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Download CHM 335 - Physical Chemistry Laboratory Course Syllabus ... 335 - Physical Chemistry Laboratory Course Syllabus Fall 2012 Contents 1 Instructors 4 2 Teaching Assistants 4 3 Text Book

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  • CHM 335 - Physical Chemistry LaboratoryCourse Syllabus

    Fall 2012

    Contents

    1 Instructors 4

    2 Teaching Assistants 4

    3 Text Book 4

    4 Classroom 5

    5 Laboratory Safety 5

    6 Course Requirements 5

    7 Data Collection 6

    8 Grading 6

    9 Outline of the Laboratory Procedure 7

    10 Plagiarism 7

    11 Schedule 8

    12 The CHM 335 Web page 11

    13 First Two Laboratory Projects 1413.1 Experiment 34 - Absorption Spectrum of a Conjugated Dye . . . . . . . . . 14

    13.1.1 Reading Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513.1.2 Experimental Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513.1.3 Laboratory Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    13.2 The Diffusion of Salt Solutions into Pure Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    1

  • 13.2.1 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913.2.2 Laboratory Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    14 Second Two Laboratory Experiments 2314.1 Notes on Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    14.1.1 Reading Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2314.1.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2314.1.3 Systematic and Random Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2414.1.4 The Distribution of Random Errors - The Gaussian Distribution . . . 2414.1.5 Calculation of Random Errors for a Finite Set of Laboratory Measure-

    ments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2514.1.6 Error Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2714.1.7 Errors from a Graphical Analysis of the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    14.2 Experiment 28a: The Intrinsic Viscosity of Polyvinyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . 3414.2.1 Introduction and Reading Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3414.2.2 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3414.2.3 Experimental Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3514.2.4 Laboratory Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    14.3 Experiment 28b: The Intrinsic Viscosity of Polyvinyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . 3714.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3714.3.2 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3714.3.3 Cleaning Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3814.3.4 Laboratory Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    15 Format of Laboratory Reports for Final Four Experiments 39

    16 Second Four Experiments 4016.1 Experiment Number 3 - Heat Capacity Ratio of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    16.1.1 Reading Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4016.1.2 Theoretical Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4116.1.3 Experimental Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4516.1.4 Laboratory Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    16.2 Experiment 6 - The Heat of Combustion of Organic Compounds . . . . . . . 4616.2.1 Reading Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4616.2.2 Experimental Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4616.2.3 Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

    16.3 Experiment Number 9 - Partial Molar Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4616.3.1 Reading Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4616.3.2 Experimental Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4616.3.3 Laboratory Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    16.4 The Joule-Thomson Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4916.4.1 Reading Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4916.4.2 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    2

  • 16.4.3 Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5016.4.4 Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5016.4.5 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    17 Final Experiment - Experiment 25 - Surface Tension of Solutions 5117.1 Reading Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5117.2 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    17.2.1 Experimental Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5617.3 Laboratory Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    18 Tables of Data 59

    3

  • 1 Instructors

    1. Prof. Sze Yang (Wednesday and Fridays Sections)Pastore 334401-207-9624Office Hours: Tu,Th 10e-mail:syang@chm.uri.edu

    2. Prof. David L. Freeman (Tuesday and Thursdays Sections)Pastore 333 (or 319)Ext. 4-5093Office Hours: MWF 10e-mail:freeman@chm.uri.edu

    2 Teaching Assistants

    1. Meredith Matoian (Tuesdays Section)Pastore 115Office Hours: M 10e-mail: mmatoian@chm.uri.edu

    2. Morgan Turano (Wednesdays Section)201A PastoreOffice Hours: W 11e-mail: mturano@chm.uri.edu

    3. Maria Donnelly (Thursdays Section)Pastore 217 7Office Hours: Tu 11e-mail: mdonnelly@chm.uri.edu

    4. Lindsay McLennan (Fridays Section)Pastore 233Office Hours: M 10e-mail: lmclennan@chm.uri.edu

    3 Text Book

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, 7th edition, Garland, Nibler and Shoemaker.

    4

  • 4 Classroom

    316 Pastore

    5 Laboratory Safety

    You must wear safety glasses with side guards or safety goggles and have themon before you enter the laboratory. Of course, you must continue to wear themwhile in the lab. You must also wear a laboratory coat, and you may not wearopen-toed shoes or sandals. If you are ever in the laboratory without eye protectionor a lab coat, you will have 5 points deducted from your next laboratory report. Repeatedoffenses will result in failure in the course. Be sure to bring your eye protection and lab coatto the second class meeting, so that you will be allowed to perform the first experiment ofthe semester.

    All students must complete the Department Safety and Environmental Compliance Form.All students must have their Medical Information Form with them during every laboratoryperiod.

    6 Course Requirements

    This semester you are to perform nine experiments. The nine experiments are dividedinto two groups of four plus a final experiment at the end of the semester. The first fourexperiments are designed to gradually teach each of you how to extract data and work up ananalysis as a laboratory report. Each of the first four experiments are performed by everymember of a section in the same laboratory period.

    Some of the experiments are to be performed with a laboratory partner. Even thoughyou may collect data with a partner, you are responsible for your own labora-tory reports. Identical or nearly identical laboratory reports from two or morestudents are treated as cases of plagiarism.

    In the first experiment you will study the spectrum of a conjugated dye. Again you willwork with partners. You will extract data by measuring the spectra and comparing thelocation of the wavelength maximum with theoretical predictions.

    The second experiment is a study of the diffusion of ionic species in water. This ex-periment is performed with a partner. Each group studies the diffusion of a different ionicspecies. Your particular species is to be given to you by the TA. In this experiment youextract data and confirm that concentration gradients migrate with a particular functionaldependence on the time. Details are given in section 13.2.

    In the third experiment you measure the viscosity of polyvinyl alcohol in water. Thepurpose of this experiment is to instruct you in the principles of experimental error. Yourepeat your measurements many times to observe the statistical distribution of error. Your

    5

  • laboratory reports on this experiment emphasize the analysis of these errors. Details aregiven in Section 14.2.

    In the final of the first four experiments, you again measure the viscosity of polyvinylalcohol solutions, but after chemical degradation. The purpose is to learn structural in-formation about the polymer from bulk measurements. The laboratory report from thisexperiment incorporates all sections learned in the first three experiments, and constitutesa complete laboratory report.

    The second set of four experiments are performed with partners. Each of the four ex-periments is performed in every laboratory period by one set of partners. The equipmentis rotated among groups during this five week period. The experiments are 1) the Joule-Thomson effect; 2) the heat of combustion of an organic compound; 3) the partial molarvolume of a salt solution; and 4) heat capacity ratio of gases. Complete laboratory reportsare to be submitted for each of these experiments.

    In the ninth and final experiment of the semester you study the surface tension of abutanol solution. Because of equipment limitations, only four students are able to performthe experiment in any one laboratory section. The experiment runs over a two week periodwithout partners to allow all students the opportunity to obtain data. Students not scheduledto perform an experiment in a given week during this period have no assignment. Thetime may be used to make up an experiment missed because of personal emergencies. Thelaboratory report for the surface tension experiment is written in the following week [seethe schedule, Section 11] in class during a four ho

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