Chuong 2 lich su tu tuong quan tri

Download Chuong 2  lich su tu tuong quan tri

Post on 14-Jun-2015

652 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

quan tri

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1. 4/6/2012 CHNG 2LCH S T TNG QUN TR CHNG 3 : LCH S T TNG QUN TRI. Giai on t c i n CNTB pht sinhII.Giai on t khi CNTB pht trin n cui 1960s: 1. Trng phi qun tr c in 2. Trng phi tm l x hi 3. Trng phi qun tr nh lng 4. Qun tr theo tin trnh 5. Qun tr theo tnh hungIII. Giai on t 1970 n nay 4/6/201221

2. 4/6/2012I. Giai on t c i n CNTB pht sinh1. Qun Trng (640-538 TCN): ng a ra 5 lnh vc ca hot ng qun tr:- Ngoi giao-Kinh t-Lut php-Quc phng- H thng kim tra gim st chng tham nhng v lm quyn nhng ni tp trung quyn lc.4/6/20123I. Giai on t c i n CNTB pht sinh2. Khng T (551-450 TCN): qun l, dy d con ngi cn l, danh. Ch trng: c tr.4/6/20124 2 3. 4/6/2012I. Giai on t c i n CNTB pht sinh3. Mnh T (372-289 TCN):q qun l, gio dc con ngi th phi dng iu thin: nhn chi s tnh bn thin.qPhi ly dn lm gc,qVua quan cn phi coi nh hn.4/6/20125I. Giai on t c i n CNTB pht sinh4. Tun T ( 300237 TCN):q Con ngi sinh ra l c: Nhn chi s, tnh bn c phi ly nhn ngha ci to.q ng ch trng: kt hp php tr v c tr.4/6/201263 4. 4/6/2012 I. Giai on t c i n CNTB pht sinh5. Hn Phi T (280 233 TCN): qCh trng php tr. qVua phi bit gi suy ngh ca mnh. qVua phi bit cch dng ngi.4/6/2012 7 2 s kin lch s quan trng1. A. Smith: nm 1776 2. Cch mng cng nghipu th k 184/6/2012 8 4 5. 4/6/2012 II. Giai on t khi CNTB pht trin ncui 1960s:4/6/2012 91. L THUYT QUN TR KHOA HC: -Taylor (1856-1915): Con ngi l ci my phi hnh ng, tun th nghimngt theo ch dn, qun l ca c cng. Bn cht con ngi: li bing, lun trn vic khi c th.ng ch trng:-Chia nh cng vic ra nhng cng on.-T chc sn xut theo dy chuyn.-Ci tin cng c v t chc lao ng hp l.-a ra nh mc L nng cao NSL.4/6/201210 5 6. 4/6/20121. L THUYT QUN TR KHOA HC:Taylor ra 4 nguyn tc qun tr:q Ch phi tho vic: nh qun l, c cng phi thnh thocng vic qun l c khoa hc.q La chn, hun luyn v o to ngi lao ng theo hngchuyn mn ha m nhn cng vic.q Ch phi gng mu v hp tc: tc phong lm vic cngnghip khn trng, khoa hc, hiu qu.qPhn chia cng bng cng vic v trch nhim; cao klut, km theo khuyn khch xng ng.4/6/2012111. L THUYT QUN TR KHOA HC: u im:- Ci thin NSL.- Thc y ng dng phn tch cng vic 1 cch khoa hc.- Pht trin tr lng theo thnh tch. Hn ch:- Gi thit v ng c qu n gin: tin.- Coi con ngi nh my mc.- Khng quan tm n mi quan h t chc v mi trng.4/6/2012126 7. 4/6/2012 2. L THUYT QUN TR HNH CHNHHenry Fayol (1841-1925):Fayol l ngi u tin nghin cu v a ra 5 chc nng caqun tr: + K hoch. + T chc. + Ch huy, lnh o (iu hnh). + Kim tra. + iu chnh. 4/6/2012 13 2. L THUYT QUN TR HNH CHNH- Tp trung trc tip vo tt c cc hot ng ca cc nh qun tr.- cao nguyn tc phn cng lao ng, thit lp c cu t chc, quy ch lao ng c th, r rng.- Trng tm ca l thuyt qun tr kiu hnh chnh l nh qun tr. 4/6/2012 14 7 8. 4/6/20122. L THUYT QUN TR HNH CHNH u im: Coi qun tr l 1 ngh. Gip cc nh qun tr c cch nhn bao qut v cc hot ngqun tr t chc. Hn ch:Cc t tng c thit lp trong mt t chc n nh,h thng vn b ng kn. Quan im qun tr cng rn.4/6/2012 15 3. L THUYT TM L X HI(QUN TR HNH VI)1. Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949) :q Nhng nghin cu Hawthorne:Phng nh sng bnh thng Phng nh sng mnh Phng nh sng trng la Phng nh sng nh trng m.Kt qu ?4/6/2012 16 8 9. 4/6/2012q Hiu ng Hawthorne: Khi cc nh qun tr ch trng c bit n cng nhn, NSLthay i bt k iu kin lm vic c thay i hay khng. Lm tng s quan tm n nhn t con ngi. Lm thay i quan im ng thi coi con ngi nh mymc. 4/6/2012173. L THUYT TM L X HI (QUN TR HNH VI) T khng 2. A. Maslow (1908 - 1970):nh Thp 5 cp bc nhu cu c tn trngX hi An TonSinh l 4/6/201218 9 10. 