che 6 7 air & noise pollution

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  • Pollution

    Water

    AirNoise

  • Air Pollution

  • Any visible or invisible particle or gas found in the air that is not part of the original, normal composition.

  • Air pollution is defined as the presence ofunwanted and undesirable foreign particles andgases in the air which may have adverse effects onhuman beings , plants , vegetation's and importantstructures.

    Air pollution is of public health concern and canoccur as :

    1. Indoor air pollution Micro scale

    2.Outdoor air pollution Meso scale

    3.Air pollution at global level Macro scale

  • CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    Based on Origin

    Primary air pollutants

    Secondary air

    pollutants

    Based on states of matter

    Gaseous air pollutants

    Particulate air

    pollutants

    Based on presence in environment

    Indoor air pollutants

    Outdoor air pollutants

  • CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTSI. Classification based on Origin of pollutants:

    Primary air pollutants: Primary air pollutants are those which are directlyemitted from the source into the atmosphere, and remains in the same form inthe atmosphere. For example: Sulphur oxides, Nitrogen oxides, Carbon monoxide,etc. The air pollutants are emitted by man made sources like, transportation, fuelcombustion, industrial operations, etc.

    Secondary air pollutants: Secondary air pollutants are those which are formedby chemical reactions among primary pollutants and atmospheric chemicalspecies. For example: Ozone, Sulphur trioxide, Ketones, etc.

    II. Classification based on states of matter:

    Gaseous air pollutants: Gaseous air pollutants are those air pollutants whichare found in the gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure in theatmosphere. For example: Carbon-monoxide, Carbon-dioxide, Nitrogen oxides,Sulphur oxides, etc.

  • Particulate air pollutants : Particulates are finely divided, air borne, solid and liquidparticles, which remain for very longtime in air, in suspension. Depending on their sizeand mode of formation, particulate air pollutants are further classified as below:

    Aerosols: These are air borne suspensions of solid or liquid particles smaller than 1mm size. Example: dust, smoke, mist, fume, etc.

    Dust: It consists of small solid particles (size 1 to 200 micro-meter) and are generatedby material crushing, grinding or blasting.

    Smoke: They are also fine solid particles of size around 0.1 to 1 micro-meter, formedby the incomplete combustion of organic matter like coal and wood.

    Mist: It consist of liquid droplets of size around 0.1 to 10 micro-meter and formed bythe condensation of vapours in the atmosphere.

    Fog: If the mist is made up of water droplets at high concentration so as to obscurevision then mist is called as fog.

    Soot: These are the carbon particles impregnated with tar, and released by theincomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials.

  • Classification based on presence in environment:

    Indoor air pollutants: The air pollutants which are generated from householdsare called indoor air pollutants. For example: Cleaning agents, Pesticides, Paints,Glues, gases from stoves, etc.

    Outdoor air pollutants: The air pollutants which are generated outside thebuildings are called outdoor air pollutants. For example: Automobile pollutants,Industrial pollutants, Mining pollutants, etc.

  • Natural : forest fires, pollen, dust

    storm, foul gases etc.

    Unnatural : man-made; coal,

    wood and other fuels used in

    cars, homes, and factories for

    energy.

    Sources

  • How Why

    A cloud of smoke from the exhaust of a vehicle

    Increasing traffic

    Industrialization Growing cities

    Apathetic people Rapid economic development

    Cigarette smoke

    Burning leaves

  • How

    Toxic substances dissolve in water or gets deposited on the bed.

    Toxic substances enter lakes, rivers, streams, etc.

    Pollutants go down into the ground.

    Sources

    City sewage

    Industrial waste

    Agricultural run-

    off

  • According to W.H.O, an increase in any of the constituents of the atmosphere which is harmful to the living beings and their environment, is known as air pollution

    The view from the space

  • Photo Chemical Smog Photo Chemical Smog

  • Burning of Fire Wood Chimneys

  • Effect on human health

    Effects on vegetation.

    Effects on building and monuments.

    Effects of Air Pollution

    St. Paul Cathedral

  • Causes by air pollution

  • Learn more; stay up to date

    Tell your friends and family about pollution.

    Make sure get pollution checks on our cars.

    Join a group to stop pollution.

    Encourage your parents to carpool to work.

    Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you leave the room.

    Solution for Air pollution:-

  • Air pollution can be controlled by a thorough understanding of its causes.

    Establishment of industries away from the towns and cities.

    Increasing the length of the chyeysmn in industries.

    Growing more plants and trees.

    Use of efficient engines in automobiles.

    Use of smokeless choola.

    Use of petrol without lead (Unleaded petrol)

  • . The UNO must stop nuclear tests

  • Effluent from various industries, Sewage containing domestic waster and pesticides from agricultural lands are finding their way into water bodies leading to water pollution.

    Causes of Water Pollution: Water pollution is mainly due to the following causes.

