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    Meeting the needs ofchildren and families

    Salma NaqviInclusion of children with special needs

    Chris Cadieux8 March 2014

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    Introduction to the child and family

    Jack has down syndromeVery outgoing and friendly

    Very little speechSometimes becomes frustrated due tohis limited speech

    Because of frustration sometimes lashout at the other childrentaken from case study given by Chris Cadieux

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    Introduction contd

    The family is new toTorontoNeeds help to getinformation aboutdifferent agenciesLooking for jobopportunitiesNeeds help for an

    agency that is speciallyfor people with downsyndrome

    Taken from the case study given by Chris Cadieux

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    Introduction to down syndrome

    Genetic conditionCauses delays in physical and intellectualdelays1 in 800 births3 genetic variations of down syndromeApproximately 92% cases are due to an extra

    chromosome 21 in all the cells of an individual.Condition is called Trisomy 21http://connectability.ca/2011/10/04/down-syndrome/

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    Causes contd

    Although Down syndrome is genetic butnot inherited except translocation Downsyndrome

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    Symptoms of down syndrome

    Down syndrome manifests itselfthrough different physical, intellectualand social symptoms

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    Intellectual & Developmental Symptoms

    Cognitive impairment is common in people withdown syndromeUsually ranges between mild to moderateSevere cognitive impairment is rareCommon cognitive problems are shorterattention span, poor judgement, slow learning,

    impulsive behaviour and delayed language andspeech development

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    Health and Medical Problems

    Eye problems e.g.cataractHearing problemsLong term chronicconstipationHip problem and risk ofdislocationDementia can be seen

    Sleep apnea as airpassage is narrowed

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    Health and medical problems contd

    Birth defects involving the heart suchas atrial sepatal defect or ventricularseptical defectHypothyroidismTeeth that may appear latter and insuch a place that cause problem in

    chewingGastrointestinal blockage that results inearly and massive vomiting

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    Diagnosis

    Usually diagnosed atbirth or shortly afterthat due to distinctfacial featuresMust be confirmed by achromosomal study thatis called karotypeChromosomes can beexamined by testingblood or tissue samples

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    Cure

    Down syndrome does not have any cureTreatments are available for othermedical conditions that are common inpeople with down syndrome

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    Therapies

    There are many therapies for people withdown syndrome. Some are:Early intervention and educational therapy

    Treatment therapies includePhysical therapySpeech-language therapyOccupational therapyEmotional and behavioural therapyAnd assistive devices to facilitate learning

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    Meeting the special needs in childcarecentre

    There are some intellectual and physicalproblems that need to be addressedAll the children with special needs donot have all the problemsInstructions must be given face to face,clearly and in simple words

    Team work with parents, teachers,other staff members and people withexpertise gives best results in inclusion

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    Teaching strategies

    Teachers need to beextra attentive andsupportive when thechild is communicating

    Encourage the child tocommunicate at routinetimesGuide and teach otherchildren to wait fortheir turn when a childwith down syndrome istrying to communicate ina big group

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    Teaching strategies contd

    Sign/symbol system is helpful if the child haslanguage problemShould not be used as a substitute for verbalcommunicationNo one single method is workable for allTeachers should be more creative, innovative andopen to new ideasStrong believe in the part of the teacher that every

    child needs developmentally appropriate materialTeachers should stabilize, enlarge, enhance orsimplify the material or activity

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    Strategies

    Never pity a child with down syndrome, just besupportivePlan activities that include all childrenKeep story books about people with differentdisabilitiesRemind all the children that everyone has their ownweaknesses and strengthsEncourage the child to participate in full range of

    physical activitiesAdd open ended toysOutdoor environment should be simple and has varietyof skill levels

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    Special needs

    Extra practice for fine motor skills toimprove manual dexterityGive extra time at lunch timeQuite areaReminders for toiletLighting should be of normal intensity

    If there is heart problem, consult parents indealing the child in the best wayOrder & organization of the material

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    Different strategies

    Be supportive to the familiesGive information about differentagencies and resources that might behelpfulAlways use people first language

    When other children ask about thedisability, answer them honestly andopenly

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    Agencies for down syndrome

    Down Syndrome Association of Toronto(DSAT)dsat.ca Helpful for Jacks family For finding jobs, neighbourhood link will

    be helpfulhttp://www.neighbourhoodlink.org/

    http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_4/dsat.cahttp://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_4/The%20Down%20Syndrome%20Association%20of%20Toronto%20(DSAT)%20-%20Home.htmhttp://www.neighbourhoodlink.org/http://www.neighbourhoodlink.org/http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_4/The%20Down%20Syndrome%20Association%20of%20Toronto%20(DSAT)%20-%20Home.htmhttp://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_4/dsat.ca
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    Agencies contd

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    Reflection

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    Reflection contd

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    Bibliography