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    What is Cloud? The term Cloud refers to a Network or Internet. In other words, we can say that Cloud is something which is present at remote location. Cloud can provide services over network i.e. on public networks or on private networks i.e. WAN, LAN or VPN.

    Applications such as e-mail, web conferencing, customer relationship management CRM, all run in cloud.

    What is Cloud Computing? Cloud Computing refers to manipulating, configuring, and accessing the applications online. It offers online data storage, infrastructure and application.

    We need not to install a piece of software on our local PC and this is how, the cloud computing overcomes platform dependency issues. Hence, the Cloud Computing is making our business application mobile and collaborative.

    Cloud Computing Technologies There are certain technologies that are working behind the cloud computing platforms making cloud computing flexible, reliable, usable. These technologies are listed below:


    Service-Oriented Architecture SOA

    Grid Computing

    Utility Computing


  • Virtualization is a technique which allows to share single physical instance of an application or resource among multiple organizations or tenantscustomers. It does so by assigning a logical name to a physical resource and providing a pointer to that physical resource when demanded.

    The Multitenant architecture offers virtual isolation among the multiple tenants and therefore, the organizations can use and customize the application as though, they each has its own instance running.

    Service-Oriented ArchitectureSOA Service-Oriented Architecture helps to use applications as a service for other applications regardless type of vendor, product or technology. Therefore it is possible to exchange of data between applications of different vendors without additional programming or making changes to services.


  • Grid Computing Grid Computing refers to distributed computing in which a group computers from multiple locations are connected with each other to achieve common objective. These computer resources are heterogeneous and geographically dispersed.

    Grid Computing breaks complex task into smaller pieces. These smaller pieces are distributed to CPUs that reside within the grid.

    Utility Computing Utility computing is based on Pay per Use model. It offers computational resources on demand as a metered service. Cloud computing, grid computing, and managed IT services are based on the concept of Utility computing

    Cloud Computing Architecture The Cloud Computing architecture comprises of many cloud components, each of them are loosely coupled. we can broadly divide the cloud architecture into two parts:

    Front End

    Back End

    Each of the ends are connected through a network, usually via. Internet. The following diagram shows the graphical view of cloud computing architecture:

  • Front End Front End refers to the client part of cloud computing system. It consist of interfaces and applications that are required to access the cloud computing platforms. Eg. Web Browser

    Back End Back End refers to the cloud itself. It consist of all the resources required to provide cloud computing services. It comprises of huge data storage, virtual machines, security mechanism, services, deployment models, servers etc.

    Cloud Infrastructure Components Cloud infrastructure consist of servers, storage, network, management software, and deployment software and platform virtualization.

    Hypervisor Hypervisor is a firmware or low level program that acts as a Virtual Machine Manager. It allows to share the single physical instance of cloud resources between several tenants.

    Management Software Management Software helps to maintain and configure the infrastructure.

    Deployment Software Deployment software helps to deploy and integrate the application on the cloud.

  • Network Network is the key component of cloud infrastructure. It allows to connect cloud services over the internet. It is also possible to deliver network as a utility over the internet i.e. the consumer can customize the network route and protocol.

    Server Server helps to compute the resource sharing and offer other services such as resource allocation and de allocation, monitoring resources, security etc.

    Storage Cloud uses distributed file system for storage purpose. If one of the storage resource fails then it can be extracted from another one, which makes cloud computing more reliable.

    Cloud Deployment Models Foloowing are the cloud deployment models:

    Public Cloud Model

    Private Cloud Model

    Hybrid Cloud Model

    Community Cloud Model

    Public Cloud Model The Public Cloud Model allows systems and services to be easily accessible to general public. e.g. Google, Amazon, Microsoft offers cloud services via internet.


  • Cost Effective



    Location Independence

    Utility Style Costing

    High Scalability


    Low Security

    Less customizable

    Private Cloud Model The Private Cloud allows systems and services to be accessible with in an organization. The Private Cloud is operated only within a single organization. However, It may be managed internally or by third-party.


    Here are the benefits of deploying cloud as private cloud model.

    Higher Security and Privacy

    More Control

    Cost and energy efficiency


    Here are the disadvantages of using private cloud model:

  • Restricted Area

    Inflexible Pricing

    Limited Scalability

    Additional Skills

    Hybrid Cloud Model The Hybrid Cloud is mixture of public and private cloud. Non Critical activities are performed using public cloud while the critical activities are performed using private cloud.


    Here are the benefits of deploying cloud as hybrid cloud model:



    Cost Efficiencies


    Here are the disadvantages of Hybrid Cloud Model:

    Networking Issues

    Security Compliance

    Infrastructural Dependency

    Community Cloud Model The Community Cloud allows system and services to be accessible by group of organizations. It shares the infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community. It may be managed internally or by the third-party.

  • Benefits

    Here are the benefits of deploying cloud as community cloud model:

    Cost effective

    Sharing Between Organizations



    Since all data is housed at one location, therefore one must be careful in storing data in community cloud because it might be accessible by others.

    It is also challenging to allocate responsibilities of governance, security and cost.

    Cloud Service Models Following are the cloud service models:

    Infrastructure as a ServiceIaaS Model

    Platform as a ServicePaaS Model

    Software as a ServiceSaaS Model

    Identity as a ServiceIDaaS Model

    Network as a ServiceNaaS Model

    Infrastructure as a ServiceIaaS IaaS provides access to fundamental resources such as physical machines, virtual machines, virtual storage etc. Apart from these resource the IaaS also offers:

    Virtual machine disk storage

    Virtual local area network VLANs

    Load balancers

    IP addresses

    Software bundles

    All of the above resources are made available to end user via server virtualization. Moreover, these resources are accessed by the customers as if they own them.

  • Benefits

    IaaS allows the cloud provider to freely locate the infrastructure over the internet in cost-effective manner. Some of the key benefits of IaaS are listed below:

    Full Control of the computing resources through Administrative Access to VMs.

    Flexible and Efficient renting of Computer Hardware.

    Portability, Interoperability with Legacy Applications.


    Here are the issues associated with IaaS:

    Compatibility with Legacy Security Vulnerabilities

    Virtual Machine Sprawl

    Robustness of VM-level Isolation

    Data Erase Practices


    Here are the characteristics of IaaS service model:

    Virtual machines with pre-installed software.

    Virtual machines with pre-installed Operating Systems such as windows, Linux, and Solaris.

    On-demand availability of resources.

    Allows to store copies of particular data in different locations.

    The computing resources can be easily scaled up and down.

    Platform as a ServicePaaS PaaS offers the run time environment for applications. It also offers development & deployment tools, required to develop applications. PaaS has a feature of point-and-click tools that enables non-developers to create web applications.

    The following diagram shows how PaaS offers an API and development tools to the developers and how it helps the end user to access business applications.

  • Benefits

    Following are the benefits of PaaS model:

    Lower administrative overhead

    Lower total cost of ow


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