clinical nephrology

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  • 1.Oxford Textbook ofClinical Nephrology

2. Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up-to-date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Project AdministrationNewgen Imaging Systems (P) Ltd Project Manager Kate MartinIndexerNewgen Imaging Systems (P) Ltd Design ManagerAndrew Meaden Publisher Helen Liepman 3. Editors Alex M. Davison Emeritus Professor of Renal Medicine, St Jamess University Hospital, Leeds, UKJ. Stewart Cameron Emeritus Professor of Renal Medicine, Guys, Kings and St Thomas School of Medicine, London, UKJean-Pierre Grnfeld Professor of Nephrology, Hpital Necker, Facult de Mdecine de Paris 5, Paris, FranceClaudio Ponticelli Professor and Director, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Istituto Scientifico Ospedale Maggiore Milano, Milan, ItalyEberhard Ritz Emeritus Professor of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Heidelberg, GermanyChristopher G. Winearls Consultant Nephrologist, Oxford Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UKCharles van Ypersele Professor of Medicine, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, BelgiumSubject Editors Martin Barratt Emeritus Professor of Paediatric Nephrology, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UKJames M. Ritter Professor of Clinical Pharmacology, Guys, Kings and St Thomas School of Medicine, London, UKJan Weening Professor of Renal Pathology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands 4. volume 1Oxford Textbook of ClinicalNephrologyThird EditionEdited byAlex M. DavisonJ. Stewart CameronJean-Pierre GrnfeldClaudio PonticelliEberhard RitzChristopher G. Winearlsand Charles van Ypersele1 5. 1 Great Clarendon Street, Oxford Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the Universitys objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan South Korea Poland Portugal Singapore Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York Oxford University Press, 2005 The moral rights of the authors have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First edition published 1992 Reprinted (with corrections) 1992 Second edition published 1998 Third edition published 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data ISBN 0 19 856796 0 (volume 1) 0 19 856797 9 (volume 2) 0 19 856798 7 (volume 3) 0 19 850824 7 (set) available as a set only 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Typeset by Newgen Imaging Systems (P) Ltd, Chennai, India Printed in Italy on acid-free paper by Lego Print s.r.l. 6. Summary of contentsVolume 1 Volume 3 Section 1 Assessment of the patient with renal Section 11 The patient with failing renal diseasefunction Edited by Jean-Pierre Grnfeld Edited by Eberhard Ritz andChristopher G. Winearls Section 2 The patient with fluid, electrolyte, and divalent ion disorders Section 12 The patient on dialysis Edited by Charles van YperseleEdited by Christopher G. Winearls Section 3 The patient with glomerular disease Edited by J. Stewart Cameron Section 13 The transplant patientEdited by Alex M. DavisonVolume 2 Section 14 Specific problems in chronic renalinsufficiency Section 4 The kidney in systemic disease Edited by Eberhard Ritz Edited by J. Stewart CameronSection 15 The pregnant patient Section 5 The patient with tubular disease Edited by Alex M. Davison Edited by Charles van YperseleSection 16 The patient with inherited Section 6 The patient with chronic interstitialdisease diseaseEdited by Jean-Pierre Grnfeld Edited by Charles van YperseleSection 17 The patient with structural and Section 7 The patient with urinary tract infectioncongenital abnormalities Edited by Claudio PonticelliEdited by Jean-Pierre Grnfeld Section 8 The patient with renal stone disease Edited by Claudio Ponticelli Section 18 The patient with malignancy of thekidney and urinary tract Section 9 The patient with renal hypertensionEdited by Alex M. Davison Edited by Eberhard RitzSection 19 Pharmacology and drug use in Section 10 Acute renal failure kidney patients Edited by Christopher G. WinearlsEdited by James M. Ritter 7. ContentsVolume 1 1.6.1.v CT scanning and helical CT 111Bernard E. Van Beers andPreface to the third edition xvii Andr Nol Dardenne 1.6.1.vi Magnetic