classifying nutrients essential nutrients – nutrients the body either cannot make or cannot make...

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  • Classifying Nutrients Essential nutrients nutrients the body either cannot make or cannot make enough of to meet its needs. These nutrients must be obtained from foods (ingested in some manner) Examples: Vitamins Calcium, iron, and other minerals Some of the amino acids
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  • Vitamins Potent, essential, organic compounds Promote growth and help maintain life and health Two Types Fat solubleabsorbed through intestinal tract with the help of fats. A, D, E, and K vitamins are fat soluble and tend to store in the body. Toxic accumulations may cause cirrhosis-like symptoms. Water solubledissolve in water. B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. These are generally excreted and cause few toxicity problems.
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  • Vitamin A: retinol Only found intact in animal sources in its natural form, it is known as retinol stored in the liver deficiency = improper growth, exophthalmia requirement level = 1,000 I.U. sources: fish oils
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  • Vitamin D 3 Vitamin D found as ergocalciferol (D 2 ) and cholecalciferol (D 3 ) both activated in plants/animal skin by UV radiation
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  • Diseases caused by vitamin D deficiency Osteoporosis and Osteopenia 17 varieties of Cancer (including breast, prostate and colon) Heart disease High blood pressure Obesity Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Autoimmune diseases Multiple sclerosis Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis Bursitis Gout Infertility and PMS Parkinsons Disease Depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder Alzheimers Disease Chronic fatigue syndrome Fibromyalgia Chronic Pain Periodontal disease Psoriasis
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  • Vitamin E good antioxidant deficiency in fish = muscular dystrophy, reduced fertility requirement: 50-100 mg/kg for fish/shrimp sources: alfalfa meal, fish meal, rice bran, wheat middlings, barley grains
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  • Vitamin K required for normal blood clotting dietary sources: alfalfa meal, liver meal
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  • Thiamine (B 1 ) deficiency: central nervous system failure )
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  • Vitamin B 1
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  • Riboflavin B 2 Usually found in severe food shortage countries
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  • Weakness Throat swelling/ soreness A swollen tongue Skin cracking Anemia B 2 Deficiency
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  • Antioxidants Often in functional foods Most common are vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene. Free radicals damage or kill healthy cells. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, slow their formation, and repair oxidative stress damage. Carotenoids Lycopene (in tomatoes, papaya, pink grapefruit, and guava) reduces the risk of cancer. Lutein (in green leafy vegetables, spinach, broccoli, kale, and brussels sprouts) protects the eyes. Vitamin D Formed when skin is exposed to the sun. Improves bone strength, helps fight infections, lowers blood pressure.
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  • Symptoms of mild niacin deficiency include: indigestion fatigue canker sores vomiting depression thick, scaly pigmented rash on skin exposed to sunlightrash swollen mouth and bright red tongue vomiting and diarrhea headache apathy fatigue depression disorientation memory loss If not treated, pellagra can lead to death. Symptoms of severe niacin deficiency include:
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  • Fish Chicken Turkey Pork Liver Peanut Beef Mushrooms Green peas Sunflower seeds Avocado Sources of Vitamin B3
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  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration Depression Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Rheumatoid Arthritis Tardive Dyskinesia chicken, turkey, tuna, salmon, shrimp, beef liver, milk, cheese, lentils, beans, spinach, carrots, brown rice, bran, sunflower seeds, wheat germ, and whole-grain flour. Sources of Vitamin B6
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  • 1.Megatoblastic Anemia 2.Preterm Labor 3.Prenatal and Neonatal Birth Defects 4.Stress Related Disorders 5.Cancer Vitamin B9 Deficiency
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  • Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Include: Low Energy / Fatigue Depression / Anxiety Muscle pain Irritability Hearing and Vision problems Mood disorders Memory loss Studies Have Linked B12 Deficiency to: Alzheimers / Dementia Learning Disorders in Children Autoimmune Disease Cardiovascular Disease Cancer
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  • Spina Bifada
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  • Vitamin C Deficiency Dry skin. Splitting hair Swelling and discoloration of the gums Spontaneous bleeding from the gums Nosebleeds Poor healing of wounds Problems fighting infections Bleeding into joints, causing severe joint pains
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  • Minerals Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the body Vitamins cannot be absorbed without minerals Major minerals are needed in large amounts. Sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and chloride Trace minerals are needed in small amounts. Iron, zinc, manganese, copper, and iodine Excesses or deficiencies of trace minerals can cause serious problems.
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  • Sodium and Calcium Sodium Necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Recommended consumption less than 1 teaspoon of table salt per day Calcium Plays a vital role in building strong bones and teeth, muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, regulating heartbeat, and fluid balance within cell. Most Americans do not consume the recommended amount of 1,000 to 1,200 mg/day.
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  • Potassium Muscles need potassium to contract. The heart muscle needs potassium to beat properly and regulate blood pressure. Terri Schiavo
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  • Iron The most common nutrient deficiency globally Women aged 19 to 50 need about 18 mg per day. Men aged 19 to 50 need about 10 mg. Iron-deficiency anemiabody cells receive less oxygen, and carbon dioxide wastes are removed less efficiently. Iron toxicityingesting too many iron-containing supplements Men who consume excess iron have a higher risk of gallstones.
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  • How Can I Eat More Healthfully? What Is a Healthful Diet? A healthful diet should be Adequate Moderate Balanced Varied Nutrient dense
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  • Trends in Per Capita Nutrient Consumption
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  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 MyPlate plan Balance calories Enjoy your food, but eat less. Avoid oversized portion. Foods to increase Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. Make at least half your grains whole. Switch to fat-free or 1% milk. Foods to reduce Compare sodium in foods such as soup, bread, and frozen meals choose foods with lower numbers. Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
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  • MyPlate Plan
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  • How Can I Eat More Healthfully? Understand serving sizes Eat nutrient-dense foods Reduce empty calorie foods Cakes, cookies, pastries, and donuts Sodas, energy drinks, sports drinks, and fruit drinks Cheese Pizza Ice Cream Physical activity
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  • Serving Size Card
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  • Read the Labels % Daily Value (%DV) Other claims include Nutrient content claims Structure and function claims Dietary guidance claims Qualified health claims Health claims
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  • Reading a Food Label


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