co so kien truc ii

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  • 1.C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRC GIO TRNHC S KIN TRC II DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRC BIN SON:TH.S-KTS T VN HNG TH.S-KTS TRN C QUANGBIN SON: KTS TH.S T VN HNG KTS.THS TRN C QUANG:

2. C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRC CHNG 1NHNG KHI NIM CHUNG V KIN TRC1. Nhng khi nim chung v kin trc 1.1 nh ngha: Ba yu t to thnh kin trc. Kin trc l mt mn khoa hc ng thi l ngh thut xy dng nh ca v cngtrnh, l mt hot ng sng to ca con ngi nhm to ra mt mi trng thch nghi vphc v tt cho iu kin sinh hot ca con ngi. Bt c mt cng trnh kin trc no cngcn c : - Yu t cng nng: Mc ch u tin v quan trng nht i vi mt cng trnhKin trc i hi chc nng, cng dng phi p ng c yu cu s dng ca con ngi.Yu t ny lun thay i theo s pht trin ca x hi v c s vt cht v trnh vn haca con ngi. - Yu t k thut - vt cht: Kh nng vt liu, gii php kt cu, phng php thicng. Vt liu to thnh kt cu v cu to nn hnh khi khng gian. V vy Kin trc phipht trin ph thuc vo s pht trin ca khoa hc k thut. - Yu t ngh thut: Cng trnh Kin trc phi p, c b mt hp dn, c tc ngtt n tm l v nhn thc ca con ngi. Cch t chc khng gian bn trong, bn ngoi,mu sc vt liu v cc th thut trang tr phi m bo m quan. Ba yu t trn lin h cht ch vi nhau. ty theo mc ch, tnh cht c im cacng trnh m c nhng yu cu cao thp khc nhau. 1.2 Cc c im v yu cu ca kin trc. Tc phm kin trc mang mt s c im sau: 1.2.1 Kin trc l tng hp gia khoa hc k thut v ngh thut: Mt cng trnh Kin trc c xy dng ln p ng c yu cu s dng ca conngi, phi ng dng tt cc tin b ca khoa hc k thut, phi tha mn yu cu kinh t,phi t c yu cu thm m ca s ng ngi. BIN SON: KTS TH.S T VN HNG KTS.THS TRN C QUANG: 3. C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRC 1.2.2 Kin trc phn nh x hi, mang tnh t tng: Tc phm Kin trc to nn mt hnh tng khi qut v mt x hi nht nh quatng giai on lch s. Kin trc pht trin v thay i theo s thay i ca x hi. Trong ccch khc nhau ca lch s loi ngi u c nn kin trc khc nhau, c nhng c imhnh tng kin trc khc nhau biu hin r c im ca tng x hi . BIN SON: KTS TH.S T VN HNG KTS.THS TRN C QUANG: 4. C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRC1.2.3 Kin trc chu nh hng r rt ca iu kin thin nhin v kh hu: Mi trng xung quanh c nh hng n iu kin sng ca con ngi. Kin trc vmc ch cng nng v thm m khng th thot ly c khi nh hng ca hon cnhthin nhin, mi trng a l v iu kin kh hu. S b cc khng gian kin trc, hnhkhi, mu sc vt liu... tng vng, tng min khc nhau. 1.2.4 Kin trc mang tnh dn tc: Tnh dn tc thng c phn nh r nt qua cng trnh Kin trc v ni dung vhnh thc : - V ni dung: B cc mt bng phi ph hp vi phong tc tp qun, tm l dn tc,phi tn dng c cc yu t thin nhin, kh hu, a hnh, vt liu, v.v... - V hnh thc: T hp hnh khi mt ng, t l, chi tit trang tr, mu sc, vt liuc phi hp tha mn yu cu thm m ca cc dn tc.1.3 Yu cu ca Kin trc:BIN SON: KTS TH.S T VN HNG KTS.THS TRN C QUANG: 5. C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRCKin trc lun gn cht vi cuc sng ca con ngi v n cng pht trin theo tintrnh lch s loi ngi. Tc phm kin trc ra i l nhm p ng nhu cu cp thit cacon ngi, ca x hi. Nhng yu cu l: Thch dng - Vng bn - M quan - Kinh tBn yu cu ny chnh l phng chm sng tc ca Kin trc. Tc phm Kin trctrc ht phi t mc ch s dng tt, p ng nhu cu vt cht ngy cng cao ca conngi, mt khc phi tha mn i hi tnh thm m ca con ngi.1.3.1 Yu cu thch dng:Bo m tha mn yu cu s dng tin nghi cho mt cng trnh l p ng cnhng nhu cu thc t do chc nng ca cng trnh ra. Yu cu thch dng ty tng loicng trnh c th c khc nhau :- Nh thch dng l phng phi tha mn din tch ti thiu, phi sng sa, thongmt . .. Khng gian bn trong thun tin cho vic by bin, phi phng tin v sinh, innc, ng i li, to cho cuc sng ca con ngi c yn tnh y , thoi mi.