che 6 7 air & noise pollution
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Any visible or invisible particle or gas found in the air that is not part of the original, normal composition.
Air pollution is defined as the presence ofunwanted and undesirable foreign particles andgases in the air which may have adverse effects onhuman beings , plants , vegetation's and importantstructures.
Air pollution is of public health concern and canoccur as :
1. Indoor air pollution Micro scale
2.Outdoor air pollution Meso scale
3.Air pollution at global level Macro scale
CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS
Based on Origin
Primary air pollutants
Based on states of matter
Gaseous air pollutants
Based on presence in environment
Indoor air pollutants
Outdoor air pollutants
CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTSI. Classification based on Origin of pollutants:
Primary air pollutants: Primary air pollutants are those which are directlyemitted from the source into the atmosphere, and remains in the same form inthe atmosphere. For example: Sulphur oxides, Nitrogen oxides, Carbon monoxide,etc. The air pollutants are emitted by man made sources like, transportation, fuelcombustion, industrial operations, etc.
Secondary air pollutants: Secondary air pollutants are those which are formedby chemical reactions among primary pollutants and atmospheric chemicalspecies. For example: Ozone, Sulphur trioxide, Ketones, etc.
II. Classification based on states of matter:
Gaseous air pollutants: Gaseous air pollutants are those air pollutants whichare found in the gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure in theatmosphere. For example: Carbon-monoxide, Carbon-dioxide, Nitrogen oxides,Sulphur oxides, etc.
Particulate air pollutants : Particulates are finely divided, air borne, solid and liquidparticles, which remain for very longtime in air, in suspension. Depending on their sizeand mode of formation, particulate air pollutants are further classified as below:
Aerosols: These are air borne suspensions of solid or liquid particles smaller than 1mm size. Example: dust, smoke, mist, fume, etc.
Dust: It consists of small solid particles (size 1 to 200 micro-meter) and are generatedby material crushing, grinding or blasting.
Smoke: They are also fine solid particles of size around 0.1 to 1 micro-meter, formedby the incomplete combustion of organic matter like coal and wood.
Mist: It consist of liquid droplets of size around 0.1 to 10 micro-meter and formed bythe condensation of vapours in the atmosphere.
Fog: If the mist is made up of water droplets at high concentration so as to obscurevision then mist is called as fog.
Soot: These are the carbon particles impregnated with tar, and released by theincomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials.
Classification based on presence in environment:
Indoor air pollutants: The air pollutants which are generated from householdsare called indoor air pollutants. For example: Cleaning agents, Pesticides, Paints,Glues, gases from stoves, etc.
Outdoor air pollutants: The air pollutants which are generated outside thebuildings are called outdoor air pollutants. For example: Automobile pollutants,Industrial pollutants, Mining pollutants, etc.
Natural : forest fires, pollen, dust
storm, foul gases etc.
Unnatural : man-made; coal,
wood and other fuels used in
cars, homes, and factories for
A cloud of smoke from the exhaust of a vehicle
Industrialization Growing cities
Apathetic people Rapid economic development
Toxic substances dissolve in water or gets deposited on the bed.
Toxic substances enter lakes, rivers, streams, etc.
Pollutants go down into the ground.
According to W.H.O, an increase in any of the constituents of the atmosphere which is harmful to the living beings and their environment, is known as air pollution
The view from the space
Photo Chemical Smog Photo Chemical Smog
Burning of Fire Wood Chimneys
Effect on human health
Effects on vegetation.
Effects on building and monuments.
Effects of Air Pollution
St. Paul Cathedral
Causes by air pollution
Learn more; stay up to date
Tell your friends and family about pollution.
Make sure get pollution checks on our cars.
Join a group to stop pollution.
Encourage your parents to carpool to work.
Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you leave the room.
Solution for Air pollution:-
Air pollution can be controlled by a thorough understanding of its causes.
Establishment of industries away from the towns and cities.
Increasing the length of the chyeysmn in industries.
Growing more plants and trees.
Use of efficient engines in automobiles.
Use of smokeless choola.
Use of petrol without lead (Unleaded petrol)
. The UNO must stop nuclear tests
Effluent from various industries, Sewage containing domestic waster and pesticides from agricultural lands are finding their way into water bodies leading to water pollution.