4/6/20123. L THUYT TM L X HI (QUN TR HNH VI)3. D. Mc Gregor (1906 1964) : Thuyt XThuyt Y- Con ngi khng thch lm vic, t - Lm vic l 1 bn nng nh vuikht vng. chi, gii tr.- Tm cch trn vic, lng trnh cng - Mi ngi u t iu khin, kimvic.sot bn thn. - Con ngi s gn b vi t chc- Khi lm vic phi gim st cht nu c khen ngi, thng xngch. ng, kp thi.- Con ngi mun b iu khin.- Con ngi c c sng to, kho lo. 4/6/2012193. L THUYT TM L X HI (QUN TR HNH VI)u im:- Rt ch trng ti con ngi c v vt cht v tinh thn.- Cc nh lnh o phi nm bt tm l nhn vin.- Tp th c tc ng rt ln n ngi lao ng.Hn ch:- Qu ch trng n yu t tnh cm.- Quan nim n gin : khi nhn vin hnh phc, NSL scao hn. 4/6/20122010 11. 4/6/20123. L THUYT QUN TR NH LNGu im: Pht trin cc phng php ton gii quyt cc bi tonqun tr. Gip nh qun tr tm ra cc phng n ti u.Hn ch: Khng phi yu t no cng lng ha c. Vic x l cc s liu phc tp. Cc nh qun tr kh tip cn v mang tnh k thut cao. Khng ph hp vi cc quyt nh sng to. 4/6/2012 21 4. L THUYT QUN TR TIN TRNH HOCH T CHC LNH OKIMNH SOT PHN HI 4/6/2012 22 11 12. 4/6/2012 5. QUN TR THEO TNH HUNGu im:q Xc nh cc bin tnh hung quan trng.q Qun l phi linh hot, khng dng 1 phng php qun l tt c cc vn .Hn ch:q Khng th xc nh c tt c cc bin tnh hungquan trng.q Khng c 1 nguyn l chung khi qut. 4/6/201223III. Giai on t 1970 n nay:1. Trng phi qun tr Ty u2. Trng phi qun tr Bc u3. Trng phi qun tr XHCN4. Trng phi qun tr Chu 4/6/20122412 13. 4/6/2012 1. Trng phi cc nc Ty u:Peter Drucker (1919 - 2005) : l ngi u tin ra: ci t cc DN t h thng kn sang h thng m. (Tip cn theo h thng)+ H thng kn: nh t bn t sng ch, t qun l, khp kn trong 1DN NSL ni b DN rt cao, nhng c th vn b ph sntha hoc thiu.+ H thng m: m ca vi th trng cng chng. DN phi gn bcht ch vi cc thnh phn khc:4/6/201225 2. Trng phi qun tr Bc u: Chia mt phn phc li x nghip vo phc li x hi gii quyt vn cng bng dn ch. Bc lt ti ngng: lm cho ngi cng nhn cm thymnh c quyn t do, dn ch hn.4/6/201226 13 14. 4/6/2012 3. Trng phi qun l XHCN:- H thng kinh t XHCN s dng 2 tiu ch: hiu qu v cng bng.- Nhng k hoch 5 nm u tin t c nhng thnh tu toln: tng trng 10%/nm. + Pht trin cng nghip nng. + Qun l theo c ch tp trung cao , mi quyn lc thuc v Nh nc, xa b s hu t nhn.- Hn ch: qun l s cng, tp trung cao khng linh hot, kh thay i, kh thch nghi vi mi trng, c bit l c s thoi ha bin cht trong i ng lnh o. 4/6/2012274. Trng phi qun tr Chu :+ ng dng khoa hc hin i vo kinh t v kinh doanh.+ Qun l c tnh n nhng yu t truyn thng v dn tc.+ Ch trng vo nhn t con ngi (ngun ti nguyn v gi ca DN) Khai thc trit tim nng ca con ngi trong kinh doanh.+ cao vn ha x nghip, coi DN va l 1 t chc kinh doanh,va l 1 cng ng sinh sng.+ Tm ra nhng mi nhn thch hp trong tng thi k pht trinkinh t. 4/6/201228 14 15. 4/6/2012 Trng phi qun tr Nht Bn:L thuyt Z (ca William Ouchi):-Ch trng: n quan h x hi v yu t con ngi trongt chc.- c im: cng vic di hn, trch nhim c nhn, xt thngthng chm, kim sot kn o bng cc bin php cngkhai, quan tm n tp th v c gia nh nhn vin...4/6/2012 29 Trng phi qun tr Nht Bn:Kaizen (ci tin) ca Masaaki Imai:- Ch trng: n qu trnh ci tin lin tc, tp trung vo 3 yu tnhn s: gii qun l, tp th v c nhn.- c im:Trong qun l bao hm khi nim sn xut va ng lc(JIT: Just-in-time). Cng ty lun ghi nhn cc kin ng gp ca cng nhn,khuyn khch cng nhn khm ph v bo co mi vn pht sinh trong qu trnh lm vic.4/6/2012 3015 16. 4/6/2012 Kt lun: -S ra i ca cc l thuyt qun tr hin i l s k tha cc t tng qun tr truyn thng nhm p ng nhng thay i ca: Mi trng kinh doanh. Mc cnh tranh ngy cng gay gt trn thng trng. - Khoa hc qun tr l 1 trong nhng thnh tu ca loi ngi, cn c trn trng v khai thc trit , trnh cc oan. 4/6/201231 Kt lun: - Cc l thuyt qun tr tuy xut hin tun t theo thi gian,nhng chng khng thay th nhau m b sung cho nhau. - Vic qun tr c hiu qu ch t c trn c s vn dngsng to cc l thuyt qun tr vo nhng tnh hung c th trongmi t chc. 4/6/20123216