Church Organization Pope Cardinals Archbishops Bishops Priests Monks/Nuns Congregation.

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Slide 2 Church Organization Pope Cardinals Archbishops Bishops Priests Monks/Nuns Congregation Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 The Protestant Reformation A series of events in the 1500s that led to a new form of Christianity known as Protestantism. Nearly of all Christians in the world today are Protestants. Most of the churches right here in Morehead are Protestant. Slide 8 Causes of the Reformation 1.) Renaissance attitude of secularism (worldiness) -spirit of curiosity, improvement was valued. 2.) Resentment of Church power and wealth -Political power, taxes, land ownership 3.) Church abuses (corruption) -misuse of money (lavish lifestyles) -fornication, gambling, drunkenness -pluralism, neglecting spiritual duties -inadequate education, illiteracy Slide 9 Martin Luther 1483-1546 From Germany, son of a copper miner Lightning storm 1505- entered a monastery 1507- became an ordained priest 1512- became a professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg. Struggled with anxiety over his salvation He who through faith is righteous shall live Began to disagree with Catholic Church teachings Slide 10 Slide 11 Luther writes the 95 Theses What prompted him? The sale of indulgences (pardons for sins) Remission, after death, of all or part of the punishment for sin Replaced traditional act of penance (fasting, prayer, etc) Johann Tetzel As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs Luthers protests: Unfair to the poor Gave people false sense of salvation Disagreed that salvation could come from good deeds (like donating $) Slide 12 Slide 13 95 Theses Oct. 31, 1517: Luther nailed the 95 Theses on the door of the Church. Wanted reform, not to break from the church. Quickly reprinted in the vernacular ; spread quickly due to the printing press. Luthers ideas were so popular because of the environment of backlash that already existed. His popularity and followers make him a huge threat in the eyes of the Church. Slide 14 Luthers Teachings -What Luther wanted to change: No Indulgences No Confession No Pilgrimages No Prayers to saints Simplify ritual of the mass, instead focus on sermon Clergy should be able to marry Slide 15 Martin Luther Church officials asked him to recant; he refused Summoned to appear at the Diet of Worms Excommunicated and declared an outlaw Protected by Frederic the Wise Translated the New Testament into German during his year of hiding. Some of his teachings had already been put into action = Lutherans the first Protestant church. 1555- Peace of Augsburg Slide 16 The Impact of the Printing Press http://www.biography.com/people/johannes- gutenberg-9323828/videos/johannes-gutenberg-the- printing-press-26300995752 http://www.biography.com/people/johannes- gutenberg-9323828/videos/johannes-gutenberg-the- printing-press-26300995752 Slide 17 Johannes Gutenberg Using technology from China and Korea, he cast the letters of the alphabet into a wooden press. Text could be quickly printed on both sides of paper. Result: books and printed material produced faster and cheaper, available to more people. Slide 18 1 st publication: a 1,282 page Bible Printers spread rapidly; within 35 years, a press was as far as Constantinople. 30 buyers rise up for each volumetearing one anothers eyes out to get ahold of them. Rapid access to new ideas. Easier access to books=more people learned to read, more books printed. Renaissance and Reformation ideas spread quickly! Slide 19 Other Reformers Ulrich Zwingli John Calvin Anabaptists Slide 20 How are the Renaissance, Reformation and Printing Press connected? Renaissance: a time of learning and questioning, seeking answers Reformers, disgusted with church, find answers in reading the Bible for themselves The printing press allows for the Bible (and 95 Theses) to be read (in the common language!) by many. Therefore, reformation, or change, spreads. Slide 21 By 1560, see how religious beliefs have spread! Slide 22 The Counter-Reformation Catholics want to turn the tide of the Protestant Reformation: The Council of Trent: over the course of 20 years, it meets to revise problems in the church. Took steps to end abuses, educate clergy Slide 23 The Inquisition A church court to root out heretics Outlaws books (especially Protestant and humanist books) Slide 24 Jesuits Founded by Ignatius of Loyola to defend and spread the Catholic faith Set up schools Travel to new worlds as missionaries Slide 25 Witch Hunts Tens of thousands killed through the inquisition A combination of religious and magical beliefs that led people to believe these people (usually women) could perform witchcraft Slide 26 Persecution of Jews Spain expelled them in 1492 Italy began creating ghettos in 1516 Many restrictions on Jews Even Luther called for them to be expelled for not converting Synagogues burned Many flee to the North and to the Ottoman Empire (mideast) Slide 27 End Result: Europe would remain divided between Catholics and Protestants for centuries, leading to many bloody conflicts.

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