- Nh ht, rp chiu bng m bo cho ngi xem ra vo ch ngi nhanh chng,thng thc m thanh hnh nh vi cht lng cao, trong t th ngi tha mi...Yu cu thch dng thay i trong tng giai on hon cnh lch s, khng ngngpht trin theo s pht trin ca c s vt cht v tinh thn ca x hi. m bo yu cu thch dng khi thit k cn ch :- Chn hnh thc - kch thc cc phng theo c im v yu cu s dng cachng, b tr sp xp cc phng cht ch, hp l.- B tr cc thit b bn trong nh my mc, c v cc thit b k thut nh nhsng, thng hi, cp nhit, in, v sinh mt cch khoa hc, thun tin cho qu trnh sdng.- Gii quyt hp l cu thang, hnh lang v cc phng tin giao thng khc.- T chc ca i, ca s, cc kt cu bao che hp l khc phc cc nh hngkhng tt ca iu kin kh hu thin nhin nh cch nhit, thng thong, che ma, nng,chng n...BIN SON: KTS TH.S T VN HNG KTS.THS TRN C QUANG: 6. C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRC 1.3.2 Yu cu bn vng: bn vng ca cng trnh c ngha l kt cu ca cng trnh phi chu c scnng ca bn thn, ti trng bn ngoi v s xm thc ca mi trng tc ng ln n trongqu trnh thi cng v s dng. bn vng ca cng trnh bao gm bn cu kin, n nh ca kt cu, v bn lu ca cng trnh. - bn ca cu kin: l kh nng cu kin chu c ti trng bn thn, ti trong khis dng m khng sinh ra bin dng vt qu gii hn cho php. - n nh ca kt cu: l kh nng chng li c tc ng ca lc x, lc xon,cc bin dng ln m khng dn n iu kin lm vic nguy him ca cu kin hay cngtrnh, m bo s n nh ca nn mng, cng ca cu kin, kt cu chu lc. - bn lu ca cng trnh: l kh nng tnh bng thi gian m kt cu chu lc chnhca cng trnh cng nh h thng kt cu chung ca n vn gi c nhng iu kin lmvic bnh thng. Thi gian s dng an ton v c li nht gi l nin hn s dng quy nh ca cngtrnh. 1.3.3 Yu cu kinh t: Yu cu kinh t phi qun trit ngay t khu thit k cho n khi thi cng v qun l. m bo yu cu ny cn ch trng : - Quy hoch, k thut phc v trong qu trnh thi cng v s dng phi hp l. - Thit k cng trnh phi: + C mt bng v hnh khi kin trc ph hp vi yu cu s dng, hn ch n tithiu din tch v khng gian khng cn thit. + Gii php kt cu phi hp l, cu kin lm vic st thc t, bng cc vt liu ctnh nng lm vic cao, r tin d kim, cu kin d thi cng, d cu to bng phng phpcng nghip ha. + Cc mt khc phi m bao sau ny s dng v bo qun t tn km. 1.3.4 Yu cu m quan: BIN SON: KTS TH.S T VN HNG KTS.THS TRN C QUANG: 7. C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRCCng trnh xy dng ln ngoi mc ch tha mn nhu cu s dng cn i hiphi p, phi c sc truyn cm ngh thut. V p ca Kin trc c thay i theo nim cacon ngi qua tng giai on lch s.V p ca kin trc l ch t hp hnh khi khng gian phong ph v bin ha,tng phn. Gia cc b phn ca n phi t mc hon thin v nhp iu, chnh xc v tl, c mu sc cht liu phong ph nh nhn, bit kt hp kho lo cc phng tin hi ha,iu khc to nn mt s nhp nhng gia cng trnh kin trc v thin nhin xung quanh.Mt khc v p ca kin trc cn ph thuc nhiu vo k thut thi cng cng nh sbo qun v s dng cng trnh.1.4 Chc nng v nhim v ca kin trc s.Mt cng trnh Kin trc tr thnh mt tc phm kin trc ch thc ch khi cngtrnh a qua khai thc s dng v p ng tt cc chc nng ca n. Qu trnh sng tov xy dng ny i hi s ng gp ca nhiu nh chuyn mn, nhng khu sng to banu thng l do kin trc s thc hin. Kin trc s l ngi xy dng tng t chckhng gian, hnh khi to lp hnh tng kin trc p ng mi yu cu cng nng