choosing the right words

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useful words in writing business letters


  • 1. CHOOSINGTHE RIGHTWORDS STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH: most correct form of the English language. Everyone faces the challenge of WRITING and SPEAKING ENGLISH WELL.
  • 2. Objectives: 1. Describe the writing process. 2. Evaluate various meanings of words in order to select appropriate words for intended meaning. 3. Identify and use available references to facilitate the communication process. 4. Evaluate incorrect word usage and select correct word usage.
  • 3. THEWRITING PROCESS 1. Chooses words. 2. Assembles the words into phrases. 3. Connects the phrases to form sentences. 4. Groups the sentences into paragraphs. 5. Organizes the paragraphs into a coherent message.
  • 4. THE MEANINGS OF WORDS Semantics : the study of word meanings : the study of what you mean by what you say WORD -the simplest part of language -the fundamental element of any message
  • 5. TYPES OF MEANINGS Denotative meanings are the definitions of words given in dictionaries. Connotative meanings are the subtle and often emotional meanings that become associated with the words.
  • 6. Our furniture is CHEAP. Our furniture is INEXPENSIVE.
  • 7. WORD REFERENCES Dictionary: -definitions and meanings -hyphenation -acceptable and preferred spellings -pronunciation -parts of speech -capitalization -synonyms -antonyms Thesaurus: -synonyms -antonyms
  • 8. INTERPRETING MEANINGS Word bank- that part of the mind in which all the words the person has ever heard or read in all their contexts are stored.
  • 9. a REMOTE country the REMOTE future a REMOTE cousin a REMOTE manner REMOTE control far away distant in time having only a slight relationship aloof or distant without physical contact
  • 10. Technical Vocabulary or Jargon Are special words or expressions used by a profession or group that are difficult for others to understand. Example: People who work with computers (CPU, 20GB, client server, cursor, mouse, etc..)
  • 11. Bias-Free Language Bias-free words are words that do not discriminate against people on the basis of race, culture, gender, age, religion, physical or mental condition, socioeconomic level, or any other classification. Always use language that emphasizes the individual or group first, rather than the condition.
  • 12. Using Bias-Free Language Instead of these gender- specific words choose these bias-free words Business man Chairman Fellow worker Fireman foreman Housewife Insurance salesman Landlord or landlady Mailman Newsman Office boy Policeman or policewoman salesman Business person or business worker Chair, chairperson Coworker or colleague Firefighter Supervisor Homemaker Insurance agent Owner Mail carrier or postal worker Newscaster or reporter or journalist Messenger or office helper Police officer Salesperson or sales representative or sales associate or sales assistant
  • 13. Politically Correct Words Avoid using terms that could evoke negative images of any thing, any person, or any group. Poor Economically challenged Taxes Revenue enhancement Parole Supervised release Teenager Young adult Trash Service items (on an airplane) Janitor Building services attendant Illegal aliens Undocumented immigrants
  • 14. Proper word choices A writer's selection of words as determined by a number of factors, including meaning (both denotative and connotative), specificity, level of diction, and tone. and It -Watch your words. -Ex: Not too frankly just talk wisely. Make it sure that no one will get hurt what you want to say to the person or the people around you.
  • 15. WordA word is something spoken by the mouth, that can be pronounced. It is also a collection of letters used together to try to communicate a meaning, and these can also usually be pronounced. Some words have more than one meaning, Example: 'spring' can refer to the season, or the object. Some words have different pronunciation, for example, 'wind' (the noun) and 'wind' (the verb) are pronounced differently. Some words have different spelling for example 'color' and 'colour', which are both correct. Color is used in American English. Some words can be only one letter, for example "a" and "I" in English. Besides English, every other language also has its own words
  • 16. A simple word is a word that consists of only one morpheme. so that the reader will understand
  • 17. table 2.1 Altenatives for complex words complex words simpler words approximately about ascertain find out assistance help commence start or begin converse talk endeavor try enumerate list finalize fair interrogate ask it is requested that please negligible small or slight numerous many peruse read or study pursuant to your request as you asked render services serve sufficient enough terminate end or finish utilize use
  • 18. Table 2.1 contains a list of complex words and phrases and some simple ,direct alternatives. Most of these formal sounding complicated words are often found in business letters, but each of them can be stated in simpler terms that will allow for more effective communication.
  • 19. CONVERSATIONAL WORDS informal * To be conversational, communicators can fall into the habit of using outdated or trite expressions and clichs in their communications ..
  • 20. TRITE EXPRESSIONS boring from much use lacking originality or freshness; dull on account of overuse.
  • 21. TABLE 2.3 TRITE EXPRESSIONS WITH CONVERSATIONAL WORDS Instead of these Trite Words .. .. Choose these Conversational Words we will thank you to please at the present writing now kindly advise me or kindly inform me please write me or please call me regret to inform you that am sorry that due to the fact that because pursuant to according to
  • 22. CLICHS Stereotyped expressions that tend to resemble a play on words, or puns. Use only clich if you are sure any reader will understand your intended meaning.
  • 23. TABLE 2.4 CLICHS AND OVERUSED EXPRESSIONS Avoid these Clichs Avoid these overused expressions All things being equal A done deal Wishful thinking Crystal clear Break the ice Drastic action Needs no introduction Lions share By leaps and bounds Touch base On the cutting edge Needless to sat Step in the right direction Dragging ones feet
  • 25. Each word in the message should help make the meaning clear or the tone friendly. It helps the readers by: saving the readers time aiding in the understanding of the message making the communication more interesting