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Clearing the Clouds Understanding cloud computing. Ali Khajeh-Hosseini. St AndrewS Cloud Computing Co- laboratorY. Cloud computing. There are many definitions and they all differ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Clearing the CloudsUnderstanding cloud computing

    Ali Khajeh-Hosseini ST ANDREWS


  • There are many definitions and they all differSimply put, cloud computing is a model for delivering IT as a Service. Clouds refer to the actual data centres that house the hardware and software

    US National Institute of Standards and Technology working definition:Cloud computing hasFive characteristicsThree service modelsFour deployment models

    *Cloud computingClearing the clouds, November 2009

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • On-demand self-service: you can start using computing resources at anytime without needing human interaction with cloud service providers. Computing resources can be storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, VMs...Broad network access: you can access those resources over the network using laptops, mobiles phones etc.Resource pooling: the computing resources are shared by multiple users (multi-tenancy)Rapid elasticity: you can scale up or down the amount of resources that youre using very quicklyMeasured service: resource usage is metered by measuring your storage, CPU hours, bandwidth usage etc.Clearing the clouds, November 2009*Characteristics

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Infrastructure as a ServiceLow level of abstraction, most flexible, dealing with virtual machines

    Platform as a ServiceHigh level of abstraction, less flexibility, dealing with your application code and your providers APIs

    Software as a ServiceUsing software that others have developed and offer as a service over the web

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009*Service Models

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Private cloud: controlled and used by one organization

    Community cloud: used by several organizations

    Public cloud: available to the general public

    Hybrid cloud: mixture of the above, allows cloud burstingClearing the clouds, November 2009*Deployment Models

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • St Andrews Cloud Computing Co-laboratory launched in April 09Local investment of about 0.5 million covering PhD StudentshipsExperimental hardware platformTechnical supportOur aim was to explore the research potential of CC bringing together researchers in distributed systems, high-performance computing and systems engineering

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009*StACC

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • The StACC private cloud is now operational10 servers (Cloud controller, storage server, 8 * 4 core general purpose servers)Running Eucalyptus open source softwareObjectivesTo understand whats involved in setting up and running a cloud (more than you might think!)To provide an experimental platform that we can measure To provide us with a platform that we can extend (and break)

    StACC Experimental CloudClearing the clouds, November 2009*

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Clearing the clouds, November 2009*Cloud Service ConsumersSoftware as a ServicePlatform as a ServiceInfrastructure as a ServicePublicCloudsPrivateCloudsCommunityCloudsHybridCloudsIs it cheaper?Is it secure?How will it effect my work?

    We did an extensive literature survey to see if we can find out the answers...

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Should I lease or buy?Walker modelled the cost of a CPU hour when purchased as part of a server cluster and compared it with Amazon EC22 scenarios, purchasing:a 60,000 core HPC clustera compute blade rack consisting of 176 coresModel showed that its cheaper to buy in both scenarios assuming that CPU utilization is very high and electricity is cheap

    Good first step but far too narrow in scope, what about costs of housing the infrastructure, installation and maintenance, staff, storage and networking?Clearing the clouds, November 2009*CostsE. Walker, The Real Cost of a CPU Hour, 2009

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Deelman et al. used simulation to calculate the cost of running a data-intensive astronomy application on Amazons cloudHighlighted the potentials of using cloud computing as a cost-effective deployment option for data-intensive scientific applicationAssumed the cost of running instances on AWS EC2 are calculated on a dollar-per-CPU-second basis, i.e. they normalised the costsBut, AWS charge on a dollar-per-CPU-hour basis and charge for a full hour even for partial hours. So launching 100 instances for 5 minutes would cost 100 CPU hoursMakes a significant difference in costsClearing the clouds, November 2009*CostsE. Deelman, G. Singh, M. Livny, B. Berriman, J. Good, The cost of doing science on the cloud: the Montage example, 2008

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Kondo et al. investigated the costs of using cloud computing for desktop grid projects such as SETI@Home

    They found that deploying the servers used for the SETI@Home project on Amazons cloud would cost 40% less than using their universitys data centre

    Didnt include upfront server purchasing costs or staff costs

    Cloud computing would look even more attractive if they did

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009*CostsD. Kondo, B. Javadi, P. Malecot, F. Cappello, D. P. Anderson, Cost-benefit analysis of Cloud Computing versus desktop grids, 2009

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • So is it really cheaper?

    Not really sure, it all depends on the specific scenario and what you include in your calculations

    Were developing a tool to help users decide for themselves...

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009*Costs

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Security concerns are often mentioned in cloud computing but not much research has been done to address them

    The Cloud Security Alliance has published a set of security guidelines in the form of problem statements and issues that need to be considered by users

    Most concerns are about loss of control over physical hardware which then lead on to legal issues...Clearing the clouds, November 2009*Security

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Most legal issues are related to the clouds physical location, which determine its jurisdiction

    Amazon have data centres in 2 regions (US and Europe) so they can deal with these issues

    But the clouds nature means that users dont know (or care) about this information: its all in the cloud

    Location is important because cloud computing increases the control of governments and corporations over resources*. Cloud computing brings together vast amounts of data and computing resources in centralised data centres, compared to how they are currently hosted in geographically dispersed locations

    Its unlikely that these jurisdiction issues will stop the use of cloud services

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009*Legal Issues* P. T. Jaeger, J. Lin, J. M. Grimes, S. N. Simmons, Where is the cloud? Geography, economics, environment, and jurisdiction in cloud computing, 2009

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • How will cloud computing effect the work of IT departments?Their authority has been diminishing over the last few decades, from mainframes to PCsCloud computing is going to decrease their authority furtherUsers are turning into choosers* who can replace the services provided by the IT department with service offered in the cloud

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009*Effects on Work* R. Yanosky, From Users to Choosers: The Cloud and the Changing Shape of Enterprise Authority, 2008

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • To study these issues, we performed a case study examining the relative costs of migrating from a locally provided host to a host provided on AmazonThe system studied was a fairly small data acquisition IT system from the Oil & Gas industry. The system had a contract value of 104,000 and was deployed in a local data centreOur focus was socio-technical what are the human and organisational issues that influence such decisions

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009*Case Study

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Case StudyClearing the clouds, November 2009*

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Case StudyClearing the clouds, November 2009*Infrastructure costs over 5 years

    Around 55% cheaper

    218 support calls over 5 years

    20% of them would be eliminatedBackup, power and network issues would be Amazons responsibility

    Support Issue


    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • InterviewsClearing the clouds, November 2009*We took these findings and presented them to various people in the company and interviewed them

    Technical manager:It looks attractiveWe would lose leverage over support contractsConcerned about security and protection of virtual machinesSome corporations veto data going over port 80 Support staff:Very negative about cloud computingFeel threatenedDont want to lose control over hardware

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Project manager:Hard to sell this idea, theres no data centre to show clientsDifficult to alter corporate security policies Easier to manage cash flowReduces required skill-set and overheads

    Business development manager:We are under pressure to reduce electricity usageIt presents new opportunities for us, e.g. running training courses in the cloudInterviewsClearing the clouds, November 2009*

    Clearing the clouds, November 2009

  • Cloud computing has sparked a huge interest in the IT industry

    Many organizations are thinking about migrating their systems to the cloud. During this period, many migration decisions need to be made, what to keep in-house, what to migrate

    These arent simple decisions and there a