Causes of Water Pollution: Water pollution is mainly due to the following causes.
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS THE DEFINITION OF WATER QUALITY DEPENDS
ON THE INTENDED USES OF THE WATER WHICH
MAY BE EITHER HUMAN CONSUMPTION OR IT
MAY BE FOR INDUSTRIES, IRRIGATION, POWER
GENERATION, RECREATION ETC.
MAIN PARAMETERS WHICH ARE REQUIRED TO BE
TESTED FOR DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF
WATER CAN BE DIVIDED IN TO
DISSOLVED GASES LIKE OXYGEN,
CARBON, DIOXIDE, HYDROGEN, SULPHIDE
METELS AND OTHER INORGANIC
SUBSTANCE LIKE FLUORIDE, IRON &
MANGANESE, LEASD, ARSENIC, IODIDES,
PARAMETERS INCLUDES VARIOUS MICROORGANISMS PRESENT IN WATER IT
MAY BE PATHOGENIC OR NON PATHOGENIC
THE WATER BODIES AS WELL AS DRINKING
I. INDIAN STANDARDS INSTITUTION(ISI)
II. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION(WHO)
III. UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH
IV. INDIAN COUNCIL OF MEDICAL
DEPENDING UPON THE INCREASING LEVELS OF
PRODUCTIVITY THE WATER BODIES CAN BE
CLASSIFIED IN TO
1. OLIGOTROPHIC:- WATER WITH POOR NUTRIENT
STATUS AND VERY LOW PRODUCTIVITY OF
2. MASOTROPHIC:- WATER WITH MODERATE
NUTRIENT STATUS AND MODERATE
PRODUCTIVITY OF AQUATIC PLANTS.
3. EUTROPHIC:- WATER WITH RICH NUTRIENT
STATUS AND HIGH PRODUCTIVITY OF AQUATIC
EUTROPHICATION IS A NATURAL PROCESS AND MAY
TAKE THOUSANDS OF YEARS.
WITH TIME THE NUTRIENT STATUS OF THE WATER
BODIES GRADUALLY INCREASES. WHICH LEADS TO
MORE BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY AND ALGAE BLOOMS
OCCURS AND WATER BECOMES MURKY. THE LAKE THUS
A YOUNG LAKE OR A NEWLY FORMED LAKE HAS LOW
NUTRIENT CONTENT AND HAS LOW PLANT
WITH PASSAGE OF TIME SUCH LAKES ACQUIRES
NUTRIENTS FROM SURFACE RUNOFF FROM
AGRICULTURAL FIELDS, DOMESTIC SEWAGE ETC WHICH
ULTIMATELY INCREASES AQUATIC GROWTH. IN THIS WAY
THE INDUSTRIAL WASTES, MUNICIPAL WASTER, RUNOFF
FROM AGRICULTURAL LANDS PROVIDE PLENTY OF
PHOSPHATES, NITRATES AND VARIOUS MINERALS
STIMULATING ALGAL GROWTH.
DUE TO WHICH THE WATER BODY BECOMES GREEN.
IN DUE COURSE OF TIME THE ALGAL BLOOM MAY DIE
THE DECAYING ORGANIC MATTER CAUSES DEPLETION
OF DO, DESTROYING FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC
BAD TASTE, BAD ODOUR IS PRODUCED AND ALSO
TURBIDITY INCREASES WHICH REDUCES THE
Industrial pollutants like mercury, chromium, cadmium and lead are poisonous. They are also capable of entering the food chains and cause diseases in man, Mercury is known to cause a disease called Minimart.
Organ chlorine pesticides like D.D.T. in the agricultural wastes are non-degradable and move along the food chains. It may lead to bio magnification.
Some industrial effluents can cause changes in color, odor and taste of water in the natural water bodies. Contamination of water also leads to spread of water borne diseases such as cholera, amoebiasis and other diseases.
family to walk more
Take the school bus
Reduce the amount
of spray bottles
Do not burn leaves in
your yard- put them
in a compost
Keep your family
cars in tune
converters on cars
Share your room
with others when the
air conditioner is on
Take care of your
Keep lakes clean
Take your used motor oil to a drop off place
Use latex paint instead of oil and rinse your brushes
in the sink rather than the