  • WATER QUALITY STANDARDS THE DEFINITION OF WATER QUALITY DEPENDS

    ON THE INTENDED USES OF THE WATER WHICH

    MAY BE EITHER HUMAN CONSUMPTION OR IT

    MAY BE FOR INDUSTRIES, IRRIGATION, POWER

    GENERATION, RECREATION ETC.

    MAIN PARAMETERS WHICH ARE REQUIRED TO BE

    TESTED FOR DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF

    WATER CAN BE DIVIDED IN TO

    1. PHYSICAL

    2.CHEMICAL

    3. MICROBIOLOGICAL

  • PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

    INCLUDES

    a) TURBIDITY

    b) COLOUR

    c) ODOUR

    d) TASTE

    e) TEMPERATURE

  • CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    INCLUDES:

    SOLIDS

    HARDNESS

    CHLORIDES

    PH

    DISSOLVED GASES LIKE OXYGEN,

    CARBON, DIOXIDE, HYDROGEN, SULPHIDE

    METELS AND OTHER INORGANIC

    SUBSTANCE LIKE FLUORIDE, IRON &

    MANGANESE, LEASD, ARSENIC, IODIDES,

    BORON, CADMIUM

  • MICROBIOLOGICAL

    PARAMETERS INCLUDES VARIOUS MICROORGANISMS PRESENT IN WATER IT

    MAY BE PATHOGENIC OR NON PATHOGENIC

    THE WATER BODIES AS WELL AS DRINKING

    WATER ARE

    I. INDIAN STANDARDS INSTITUTION(ISI)

    II. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION(WHO)

    III. UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH

    SERVICE(USPHS)

    IV. INDIAN COUNCIL OF MEDICAL

    RESEARCH(ICMR)

  • EUTROPHICATION

    DEPENDING UPON THE INCREASING LEVELS OF

    PRODUCTIVITY THE WATER BODIES CAN BE

    CLASSIFIED IN TO

    1. OLIGOTROPHIC:- WATER WITH POOR NUTRIENT

    STATUS AND VERY LOW PRODUCTIVITY OF

    AQUATIC PLANTS.

    2. MASOTROPHIC:- WATER WITH MODERATE

    NUTRIENT STATUS AND MODERATE

    PRODUCTIVITY OF AQUATIC PLANTS.

    3. EUTROPHIC:- WATER WITH RICH NUTRIENT

    STATUS AND HIGH PRODUCTIVITY OF AQUATIC

    PLANTS.

  • EUTROPHICATION IS A NATURAL PROCESS AND MAY

    TAKE THOUSANDS OF YEARS.

    WITH TIME THE NUTRIENT STATUS OF THE WATER

    BODIES GRADUALLY INCREASES. WHICH LEADS TO

    MORE BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY AND ALGAE BLOOMS

    OCCURS AND WATER BECOMES MURKY. THE LAKE THUS

    BECOMES EUTROPHIC.

    A YOUNG LAKE OR A NEWLY FORMED LAKE HAS LOW

    NUTRIENT CONTENT AND HAS LOW PLANT

    PRODUCTIVITY.

    WITH PASSAGE OF TIME SUCH LAKES ACQUIRES

    NUTRIENTS FROM SURFACE RUNOFF FROM

    AGRICULTURAL FIELDS, DOMESTIC SEWAGE ETC WHICH

    ULTIMATELY INCREASES AQUATIC GROWTH. IN THIS WAY

  • THE INDUSTRIAL WASTES, MUNICIPAL WASTER, RUNOFF

    FROM AGRICULTURAL LANDS PROVIDE PLENTY OF

    PHOSPHATES, NITRATES AND VARIOUS MINERALS

    STIMULATING ALGAL GROWTH.

    DUE TO WHICH THE WATER BODY BECOMES GREEN.

    IN DUE COURSE OF TIME THE ALGAL BLOOM MAY DIE

    ABRUPTLY.

    THE DECAYING ORGANIC MATTER CAUSES DEPLETION

    OF DO, DESTROYING FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC

    SPECIES.

    BAD TASTE, BAD ODOUR IS PRODUCED AND ALSO

    TURBIDITY INCREASES WHICH REDUCES THE

  • Industrial pollutants like mercury, chromium, cadmium and lead are poisonous. They are also capable of entering the food chains and cause diseases in man, Mercury is known to cause a disease called Minimart.

    Organ chlorine pesticides like D.D.T. in the agricultural wastes are non-degradable and move along the food chains. It may lead to bio magnification.

    Some industrial effluents can cause changes in color, odor and taste of water in the natural water bodies. Contamination of water also leads to spread of water borne diseases such as cholera, amoebiasis and other diseases.

  • Encourage your

    family to walk more

    Take the school bus

    Reduce the amount

    of spray bottles

    Do not burn leaves in

    your yard- put them

    in a compost

    Keep your family

    cars in tune

    Put catalytic

    converters on cars

    Share your room

    with others when the

    air conditioner is on

    Take care of your

    trees

  • Keep lakes clean

    Take your used motor oil to a drop off place

    Use latex paint instead of oil and rinse your brushes

    in the sink rather than the