resonance imaging 121Preface to the second edition xixAkira Kawashima andPreface to the first edition xxiBernard F. King, Jr.Contributors xxiii 1.6.1.vii Isotope scanning 129John M.H. De Klerk, Henk Stevens,Hein A. Koomans, and Jaap J. BeutlerSection 1 Assessment of the patient1.6.2 Imaging strategies in clinicalwith renal disease nephrology 1381.6.2.i Haematuria, infection, acute1.1 History and clinical examination of renal failure, and obstruction 138the patient with renal disease 3Sven DorphAlex M. Davison, Jean-Pierre Grnfeld, and1.6.2.ii Hypertension and suspectedMaggie Fitzpatrick renovascular disease 1471.2 Urinalysis and microscopy 23Jean-Michel Correas andOlivier HlnonGiovanni B. Fogazzi 1.6.2.iii Renal biopsyprocedure and1.3 The clinical assessment of renal function 47 complications 153Dominique Pri and Grard FriedlanderClaudio Ponticelli1.4 Renal function in the newborn infant 651.6.2.iv Renal masses 156Peter R.F. Dear and Simon J. Newell Olivier Hlnon, Jean-Michel Correas, andArnaud Mjean1.5 The ageing kidney 731.6.2.v Living donor workup 160Juan F. Macas-Nez and J. Stewart Cameron Claudio Ponticelli and Marco Cappelletti1.6 Imaging in nephrology 87 1.6.2.vi Transplant dysfunction 1631.6.1 Imaging techniques 87 Olivier Hlnon, Jean-Michel Correas,Arnaud Mjean, and Emmanuel Morelon 1.6.1.i Ultrasound 87 Jean-Michel Correas and Olivier Hlnon 1.7 Renal biopsy: indications for and1.6.1.ii Plain radiography, excretion radiography, interpretation 169 and contrast radiography 94 Claudio Ponticelli, Michael J. Mihatsch, and Akira Kawashima and Andrew J. LeRoy Enrico Imbasciati1.6.1.iii Percutaneous nephrostomy 1.8 Immunological investigation of the patientand ureteral stenting 103with renal disease 183Franois Cornud, M. Gouahdni,Y. Chrtien, and Olivier Hlnon Jo H.M. Berden and Jack F.M. Wetzels1.6.1.iv Renal arteriography 107 1.9 The epidemiology of renal disease 195 Francis G. Joffre and Lisette El Hajj Paul J. Roderick and Terry Feest 8. x Section 2 The patient with fluid, 3.9 Acute endocapillary glomerulonephritis 545 electrolyte, and divalent ion Bernardo Rodrguez-Iturbedisorders3.10 Crescentic glomerulonephritis 559 Jeremy Levy and Charles D. Pusey 2.1 Hypohypernatraemia: disorders of water balance 213 3.11 Antiglomerular basement disease 579 Nicolaos E. Madias and Horacio J. Adrogu A. Neil Turner and Andrew J. Rees2.2 Hypohyperkalaemia 241 3.12 Infection related glomerulonephritis 601 Richard L. Tannen and Kenneth R. HallowsPhilippe Lesavre and Alex M. Davison 2.3 Hypohypercalcaemia 2693.13 Malignancy-associated glomerular disease 625 Neveen A.T. Hamdy and John A. Kanis Alex M. Davison and Barrie Hartley 2.4 Hypohyperphosphataemia 2873.14 Glomerular disease in the tropics 639 Caroline Silve and Grard Friedlander Vivekanand Jha and Kirpal S. Chugh 2.5 Hypohypermagnesaemia 309 John H. Dirks Index 2.6 Clinical acidbase disorders 321 Biff F. Palmer, Robert G. Narins, and Jerry Yee Volume 2 Preface to the third edition xvii Section 3 The patient with glomerular diseasePreface to the second edition xix Preface to the first edition xxi 3.1 The renal glomerulusthe structural basis of ultrafiltration 347Contributors xxiii Marlies Elger and Wilhelm Kriz 3.2 Glomerular injury and glomerular Section 4 The kidney in systemic response 363disease John Feehally, Jrgen Floege, John Savill,4.1 The patient with diabetes mellitus 659 and A. Neil Turner Ralf Dikow and Eberhard Ritz 3.3 The patient with proteinuria 4.2 The patient with amyloid or immunotactoid and/or haematuria 389 glomerulopathy 679 J. Stewart Cameron 4.2.1 Amyloidosis 679 3.4 The nephrotic syndrome: management, Nicola Joss and Michael Boulton-Jones complications, and pathophysiology 415 4.2.2 Fibrillary and immunotactoid Raymond A.M.G. Donckerwolcke andglomerulopathy 702 J. Stewart CameronStephen M. Korbet, Melvin M. Schwartz, 3.5 Minimal change and focalsegmentaland Edmund J. Lewis glomerular sclerosis 4394.3 Kidney involvement in plasma cell Alain Meyrier and Patrick Niaudet dyscrasias 709 3.6 IgA nephropathies 469 Pierre M. Ronco, Pierre Aucouturier, Francesco Paolo Schena andand Batrice Mougenot Rosanna Coppo 4.4 The patient with sarcoidosis 733 3.7 Membranous nephropathy 503Jean-Philippe Mry Heath

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