.
- 9. Several methods of extraction that restore land to its approximate original contour are being developed: Truck haul back. Block cut mining. Haul train.
- 10. Coal Surface Mining: Impacts of Reclamation By James E. Rowe Reclamation, Treatment and Utilization of Coal Mining Wastes. By A.K.M. Rainbow. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/ Coal_mine_reclamation http://cornerstonemag.net/case-studies- of-successfully-reclaimed-mining-sites/ https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=a ppalachian+area&oq=appalachian+area &aqs=chrome..69i57.7716j0j7&sourceid= chrome&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8 Thankyou
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