k thutv ngh thut ca cng trnh xy dng, ri th hin tng thnh cc bn v kin trc cc k s lin ngnh khc c th phi hp hnh ng, cc cng nhn c cn c m thc hintrn cng trng. Ngy xa, cc th c, cc cng trnh s lm lun nhim v ca kin trcBIN SON: KTS TH.S T VN HNG KTS.THS TRN C QUANG: 8. C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRCs v k s, khi cha c s phn cng chuyn mn rnh mch v khi nn khoa hc k thut- xy dng cha pht trin qu su, qu rng.Mun tr thnh kin trc s tt trong x hi hin nay, kin trc s cn c nhng hiubit khoa hc - k thut mt mc cn thit c kh nng phi hp hnh ng vi ccnh chuyn mn khc, c tay ngh v o c c th khm ph sng to ngh thut.Ni cch khc nu kin trc l s tng hp ca khoa hc - k thut v ngh thut thngi thit k kin trc phi phm cht va ca ngi k s ng thi ca ngi ngh sva c kh nng t chc, phi hp hnh ng cho mt tp th chuyn gia.Vi yu cu cao v kh nng v tri thc nh th nn trn thc t kin trc s ngoii c kh nng tham gia vo nhiu lnh vc hot ng khc cng rt hiu qu v ni chocng kin trc vn l t chc cuc sng, b cc khng gian, t chc mi trng sng cho xhi v tng con ngi. Hin nay hnh nh kin trc s c th xut hin ba dng chnh trongx hi.1.4.1 Kin trc s sng to: l cc kin trc s m sng tc l lnh vc hot ngch yu. H t lp cc n kin trc mi hay ci to, trang hong ni - ngoi tht vi tcch c nhn hay hot ng trong mt nhm cc nh chuyn mn vi t cch ng tc gihay ch nhim n.1.4.2 Kin trc s vi t cch nh qun l: H tr thnh chuyn gia, chuyn vintrong cc c quan qun l nh ca v th, c quan k hoch v u t.1.4.3 Kin trc s vi t cch nh hot ng kinh t x hi: Nh ch nh thu,ngi mi gii, ngi c vn hay gim st, nh kinh doanh bt ng sn.Nh chng ta bit, kin trc l mt sn phm x hi mang tnh tng th phc tp,v tc nhn ch yu sng to ra kin trc li l kin trc s. Chnh v th m ngay trong bncht ca mnh, kin trc i hi ngi kin trc s phi c mt trch nhim x hi tngng. Sn phm sng to ca ngi kin trc s thng gn lin vi ngun ca ci to ln cax hi v lun tn ti kh lu di qua nhiu nm thng, do ngh nghip i hi ngikin trc s khng nhng phi c mt lng say m s hiu bit chuyn mn su sc, m cncn mt tm nhn thc trch nhim to ln, lu di.2. Phn loi phn cp nh dn dng. BIN SON: KTS TH.S T VN HNG KTS.THS TRN C QUANG: 9. C S KIN TRC II-DNH CHO CHUYN NGNH KIN TRC2.1 Phn loi nh dn dng: + Phn loi theo chc nng: Thng thng c 5 loi : - Cng trnh dn dng: Gm cc cng trnh phc v i sng sinh hot, lm vic, nghngi, gii tr v.v... nh: Nh (Bit th, Chung c, Song lp, T lp, Ph lin k,...) v cccng trnh cng cng dn s : (Trng hc, Bnh vin, Khch sn, Ch, Thng x, Tr shnh chnh, Ga Hng khng, v.v...). c im chung ca th loi cng trnh l: hnh khi adng, to hnh phong ph, s dng nhiu loi vt liu, ch trng trang tr ni tht,... - Cng trnh cng nghip: Gm cc cng trnh phc v sn xut cng nghip nh: ccnh my, kho bi, bn cng, trm ng lc,v.v... c im chung ca th loi cng trnh l:khi gn gng, ln, khe, h thng trang thit b k thut phc v phc tp,... - Cng trnh nng nghip: Gm cc cng trnh phc v sn xut nng nghip nh:nng trng, trang tri, trm bm,v.v... c im chung ca th loi cng trnh ny l: khin gin, t tng, d thi cng,... - Cng trnh quc phng: Gm cc cng trnh phc v mc ch quc phng v hotng ca qun i nh: doanh tri, cng s, tri hun luyn,... c im chung ca th loicng trnh l : khi n gin, ng nht, kin c, d thi cng,... - Cng trnh quy hoch: L dng cc qun th cng trnh c tnh lin hon h thng,tri rng trn mt khng gian rng ln nh: cc trung tm Thnh ph, tnh l, huyn l, ...cc khu nh , cc cm cng nghip, cc cng vin quc gia, cc th mi, v.v... + Phn loi theo s tng: Thng thng c 2 th loi : - Cng trnh t tng : L cc cng trnh ch cao ti a 4 tng, cc